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    3242 results match your criteria Osteopetrosis

    1 OF 65

    Tet2 Regulates Osteoclast Differentiation by Interacting with Runx1 and Maintaining Genomic 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC).
    Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics 2018 Jun 13. Epub 2018 Jun 13.
    Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA. Electronic address:
    As a dioxygenase, Ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2) catalyzes subsequent steps of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) oxidation. Tet2 plays a critical role in the self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells, but its impact on mature hematopoietic cells is not well-characterized. Here we show that Tet2 plays an essential role in osteoclastogenesis. Read More

    Repurposing of gamma interferon via inhalation delivery.
    Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    Pulmonary, Critical Care & Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Stony Brook, 101 Nicolls Rd, HSC T-17-040, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8172, United States. Electronic address:
    Pulmonary diseases frequently involve imbalances in immunity. The inability to control bacteria in tuberculosis is a failed response to a pathogen. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a progressive fibrotic lung disease, can lead to respiratory failure and death within 3 years of diagnosis. Read More

    CLC Chloride Channels and Transporters: Structure, Function, Physiology, and Disease.
    Physiol Rev 2018 Jul;98(3):1493-1590
    Leibniz-Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP) and Max-Delbrück-Centrum für Molekulare Medizin (MDC), Berlin , Germany ; and Istituto di Biofisica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Genova , Italy.
    CLC anion transporters are found in all phyla and form a gene family of eight members in mammals. Two CLC proteins, each of which completely contains an ion translocation parthway, assemble to homo- or heteromeric dimers that sometimes require accessory β-subunits for function. CLC proteins come in two flavors: anion channels and anion/proton exchangers. Read More

    Preservation of type H vessels and osteoblasts by enhanced preosteoclast platelet-derived growth factor type BB attenuates glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in growing mice.
    Bone 2018 May 23;114:1-13. Epub 2018 May 23.
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:
    Survival of chronic diseases in childhood is often achieved utilizing glucocorticoids, but comes with significant side effects, including glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO). Knowledge of the mechanism of GIO is limited to the adult skeleton. We explored the effect of genetic loss and inhibition of cathepsin K (Ctsk) as a potential treatment target in a young GIO mouse model as genetic loss of cathepsin K results in a mild form of osteopetrosis secondary to impaired osteoclast bone resorption with maintenance of bone formation. Read More

    Visual Function Improvement After Optic Nerve Sheath Fenestration in Osteopetrosis Patients with Optic Canal Stenosis: A Report of Two Cases.
    Neuroophthalmology 2018 Jun 8;42(3):164-168. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Department of Ophthalmology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    The outcome of two patients with visual loss from osteopetrosis who underwent an optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) is reported. A 20-year-old male and 26-year-old female with osteopetrosis had optic nerve edema. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated optic canals stenosis. Read More

    Fos metamorphoses: Lessons from mutants in model organisms.
    Mech Dev 2018 May 14. Epub 2018 May 14.
    Developmental Neurobiology and Neurophysiology Department, Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus UNAM Juriquilla, Querétaro c.p.76230, Mexico. Electronic address:
    The Fos oncogene gene family is evolutionarily conserved throughout Eukarya. Fos proteins characteristically have a leucine zipper and a basic region with a helix-turn-helix motif that binds DNA. In vertebrates, there are several Fos homologs. Read More

    Impact of hematopoietic stem cell transplant on VEP and ABR values of the patients with malignant infantile osteopetrosis.
    Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2018 Jul 18;22(4):718-724. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Children's Medical Center, Pediatric Center of Excellence, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Electronic address:
    Objectives: Malignant Infantile Osteopetrosis (MIOP) is a rare inherited disorder with neurological complications, notably visual impairment and decrease of hearing level. Although Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) has been approved as the only curative treatment for these patients, the exact impact of it on visual and hearing level is still unclear.

    Study Design: We analyzed the P2 latency and amplitude from Visual Evoked Potentials (VEP) of 10 patients (20 eyes) and the threshold of wave V from Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) of 15 patients (30 ears) with MIOP before, 6 and 12 months after HSCT. Read More

    [Identification of new mutations in TCIRG1 as a cause of infantile malignant osteopetrosis in two Mexican patients].
    Rev Alerg Mex 2018 Jan-Mar;65(1):108-116
    Secretaría de Salud, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Unidad de Investigación en Inmunodeficiencias, Ciudad de México, México.
    Background: Osteopetrosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases that are characterized by increased bone density due to abnormalities in osteoclast differentiation or function, which result in a lack of bone resorption.

