29,199 results match your criteria Organophosphates


Assessment of Resistance to Organophosphates and Pyrethroids in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): Do Synergists Affect Mortality?

J Med Entomol 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Environmental Health Sciences Program, Department of Health Education and Promotion, College of Health and Human Performance, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC.

Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of Zika, dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya viruses. Insecticides used in mosquito control can help prevent the spread of vector-borne diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjaa101DOI Listing

Pesticides used in Europe and autism spectrum disorder risk: can novel exposure hypotheses be formulated beyond organophosphates, organochlorines, pyrethroids and carbamates? - A systematic review.

Environ Res 2020 May 12;187:109646. Epub 2020 May 12.

INSERM, Univ Montpellier, Neuropsychiatry: Epidemiological and Clinical Research, Montpellier, France. Electronic address:

Background: A growing body of evidences suggests an association between early exposure to organophosphates (OPs), organochlorines (OCs), pyrethroids or carbamates and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there are limited data about the other pesticide groups, especially in Europe.

Objectives: Based on a systematic review, we aimed to assess the influence of neuro- and thyrotoxic agricultural and domestic pesticides (other than OPs, OCs, pyrethroids and carbamates) authorized in Europe on risk of ASD in children or ASD behavioral phenotypes in rodents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109646DOI Listing

Enantioselective Uptake Determines Degradation Selectivity of Chiral Profenofos in Cupriavidus nantongensis X1T.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Organophosphorus insecticides account for approximately 28% of the global commercial insecticide markets, while 40% of them are chiral enantiomers. Chiral enantiomers differ largely in their toxicities. Enantiomers that are less active or inactive do not offer the needed efficacy, but pollute the environment and cause toxicities to non-target species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c00132DOI Listing

The V1016G mutation of the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene contributes to the insecticide resistance of Aedes aegypti from Makassar, Indonesia.

Parasitol Res 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Institute of Parasitology, Biomedical Research Centre Seltersberg (BFS), Justus Liebig University Giessen, Schubertstr. 81,, 35392, Giessen, Germany.

Aedes aegypti represents one of the main vectors of at least five relevant arthropod-borne viral infections in humans (i.e., Rift Valley fever, Dengue fever, Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever) worldwide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06720-5DOI Listing

Patterns, Associated Factors, and Clinical Outcomes of Poisoning among Poisoning Cases Presented to Selected Hospitals in Western Ethiopia: Hospital-Based Study.

Emerg Med Int 2020 6;2020:5741692. Epub 2020 May 6.

Wollega University, College of Health Science, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Psychiatric Nursing, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Results: The broad types of poisoning were identified in about 193 (91.47%) cases of poisoning in this study. Pesticides exposure and food poisoning have, respectively, contributed for 32. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5741692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225863PMC

Schiff base - Zn ion combo as 'pick and degrade' probe for selected organophosphorus chemical weapon mimics and flame retardant analog: Detoxification of fruits and vegetables in aqueous media.

Food Chem 2020 May 17;327:127080. Epub 2020 May 17.

Department of Chemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India. Electronic address:

A hydrazone based Schiff base (SB) has been synthesized and investigated for the detection, quantification and degradation of selective organophosphates (i.e diethyl chlorophosphate, diethyl cyanophosphonate, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate and dichlorvos). The organophosphates (OPs) form a covalent bond with -OH groups of SB and form SB-OP which quenches emission signal at 533 nm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127080DOI Listing

Porous Graphene Oxide-Metal Ion Composite for Selective Sensing of Organophosphate Gases.

ACS Sens 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Organophosphates are used as agricultural pesticides, and also encountered as toxic nerve agents in chemical warfare. Accordingly, development of sensors for detection and monitoring organophosphate vapors is highly sought. We present a new capacitive gas sensor exhibiting remarkable specificity and sensitivity towards the organophosphate nerve gas simulants triethyl-phosphate (TEP), dimethyl methyl phosphate (DMMP), and the pesticide dichlorvos (DDVP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.9b02367DOI Listing

Paraoxon-induced damage in rat hippocampus is associated with alterations in the expression of apoptosis-related proteins.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2020 Jun 8;166:104580. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Physiology, Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. Electronic address:

To determine the possible role of apoptosis in the development of paraoxon-induced brain damage, we evaluated expression of apoptosis-related proteins, the extent of neuronal damage, and activation of astrocytes in rat hippocampus. Adult male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with one of three doses of paraoxon (0.3, 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2020.104580DOI Listing

Assessing the acute toxicity of insecticides to the buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris audax).

