Clin J Sport Med 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.
Division of Sports Medicine and Non-Operative Orthopaedics, Departments of Family Medicine and Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; Department of Kinesiology, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania; Department of Sports Medicine and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California; Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, California; and Intermountain Healthcare, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Abstract: The Male Athlete Triad is a syndrome of 3 interrelated conditions most common in adolescent and young adult male endurance and weight-class athletes and includes the clinically relevant outcomes of (1) energy deficiency/low energy availability (EA) with or without disordered eating/eating disorders, (2) functional hypothalamic hypogonadism, and (3) osteoporosis or low bone mineral density with or without bone stress injury (BSI). The causal role of low EA in the modulation of reproductive function and skeletal health in the male athlete reinforces the notion that skeletal health and reproductive outcomes are the primary clinical concerns. At present, the specific intermediate subclinical outcomes are less clearly defined in male athletes than those in female athletes and are represented as subtle alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and increased risk for BSI. Read More