    Case Reports: Two patients with osteopetrosis onset since the first months of life, with facial dysmorphia, blindness, deafness, hepatosplenomegaly, hypotonia, neurodevelopmental retardation and bicytopenia. Bone radiographs showed osteosclerosis. Read More

    Human Genetics of Sclerosing Bone Disorders.
    Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Jun;16(3):256-268
    Centre of Medical Genetics, University of Antwerp & University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Purpose Of Review: The group of sclerosing bone disorders encompasses a variety of disorders all marked by increased bone mass. In this review, we give an overview of the genetic causes of this heterogeneous group of disorders and briefly touch upon the value of these findings for the development of novel therapeutic agents.

    Recent Findings: Advances in the next-generation sequencing technologies are accelerating the molecular dissection of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying skeletal dysplasias. Read More

    Enhancer variants reveal a conserved transcription factor network governed by PU.1 during osteoclast differentiation.
    Bone Res 2018 28;6. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    1Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics and Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been instrumental in understanding complex phenotypic traits. However, they have rarely been used to understand lineage-specific pathways and functions that contribute to the trait. In this study, by integrating lineage-specific enhancers from mesenchymal and myeloid compartments with bone mineral density loci, we were able to segregate osteoblast- and osteoclast (OC)-specific functions. Read More

    Dysosteosclerosis is also caused by TNFRSF11A mutation.
    J Hum Genet 2018 Jun 22;63(6):769-774. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Laboratory for Bone and Joint Diseases, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Tokyo, 108-8639, Japan.
    Dysosteosclerosis (DOS) is a form of sclerosing bone disease characterized by irregular osteosclerosis and platyspondyly. Its mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive. SLC29A3 mutations have been reported as the causal gene in two DOS families, however, genetic heterogeneity has been suggested. Read More

    Congenital disorders of bone and blood.
    Bone 2018 Mar 6. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Bone and Mineral Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Division of Anatomic and Molecular Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.
    Bone and marrow are the two facets of the same organ, in which bone and hematopoietic cells coexist and interact. Marrow and skeletal tissue influence each-other and a variety of genetic disorders directly targets both of them, which may result in combined hematopoietic failure and skeletal malformations. Other conditions primarily affect one organ with secondary influences on the other. Read More

    RNA interference therapy for autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type 2. Towards the preclinical development.
    Bone 2018 May 6;110:343-354. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, Via Vetoio - Coppito 2, 67100 L'Aquila, Italy. Electronic address:
    Autosomal Dominant Osteopetrosis type 2 (ADO2) is a rare bone disease characterized by dense and brittle bones due to impairment of osteoclast bone resorption. Dominant negative mutations of the CLCN7 gene affect about 70% of ADO2 patients. ADO2 has no cure and our recent work established that it is suitable for gene silencing by a specific small interfering RNA that does not affect the normal mRNA, thus inducing a condition of pseudo-haplosufficiency and rescuing the bone phenotype. Read More

    Change in Populations of Macrophages Promotes Development of Delayed Gastric Emptying in Mice.
    Gastroenterology 2018 Jun 6;154(8):2122-2136.e12. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Enteric Neuroscience Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Electronic address:
    Background & Aims: Muscularis propria macrophages lie close to cells that regulate gastrointestinal motor function, including interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and myenteric neurons. In animal models of diabetic gastroparesis, development of delayed gastric emptying has been associated with loss of macrophages that express cytoprotective markers and reduced networks of ICC. Mice with long-term diabetes and normal gastric emptying have macrophages that express anti-inflammatory markers and have normal gastric ICC. Read More

    Successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for osteopetrosis using reduced intensity conditioning.
    Pediatr Blood Cancer 2018 Jun 22;65(6):e27010. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cancer Immunotherapy, Hadassah University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Background: Infantile malignant osteopetrosis (IMO) is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by defective osteoclast activity, with hematopoietic bone marrow transplant being the only available cure. Over the past several years, new conditioning regimes and donor options have emerged, thus extending the possibility of cure to a greater number of patients and improving the outcomes of bone marrow transplant. Here we detail the outcomes of bone marrow transplant in a cohort of 31 patients treated with a combination of fludarabine, treosulphan, thiotepa, and antithymocyte globulin. Read More