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2020 Jun 6;166:104562. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Department of Biointeractions and Crop Protection, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, UK. Electronic address:

The buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris audax is an important pollinator within both landscape ecosystems and agricultural crops. During their lifetime bumblebees are regularly challenged by various environmental stressors including insecticides. Historically the honey bee (Apis mellifera spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2020.104562DOI Listing

Neurobehavioral, apoptotic, and DNA damaging effects of sub-chronic profenofos exposure on the brain tissue of Cyprinus carpio L.: Antagonistic role of Geranium essential oil.

Aquat Toxicol 2020 Apr 27;224:105493. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, 4511, Egypt.

Currently, the contamination of water with different insecticides like profenofos (PFF) is a critical concern in the aquatic ecosystem. There are limited studies available on the negative impacts of PFF on common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105493DOI Listing

Short- and long-term exposure to methamidophos impairs spermatogenesis in mice.

Reprod Biol 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Pharmacology, Laboratory of Physiology and Pharmacology of Reproduction, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO, Brazil.

Methamidophos (MET) is a pesticide that has toxic properties, including effects on fertility. This study aimed to assess the joint action of treatment time and exposure to methamidophos on the male reproductive system. MET was orally administered to adult male Swiss mice at a dose of 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.repbio.2020.05.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218378PMC

Occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides and hematologic neoplasms: a systematic review.

Rev Bras Epidemiol 2020 11;23:e200022. Epub 2020 May 11.

Fundação Antônio Prudente, A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Objective: To update findings of observational analytical studies on the association between occupational exposure to organophosphates and hematologic malignancies.

Methodology: Systematic literature review, including cohort and case-control studies, without limitation of publication time, in Portuguese and English. The articles were traced from June 2017 to July 2019 in PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS, Web of Science, and Scopus databases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1980-549720200022DOI Listing

Tribolium castaneum: a model for investigating the mode of action of insecticides and mechanisms of resistance.

Curr Pharm Des 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Chemistry-Biology, University of Siegen, Adolf-Reichwein-Strasse 2, 57068 Siegen. Germany.

The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is a worldwide insect pest of stored products, particularly food grains, and a powerful model organism for developmental, physiological and applied entomological research on coleopteran species. Among coleopterans, T. castaneum has the most fully sequenced and annotated genome and consequently provides the most advanced genetic model of a coleopteran pest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612826666200513113140DOI Listing

Organophosphate toxicity: updates of malathion potential toxic effects in mammals and potential treatments.

Authors:
Amira M Badr

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 22452, Riyadh, 11459, Saudi Arabia.

Organophosphorus insecticides toxicity is still considered a major global health problem. Malathion is one of the most commonly used organophosphates nowadays, as being considered to possess relatively low toxicity compared with other organophosphates. However, widespread use may lead to excessive exposure from multiple sources. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08937-4DOI Listing

Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel nonquaternary and 3 non-oxime reactivators for acetylcholinesterase inhibited by organophosphates.

Bioorg Chem 2020 May 5;100:103902. Epub 2020 May 5.

Laboratory of Computer-Aided Drug Design & Discovery, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing 100850, China. Electronic address:

A new series of novel nonquaternary conjugates and non-oxime reactivators for reactivation of both nerve agents and pesticides inhibited hAChE were described in this paper. Conjugates with piperazine linked to the substituted salicylaldoxime emerged as efficient reactivators for VX inhibited hAChE. The in vitro reactivation experiment showed that some of them were equal or more efficient reactivators for pesticides inhibited hAChE than obidoxime. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2020.103902DOI Listing

Association between pesticide exposure and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) polymorphisms, and neurobehavioural outcomes in children: a systematic review.

Syst Rev 2020 May 9;9(1):109. Epub 2020 May 9.

Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban, 4000, South Africa.

Environmental factors such as pollution, pesticide exposure and socio-demographic location have been implicated as a pressure capable of altering genetic make-up. Altered genetic sequence of genes encoding enzymes may result in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Of peculiar interest is the genetic variance on the paraoxonase-1 gene induced by pre- and postnatal exposure to pesticides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-020-01330-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211330PMC

Assessment of zebrafish embryo photomotor response sensitivity and phase-specific patterns following acute- and long-duration exposure to neurotoxic chemicals and chemical weapon precursors.

