Med Clin North Am 2017 May 2;101(3):507-519. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
Department of Medicine, Jefferson Heart Institute, Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, 925 Chestnut Street, Suite 323A, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. Electronic address:
Heart failure is an epidemic in the United States and a major health problem worldwide. The syndrome of acute heart failure is marked by a recent onset of symptoms usually in terms of days to a few weeks of worsening fatigue, shortness of breath, orthopnea, swelling, and sudden onset of weight gain. Physicians caring for patients with heart failure must know the risk factors for this disease, pathophysiology, symptomatology, important examination findings, key diagnostic tests, and management approach so as to improve symptoms and reduce mortality. Read More