    Anterior cervical arthrodesis for chronic hangman's fracture in a patient with osteopetrosis: a case report.
    Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2018 Jun 10;138(6):783-789. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National Hospital Organization Fukuyama Medical Center, 4-14-17, Okinogami-cho, Fukuyama, Hiroshima, 720-8520, Japan.
    Introduction: Osteopetrosis is a clinical syndrome characterized by the failure of osteoclasts to resorb bone. Affected patients usually suffer from repetitive fractures due to this pathological state. Surgical treatment of these fractures is often complicated by the difficulty of working with the extremely hard and brittle bones. Read More

    High bone mass in adults.
    Joint Bone Spine 2018 Mar 1. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Service de rhumatologie, CHU de Rennes, hôpital Sud, 16, boulevard de Bulgarie, BP 90347, 35203 Rennes cedex 2, France; Inserm UMR 991, 35043 Rennes, France; Université Rennes 1, faculté de médecine, 35043 Rennes, France.
    A finding of high bone mineral density (BMD) from routine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) screening is not uncommon. No consensus exists about the definition of high BMD, and T-score and/or Z-score cutoffs of ≥+2.5 or ≥+4 have been suggested. Read More

    Recent advances in osteoclast biology.
    Histochem Cell Biol 2018 Apr 1;149(4):325-341. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Department of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), Yushima 1-5-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8549, Japan.
    The bone is an essential organ for locomotion and protection of the body, as well as hematopoiesis and mineral homeostasis. In order to exert these functions throughout life, bone tissue undergoes a repeating cycle of osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation. The osteoclast is a large, multinucleated cell that is differentiated from monocyte/macrophage lineage cells by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). Read More

    Mouse models of SLC4-linked disorders of HCO-transporter dysfunction.
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2018 May 31;314(5):C569-C588. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, The State University of New York: The University at Buffalo , Buffalo, New York.
    The SLC4 family Cl/[Formula: see text] cotransporters (NBCe1, NBCe2, NBCn1, and NBCn2) contribute to a variety of vital physiological processes including pH regulation and epithelial fluid secretion. Accordingly, their dysfunction can have devastating effects. Disorders such as epilepsy, hemolytic anemia, glaucoma, hearing loss, osteopetrosis, and renal tubular acidosis are all genetically linked to SLC4-family gene loci. Read More

    A Review of the Clinical, Radiological and Biochemical Characteristics and Genetic Causes of High Bone Mass Disorders.
    Curr Drug Targets 2018 ;19(6):621-635
    Laboratory of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China.
    Background: High bone mass (HBM) disorders are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous bone diseases characterized by increased bone density on radiographs, due to progressive bone overgrowth or impaired bone resorption, or both. Some HBM cases are secondary to other diseases, such as chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Despite the great advance in gene diagnostic technology, the majority of HBM individuals remain undiagnosed. Read More

    TSC1 regulates osteoclast podosome organization and bone resorption through mTORC1 and Rac1/Cdc42.
    Cell Death Differ 2018 Jan 22. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.
    Reorganization of the podosome into the sealing zone is crucial for osteoclasts (OCLs) to resorb bone, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we show that tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) functions centrally in OCLs to promote podosome organization and bone resorption through mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and the small GTPases Rac1/Cdc42. During osteoclastogenesis, enhanced expression of TSC1 downregulates mTORC1 activity. Read More

    Cervical spine fractures in osteopetrosis: a case report and review of the literature.
    J Biomed Res 2018 Jan;32(1):68-76
    Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California-Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.
    While management of appendicular fractures has been well described in the setting of osteopetrosis, there is limited information on managing fractures of the axial spine. Here we present an osteopetrotic patient with multiple traumatic multiple, comminuted, unstable cervical spinal fractures managed with non-operative stabilization, and provide a review of the pathophysiology, genetic characteristics, and special considerations that must be explored when determining operative versus non-operative management of spinal injury in osteopetrosis. A PubMed query was performed for English articles in the literature published up to June 2016, and used the following search terms alone and in combination: "osteopetrosis", "spine", "fractures", "osteoclasts", and "operative management". Read More