J Appl Toxicol 2020 May 6. Epub 2020 May 6.

U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

Zebrafish are an attractive model for chemical screening due to their adaptability to high-throughput platforms and ability to display complex phenotypes in response to chemical exposure. The photomotor response (PMR) is an established and reproducible phenotype of the zebrafish embryo, observed 24 h post-fertilization in response to a predefined sequence of light stimuli. In an effort to evaluate the sensitivity and effectiveness of the zebrafish embryo PMR assay for toxicity screening, we analyzed chemicals known to cause both neurological effects and developmental abnormalities, following both short (1 h) and long (16 h+) duration exposures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.3984DOI Listing

Eco-friendly and enantiospecific Biginelli synthesis using (+)-myrtenal as the substrate - an impeccable and unequivocal analysis of the product.

Curr Org Synth 2020 May 5. Epub 2020 May 5.

Síntese Orgânica Ambiental SOA - Dept. Química Orgânica - Instituto de Química - UFRJ - CP 68.584, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Brazil.

Background: We found an excellent review in the literature of the Biginelli reaction that addresses the methodologies for obtaining enantiopure dihydropyrimidinones (DHPMs). In 1992, optically pure DHPMs were obtained by fractional crystallization of the diastereomeric ammonium salt derivative with (S)-(-) and (R)-(+)--methylbenzylamine and by other chiral resolution techniques, such chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Asymmetric syntheses of these compounds are also found in the literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570179417666200506103137DOI Listing

Polymorphisms in GSTE2 is associated with temephos resistance in Aedes aegypti.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2020 May 24;165:104464. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Department of Entomology, Instituto Aggeu Magalhães, FIOCRUZ, Recife, PE 50740-465, Brazil.

The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are enzymes involved in several distinct biological processes. In insects, the GSTs, especially delta and epsilon classes, play a key role in the metabolism of xenobiotics used to control insect populations. Here, we investigated its potential role in temephos resistance, examining the GSTE2 gene from susceptible (RecL) and resistant (RecR) strains of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector for several pathogenic arboviruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2019.10.002DOI Listing

Characterization of organophosphate-induced brain injuries in a convulsive mouse model of diisopropylfluorophosphate exposure.

Epilepsia 2020 May 2. Epub 2020 May 2.

Department of Toxicology and Chemical Risks, Institute for Biomedical Research of the Armed Forces, Brétigny sur Orge, France.

Organophosphate (OP) compounds constitute a class of highly toxic molecules, characterized by irreversible cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition. Being either pesticides or chemical warfare agents, they present a major health issue in some countries, as well as a terrorist or military threat. Prompted by the need for suitable animal models to test novel medical countermeasures, we developed a new convulsive mouse model of OP poisoning using diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16516DOI Listing

Review about structure and evaluation of reactivators of Acetylcholinesterase inhibited with neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds.

Curr Med Chem 2020 Apr 25. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Kralove, 50003, Hradec Králové. Czech Republic.

Background: Neurotoxic chemical warfare agents can be classified as some of the most dangerous chemicals for humanity. The most effective of those agents are the organophosphates (OPs) capable of restricting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which in turn controls the nerve impulse transmission. When AChE is inhibited by OPs, its reactivation can be usually performed through cationic oximes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867327666200425213215DOI Listing

Efficient detoxification of nerve agents by oxime-assisted reactivation of acetylcholinesterase mutants.

Neuropharmacology 2020 Jul 22;171:108111. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska cesta 2, HR-10001, Zagreb, Croatia.

The recent advancements in crystallography and kinetics studies involving reactivation mechanism of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibited by nerve agents have enabled a new paradigm in the search for potent medical countermeasures in case of nerve agents exposure. Poisonings by organophosphorus compounds (OP) that lead to life-threatening toxic manifestations require immediate treatment that combines administration of anticholinergic drugs and an aldoxime as a reactivator of AChE. An alternative approach to reduce the in vivo toxicity of OP centers on the use of bioscavengers against the parent organophosphate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2020.108111DOI Listing

Comparative Molecular Description of a Novel GST Gene in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

J Med Entomol 2020 Apr 23. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Repeated exposure to insecticides, particularly pyrethroids and organophosphates, has resulted in the development of insecticide resistance in the mosquito Culex pipiens, a primary disease vector. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is involved in the phase II detoxification of numerous xenobiotics, including insecticides. In this study, a GST gene (CPIJ002678) was amplified, sequenced, and used in comprehensive molecular analyses ending up in development of a rapid assay to distinguish more tolerant individuals from susceptible Culex pipiens using the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) technique. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjaa075DOI Listing

Central neuroprotection demonstrated by novel oxime countermeasures to nerve agent surrogates.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Apr 21. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Center for Environmental Health Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi.