    Developments in rare bone diseases and mineral disorders.
    Ther Adv Chronic Dis 2018 Jan 24;9(1):51-60. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, 4, Ireland.
    In the last decade, there have been a number of significant advances made in the field of rare bone diseases. In this review, we discuss the expansion of the classification system for osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and the resultant increase in therapeutic options available for management of OI. Bisphosphonates remain the most widely used intervention for OI, although the effect on fracture rate reduction is equivocal. Read More

    Genetics of Osteopetrosis.
    Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Feb;16(1):13-25
    Humanitas Clinical and Research Institute, via Manzoni 113, 20089, Rozzano, MI, Italy.
    Purpose Of Review: The term osteopetrosis refers to a group of rare skeletal diseases sharing the hallmark of a generalized increase in bone density owing to a defect in bone resorption. Osteopetrosis is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, and a precise molecular classification is relevant for prognosis and treatment. Here, we review recent data on the pathogenesis of this disorder. Read More

    Endoscopic third ventriculostomy for hydrocephalus in osteopetrosis: a case report and review of the literature.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2018 May 11;34(5):991-994. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.
    Introduction: There are very few reports in the literature associating in hydrocephalus in osteopetrosis. As a complication of shunt procedure, there are two reports on shunt malfunction due to osseous overgrowth at the burr hole in patients with osteopetrosis. We herein report a case of osteopetrosis with hydrocephalus that was successfully treated with endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). Read More

    Key Triggers of Osteoclast-Related Diseases and Available Strategies for Targeted Therapies: A Review.
    Front Med (Lausanne) 2017 20;4:234. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Artificial Joints Engineering and Technology Research Center of Jiangxi Province, Nanchang, China.
    Osteoclasts, the only cells with bone resorption functions , maintain the balance of bone metabolism by cooperating with osteoblasts, which are responsible for bone formation. Excessive activity of osteoclasts causes many diseases such as osteoporosis, periprosthetic osteolysis, bone tumors, and Paget's disease. In contrast, osteopetrosis results from osteoclast deficiency. Read More

    Ostm1 Bifunctional Roles in Osteoclast Maturation: Insights From a Mouse Model Mimicking a Human OSTM1 Mutation.
    J Bone Miner Res 2018 May 14;33(5):888-898. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal (IRCM), Montréal, Québec, Canada.
    Ostm1 mutations are responsible for the most severe form of osteopetrosis in human and mice. To gain insight into Ostm1 cellular functions, we engineered a conditional in-frame deletion of the Ostm1 transmembrane domain and generated the first Ostm1 mouse model with a human mutation. Systemic targeting of Ostm1 loss of transmembrane domain produced osteopetrosis, as in the null Ostm1 gl/gl mouse. Read More

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation for a child with OSTM1 osteopetrosis.
    Blood Adv 2017 Jan 30;1(4):279-281. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
    Center for Childhood Cancer and Blood Diseases, The Research Institute.
    HCT prior to onset of neurologic symptoms in children with OSTM1 osteopetrosis does not halt neurologic progression. Read More

    Bone resorption deficiency affects tooth root development in RANKL mutant mice due to attenuated IGF-1 signaling in radicular odontoblasts.
    Bone 2017 Dec 29. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1825 University Blvd., Birmingham, AL 35294, USA. Electronic address:
    The tooth root is essential for normal tooth physiological function. Studies on mice with mutations or targeted gene deletions revealed that osteoclasts (OCs) play an important role in tooth root development. However, knowledge on the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying how OCs mediate root formation is limited. Read More

    Bone quality changes associated with aging and disease: a review.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 12;1410(1):93-106
    Mineralized Tissue Laboratory, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York.
    Bone quality encompasses all the characteristics of bone that, in addition to density, contribute to its resistance to fracture. In this review, we consider changes in architecture, porosity, and composition, including collagen structure, mineral composition, and crystal size. These factors all are known to vary with tissue and animal ages, and health status. Read More

    Technical particularities of joint preserving hip surgery in osteopetrosis.
    J Hip Preserv Surg 2017 Dec 23;4(4):269-275. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Clinica Orthopedica, Ospedale di Portogruaro, 30026 Portogruaro, Italy.
    Proximal femoral fracture and coxarthrosis are the most common orthopaedic problems of osteopetrosis. Fracture fixation is difficult and one-third fail, with total hip replacement as the final solution. There is little reported experience about how to deal with this particular type of bone and what has been published to date is surprisingly non-specific. Read More