Oximes remain a long-standing element of the therapy for nerve agents, organophosphates (OPs) that poison by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), resulting in hypercholinergic activity both centrally and peripherally. Oximes, such as the pyridinium oxime pralidoxime (2-PAM) in the United States, can reactivate the inhibited AChE and restore cholinergic function. However, there are several drawbacks to the current oximes; one of them, the inability of these oximes to effectively enter the brain, is the subject of study by several laboratories, including ours. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14352DOI Listing

Can environmental concentrations of glyphosate affect survival and cause malformation in amphibians? Effects from a glyphosate-based herbicide on Physalaemus cuvieri and P. gracilis (Anura: Leptodactylidae).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Apr 21. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Laboratory of Ecology and Conservation, Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Erechim Campus, ERS 135 - Km 72, n°200, Erechim, RS, Brazil.

Herbicides are the most common agrochemicals used in crops. Among them, glyphosate is the most widely applied in the world. Herbicides, especially organophosphates, have been shown to be hazardous to non-target species, including amphibians. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08869-zDOI Listing

Electro-deposited nano-webbed structures based on polyaniline/multi walled carbon nanotubes for enzymatic detection of organophosphates.

Food Chem 2020 Apr 13;323:126784. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Sector-125, Noida 201301, UP, United Kingdom.

We report the development of an ultrasensitive electrochemical sensor using polyaniline (PANi) and carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (fMWCNT) for the detection of organophosphates (OPs) in real samples. The sensor was tested in the linear concentration range of 10 ng/L to 120 ng/L. The limit of detection (LoD) was found to be 8. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126784DOI Listing

Agrochemicals and neurogenesis.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2020 Jun 18;510:110820. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica y Cuantitativa, Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Argentina; Instituto de Salud y Ambiente del Litoral (ISAL), Universidad Nacional del Litoral (UNL)- Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, UNL, Argentina. Electronic address:

Agrochemicals or pesticides are compounds widely used to prevent, destroy or mitigate pests such as insects, rodents, herbs and weeds. However, most of them also act as environmental estrogens, anti-estrogens and/or antiandrogenic chemicals. In addition, both herbicides (such as glyphosate and paraquat) and insecticides (such as pyrethroids, organophosphates, neonicotinoids and rotenone) have been shown to exert significant adverse effects on hippocampal neurogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2020.110820DOI Listing

Association of co-accumulation of arsenic and organophosphate insecticides with diabetes and atherosclerosis in a rural agricultural community: KMCH-NNCD-I study.

Acta Diabetol 2020 Apr 20. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

DST Unit of Nanoscience and Thematic Unit of Excellence in Water Research, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 600 036, India.

Aims: In last few decades, the prevalence of diabetes and vascular diseases has intensified concurrently with increased use of synthetic chemicals in agriculture. This study is aimed to evaluate the association of co-accumulation of arsenic and organophosphate (OP) insecticides with diabetes and atherosclerosis prevalence in a rural Indian population.

Methods: This study included observations from KMCH-NNCD-I (2015) cross-sectional study (n = 865) from an Indian farming village. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-020-01516-6DOI Listing
April 2020
2.399 Impact Factor

Assessment of intensive agriculture on water quality in the Culiacan River basin, Sinaloa, Mexico.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Apr 19. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Tecnológico Nacional de México/I.T. Culiacán, División de estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Av. Juan de Dios Batiz, No. 310, Culiacán, México.

The percentage of agricultural land cover effect on water quality in Culiacan River basin is studied in this research. The basin contains only intensive cropland as primary economic activity with 60% of the total area. Mathematical relationships between percentages of cropland and total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations were established. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08653-zDOI Listing

Structural and kinetic evidence of aging after organophosphate inhibition of human Cathepsin A.