    Identification and in silico characterization of a novel p.P208PfsX1 mutation in V-ATPase a3 subunit associated with autosomal recessive osteopetrosis in a Pakistani family.
    BMC Med Genet 2017 12 13;18(1):148. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering, 24-Mauve area, G-9/1, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan.
    Background: Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disorder mainly described as an increased bone density caused by defective osteoclastic bone resorption. To date, genetic variants of eleven genes have been reported so far to be associated with different types of osteopetrosis. However, malignant infantile osteopetrosis, a lethal form of the disease, is mostly (50%) caused by mutation(s) in TCIRG1 gene. Read More

    Effects of hypothalamic leptin gene therapy on osteopetrosis in leptin-deficient mice.
    J Endocrinol 2018 Feb 30;236(2):57-68. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Skeletal Biology LaboratorySchool of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA
    Impaired resorption of cartilage matrix deposited during endochondral ossification is a defining feature of juvenile osteopetrosis. Growing, leptin-deficient mice exhibit a mild form of osteopetrosis. However, the extent to which the disease is (1) self-limiting and (2) reversible by leptin treatment is unknown. Read More

    Dealing with sub-trochanteric fracture in a child with osteopetrosis : A case report.
    Acta Orthop Belg 2016 Dec;82(4):907-912
    Osteopetrosis is a rare hereditary condition which may have autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant inheritance. Patients tend to present most commonly with fractures but involvement of cranial nerves and hematopoetic system is not uncommon. Patients with infantile and intermediate type tend to present more often with problems other than orthopaedic problems. Read More

    Monocyte-Specific Knockout of C/ebpα Results in Osteopetrosis Phenotype, Blocks Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Mice, and Reveals an Important Function of C/ebpα in Osteoclast Differentiation and Function.
    J Bone Miner Res 2018 Apr 26;33(4):691-703. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Department of Pathology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA.
    CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/ebpα) is critical for osteoclastogenesis by regulating osteoclast (OC) lineage commitment and is also important for OC differentiation and function in vitro. However, the role of C/ebpα in postnatal skeletal development has not been reported owing to lethality in C/ebpα mice from hypoglycemia within 8 hours after birth. Herein, we generated conditional knockout mice by deleting the C/ebpα gene in monocyte via LysM-Cre to examine its role in OC differentiation and function. Read More

    Human-Aided Movement of Viral Disease and the Archaeology of Avian Osteopetrosis.
    Int J Osteoarchaeol 2017 Sep-Oct;27(5):853-866. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    School of Archaeology and Ancient HistoryUniversity of LeicesterLeicesterUK.
    The term avian osteopetrosis is used to describe alterations to the skeletal elements of several species of domestic bird, most typically the chicken, Gallus gallus (L. 1758). Such lesions are routinely identified in animal bones from archaeological sites due to their distinctive appearance, which is characterised by proliferative diaphyseal thickening. Read More

    Osteoblast-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Are Biological Tools for the Delivery of Active Molecules to Bone.
    J Bone Miner Res 2018 Mar 11;33(3):517-533. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.
    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are newly appreciated regulators of tissue homeostasis and a means of intercellular communication. Reports have investigated the role of EVs and their cargoes in cellular regulation and have tried to fine-tune their biotechnological use, but to date very little is known on their function in bone biology. To investigate the relevance of EV-mediated communication between bone cells, we isolated EVs from primary mouse osteoblasts and assessed membrane integrity, size, and structure by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Read More

    A Novel Mutation in Gene Causes Malignant Infantile Osteopetrosis.
    Avicenna J Med Biotechnol 2017 Oct-Dec;9(4):205-208
    Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Osteopetrosis is a group of genetically heterogonous diseases and the main feature of that is increased bone density due to osteoclast's abnormality. It has three clinical forms based on inheritance pattern, severity and age of onset: the dominant benign form (ADO), the intermediate form (IRO) and the recessive severe form (ARO). One of the recently discovered genes for ARO form is that accounts for 4% of affected persons by this type. Read More