Biochem Pharmacol 2020 Apr 17;177:113980. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave., Washington, DC 20375, United States. Electronic address:

Human Cathepsin A (CatA) is a lysosomal serine carboxypeptidase of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and is structurally similar to acetylcholinesterase (AChE). CatA can remove the C-terminal amino acids of endothelin I, angiotensin I, Substance P, oxytocin, and bradykinin, and can deamidate neurokinin A. Proteomic studies identified CatA and its homologue, SCPEP1, as potential targets of organophosphates (OP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2020.113980DOI Listing
April 2020
5.009 Impact Factor

Mechanism of interactions between organophosphorus insecticides and human serum albumin: Solid-phase microextraction, thermodynamics and computational approach.

Chemosphere 2020 Aug 7;253:126698. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Institute of Quality and Standards for Agricultural Products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, China.

Organophosphates insecticides (OPs) are one of the major environmental pollutants and their interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) has been shown to have significant effects on their bioavailability which is related to toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics in human body. In this research, solid-phase microextraction methods were developed to analyse the free concentrations of three OPs (chlorpyrifos, parathion-methyl and malathion) in buffered HSA solution and that provide a useful method for the determination of binding affinity constants (K), binding forces and binding location. Polydimethylsiloxane fibers were selected for analysing the free concentrations of OPs, with an external calibration approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126698DOI Listing

Concentration and distribution of pesticide residues in soil: Non-dietary human health risk assessment.

Chemosphere 2020 Aug 27;253:126594. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Soil Physics and Land Management (SLM), Wageningen University and Research, the Netherlands.

Soil contamination by pesticide residues is a primary concern because of the high soil persistence of pesticides and their toxicity to humans. We investigated pesticide concentration and distribution at 3 soil depths in 147 soil samples from agricultural land and assessed potential health risks due to non-dietary human exposure to pesticides in Nepal. About sixty percent of the soil samples had pesticides (25% of the soil samples had single residue, 35% of the soil samples had mixtures of 2 or more residues) in 39 different pesticide combinations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126594DOI Listing

Standardization of tick specific biochemical tools for estimation of esterases, monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferase for characterization of acaricide resistance.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2020 Mar 21;164:130-139. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Entomology Laboratory, Division of Parasitology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243122, U.P., India. Electronic address:

Protocols to determine metabolic resistance in ticks were mainly derived from reports published using mosquitoes and agriculturally important insects without prior standardization. In the present study, biochemical assays were standardized to quantify acaricide metabolizing enzymes in tick homogenates. Three variables viz. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2020.01.008DOI Listing

Indoor residual spraying for malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa 1997 to 2017: an adjusted retrospective analysis.

Malar J 2020 Apr 10;19(1):150. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7LF, UK.

Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a key tool for controlling and eliminating malaria by targeting vectors. To support the development of effective intervention strategies it is important to understand the impact of vector control tools on malaria incidence and on the spread of insecticide resistance. In 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) stated that countries should report on coverage and impact of IRS, yet IRS coverage data are still sparse and unspecific. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-020-03216-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7149868PMC

A critical review on the potential impacts of neonicotinoid insecticide use: current knowledge of environmental fate, toxicity, and implications for human health.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2020 Apr 8. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

University of Iowa, College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used in both urban and agricultural settings around the world. Historically, neonicotinoid insecticides have been viewed as ideal replacements for more toxic compounds, like organophosphates, due in part to their perceived limited potential to affect the environment and human health. This critical review investigates the environmental fate and toxicity of neonicotinoids and their metabolites and the potential risks associated with exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9em00586bDOI Listing

The Efficacy of Pralidoxime in the Treatment of Organophosphate Poisoning in Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials.

Cureus 2020 Mar 4;12(3):e7174. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Internal Medicine, Rochester General Hospital, Rochester, USA.

Introduction The benefits of atropine in the treatment of acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning has been well established, while that of oximes is still uncertain. Pralidoxime is the most often used oxime worldwide. In vitro experiments have consistently shown that oximes are effective reactivators of human acetylcholinesterase enzyme, inhibited by OP compounds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7117609PMC

Peroxidase-like activity of acetylcholine-based colorimetric detection of acetylcholinesterase activity and an organophosphorus inhibitor.

J Mater Chem B 2019 04 18;7(16):2613-2618. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Key Laboratory of Chem-Biosensing, Anhui province, Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Anhui province, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Center for Nano Science and Technology, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, P. R. China.

Colorimetric detection of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and its inhibitor organophosphates (OPs) is attractive for its convenience, but the addition of exogenous catalyst to produce a chromogenic agent may result in complexity and interference. Herein, we first found that acetylcholine (ATCh) itself mimicked peroxidase's activity, based on which a simple and reliable colorimetric system containing ATCh- 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB)-HO was developed for the sensitive and selective assay of AChE activity and its inhibitor OPs. Due to the AChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetylcholine, the peroxidase-like activity was affected, which was used for highly sensitive detection of AChE activity with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8tb02616eDOI Listing

Degradation mechanism of tributyl phosphate by UV/HO treatment and parameters optimization towards the design of a pilot reactor.

Environ Technol 2020 Apr 29:1-13. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse, France.

While activated sludge treatment is currently the preferred process for the removal of tributyl phosphate (TBP) at the mg.L level, it is well known that this recalcitrant molecule is incompletely degraded, stimulating research into alternative approaches, such as advanced oxidation. The aim of this study was to characterize the degradation mechanism of TBP during ultraviolet/HO treatment using P NMR, ionic chromatography and total organic carbon analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2020.1751731DOI Listing

The pro-convulsant effects of diazinon low dose in male rats under amygdala kindling.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2020 Apr 5:1-8. Epub 2020 Apr 5.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Organophosphates can damage the brain in systemic intoxication. In this study, the effects of a minimum toxic dose (MTD) of diazinon (DZ) on amygdala afterdischarge threshold (ADT), kindling acquisition and kindled seizure parameters were evaluated. Intact male rats were stereotactically implanted with a tripolar and two monopolar electrodes in the amygdala and dura respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2020.1746801DOI Listing
April 2020
1.098 Impact Factor

Molecular binding scaffolds increase local substrate concentration enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis of VX nerve agent.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2020 Apr 1. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, University of California, Riverside, California.

Kinetic enhancement of organophosphate hydrolysis is a long-standing challenge in catalysis. For prophylactic treatment against organophosphate exposure, enzymatic hydrolysis needs to occur at high rates in the presence of low substrate concentrations and enzymatic activity should persist over days and weeks. Here, the conjugation of small DNA scaffolds was used to introduce substrate binding sites with micromolar affinity to VX, paraoxon, and methyl-parathion in close proximity to the enzyme phosphotriesterase (PTE). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.27346DOI Listing
April 2020
4.126 Impact Factor

Exploring the degradation capability of Trametes versicolor on selected hydrophobic pesticides through setting sights simultaneously on culture broth and biological matrix.

Chemosphere 2020 Jul 25;250:126293. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Institut de Química Avançada de Catalunya (IQAC), CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Pesticides introduced inadvertently or deliberately into environment by global agricultural practices have caused growing public concern, therefore the search of approaches for elimination of such xenobiotics should be motivated. The degradation of hydrophobic pesticides including chlorpyrifos, dicofol and cypermethrin were assayed with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Experiments were set at realistic concentration as 5 μg L, and both culture medium and biologic matrix were analyzed for pollutants residues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126293DOI Listing

A needle trap device method for sampling and analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds in air.

Chemosphere 2020 Jul 21;250:126284. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, TX, USA; Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), such as phthalates, organophosphates, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, are emerging as an important class of pollutants that are of serious health concerns. Determining concentrations of these pollutants is of great importance for environmental and exposure studies. In this work, a needle trap device (NTD) method was developed to measure the concentration of SVOCs in air samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126284DOI Listing

Combined Pre- and Posttreatment of Paraoxon Exposure.

Molecules 2020 Mar 27;25(7). Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Department of Cellular Biology & Pharmacology, Florida International University, University Park GL 495, 11200 SW 8th St, Miami, FL 33199, USA.

Aims: Organophosphates (OPCs), useful agents as pesticides, also represent a serious health hazard. Standard therapy with atropine and established oxime-type enzyme reactivators is unsatisfactory. Experimental data indicate that superior therapeutic results can be obtained when reversible cholinesterase inhibitors are administered before OPC exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25071521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7180863PMC

Detection of organophosphorus pesticides with liquid crystals supported on the surface deposited with polyoxometalate-based acetylcholinesterase-responsive supramolecular spheres.