    C/ebpα controls osteoclast terminal differentiation, activation, function, and postnatal bone homeostasis through direct regulation of Nfatc1.
    J Pathol 2018 Mar 29;244(3):271-282. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.
    Osteoclast lineage commitment and differentiation have been studied extensively, although the mechanism by which transcription factor(s) control osteoclast terminal differentiation, activation, and function remains unclear. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/ebpα) has been reported to be a key regulator of osteoclast cell lineage commitment, yet C/ebpα's roles in osteoclast terminal differentiation, activation and function, and bone homeostasis, under physiological or pathological conditions, have not been studied because newborn C/ebpα-null mice die within several hours after birth. Furthermore, the function of C/ebpα in osteoclast terminal differentiation, activation, and function is largely unknown. Read More

    A ERK/RSK-mediated negative feedback loop regulates M-CSF-evoked PI3K/AKT activation in macrophages.
    FASEB J 2018 Feb 4;32(2):875-887. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Department of Orthopaedics, Brown University Alpert Medical School, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.
    Activation of the RAS/ERK and its downstream signaling components is essential for growth factor-induced cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. The Src homology-2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2), encoded by protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 ( Ptpn11), is a positive mediator required for most, if not all, receptor tyrosine kinase-evoked RAS/ERK activation, but differentially regulates the PI3K/AKT signaling cascade in various cellular contexts. The precise mechanisms underlying the differential effects of SHP2 deficiency on the PI3K pathway remain unclear. Read More

    Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (ARO-iPSC1-11) from a patient with autosomal recessive osteopetrosis harboring the c.212+1G>T mutation in SNX10 gene.
    Stem Cell Res 2017 Oct 24;24:51-54. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Regenerative Medicine Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland. Electronic address:
    Pathogenic sequence variants in the Sorting Nexin 10 (SNX10) gene have been associated with autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO) in human. In this study, an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line (ARO-iPSC1-11) was generated from an ARO patient carrying the homozygous c.212+1G>T mutation in SNX10, using a retroviral-based reprogramming protocol. Read More

    Clinical Significance of DXA and HR-pQCT in Autosomal Dominant Osteopetrosis (ADO II).
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Jan 10;102(1):41-52. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Osteology and Biomechanics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Lottestr. 59, 22529, Hamburg, Germany.
    The main hallmark of high bone mass (HBM) disorders is increased bone mineral density, potentially visible in conventional radiographs and quantifiable by other radiographic methods. While one of the most common forms of HBM is CLCN7-related autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II (ADO II), there is no consensus on diagnostic thresholds. We therefore wanted to assess whether CLCN7-osteopetrosis patients differ from benign HBM cases in terms of (1) bone mineral density, (2) bone structure, and (3) microarchitectural abnormalities. Read More

    IFN-γ alters the expression of diverse immunity related genes in a cell culture model designed to represent maturing neutrophils.
    PLoS One 2017 5;12(10):e0185956. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver, The Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, United States of America.
    The cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is approved as a drug to treat chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and osteopetrosis and is also used in hyperimmunoglobulin E syndromes. Patients with CGD have defects in proteins of the NOX2 NADPH oxidase system. This leads to reduced production of microbicidal ROS by PMNs and recurrent life threatening infections. Read More

    [Morphological characteristics of osteopetrosis].
    Pathologe 2018 Mar;39(2):164-171
    Institut für Osteologie und Biomechanik, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Deutschland.
    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disorder characterized by increased bone density owing to failure in bone resorption by the osteoclasts. The disease is genetically and histologically heterogeneous with a wide spectrum of microscopic findings. The histology varies from cases with a total absence of osteoclasts to bone biopsies characterized by high numbers of enlarged multinucleated osteoclasts on a background of sclerotic cancellous bone with or without additional defect of mineralization of the bone matrix. Read More

    Novel mutations of CLCN7 cause autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II (ADOII) and intermediate autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO) in seven Chinese families.
    Postgrad Med 2017 Nov 11;129(8):934-942. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    a Metabolic Bone Disease and Genetic Research Unit, Department of Osteoporosis and Bone Disease , Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital , Shanghai , China.
    Objectives: Defects in the chloride channel 7 (CLCN7) gene lead to autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II (ADOII, OPTA2 MIM 166600) and autosomal recessive osteopetrosis, autosomal recessive 4 (ARO, OPTB4 MIM 611490). The objective of the present study was to expand the mutational spectrum and analyze the correlation between mutational sites and clinical phenotypes.

    Methods: Seven affected individuals from unrelated Chinese families were clinically examined. Read More

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