Food Chem 2020 Aug 23;320:126683. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Shandong University, Ministry of Education, Jinan 250100, PR China. Electronic address:

Here, we demonstrate use of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-responsive polyoxometalate (POM)/surfactant supramolecular spheres to build a liquid crystal (LC)-based sensing platform for detection of organophosphorus pesticides. The self-assembled spheres are composed of hybrid materials of a POM, sodium dodecatungstophosphate (PW), and a surfactant, myristoylcholine (Myr). It displays dark appearance when the aqueous solution is in contact with LCs supported on the octadecyltrichlorosilane-treated glass deposited with the supramolecular spheres, suggesting perpendicular orientation of LCs at the aqueous/LC interface. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126683DOI Listing

Assessment of human exposure to selected pesticides in Norway by wastewater analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 21;723:138132. Epub 2020 Mar 21.

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Via Mario Negri 2, 20156 Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Pesticides offer many benefits for humanity and agriculture, but at the same time pose a potential risk to human health because of their widespread use and high biological activity. Human biomonitoring (HBM) studies are the main tool to investigate human exposure to pesticides and other chemicals, but face limitations such as sampling biases, long time to complete and high costs. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an alternative approach that is centered on the chemical analysis of biomarkers of (pesticide) exposure in urban wastewater. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138132DOI Listing

Effects of several organophosphates on hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in rats.

J Vet Med Sci 2020 May 25;82(5):598-606. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmacology, Cooperative Department of Veterinary Medicine, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan.

Four commonly used organophosphates (fenitrothion, dichlorvos, chlorpyrifos, and trichlorfon) were orally administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats for five days in order to explore their effects on the activities of liver cytochrome P450 (CYP). In addition, Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the metabolic reactions catalyzed by liver CYPs were analyzed following the addition of these compounds to the assay system to examine their potential inhibitory effects on liver CYPs activities. These reactions included ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, midazolam 4-hydroxylation, tolbutamide hydroxylation, and bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation for CYP1A, 3A, 2C, and 2D activities, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.19-0452DOI Listing

Fostemsavir in Adults with Multidrug-Resistant HIV-1 Infection.

N Engl J Med 2020 03;382(13):1232-1243

From Yale University School of Medicine and the Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System, New Haven (M.K.), and ViiV Healthcare, Branford (P.A., C.L., M.L.) - all in Connecticut; Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York (J.A.); Hôpital Tenon, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) (G.P.), and Hôpital Saint Louis, AP-HP, and University of Paris Diderot Paris 7 (J.-M.M.), Paris; Fundación Huesped, Buenos Aires (P.C.); AIDS Research Consortium of Atlanta, Atlanta (M.T.); Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro (B.G.), and Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo (R.D.); San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (A.C.); Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC (P.K.); Maxwell Center, Durban, South Africa (G.L.); Orlando Immunology Center, Orlando, FL (E.D.); GlaxoSmithKline, Upper Providence, PA (M. Gummel); and ViiV Healthcare, Research Triangle Park, NC (M. Gartland, A.P.).

Background: Among some patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection who have undergone multiple antiretroviral therapies and have limited options for treatment, new classes of antiretroviral drugs with novel mechanisms of action are needed. Fostemsavir is the prodrug of temsavir, a first-in-class investigational HIV-1 attachment inhibitor.

Methods: In this ongoing phase 3 trial in 23 countries, we enrolled patients with multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection in two cohorts, according to their remaining treatment options. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1902493DOI Listing

Efficacy of retigabine in ameliorating the brain insult following sarin exposure in the rat.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2020 May 21;395:114963. Epub 2020 Mar 21.

Department. of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona 74100, Israel. Electronic address:

Background: Sarin is an irreversible organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor. Following toxic signs, an extensive long-term brain damage is often reported. Thus, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel anticonvulsant drug retigabine, a modulator of neuronal voltage gated K channels, as a neuroprotective agent following sarin exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2020.114963DOI Listing

A Retrospective Study of Acute Poisoning Cases and Their Management at Emergency Department of Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia.

Drug Healthc Patient Saf 2020 5;12:41-48. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia.

Background: Poisoning causes significant patient morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a common reason for emergency department visits and hospitalizations. Acute poisoning needs immediate effective management to prevent patient mortality or sequela. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DHPS.S241413DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7062390PMC