30,250 results match your criteria Organophosphates


Pesticides in a case study on no-tillage farming systems and surrounding forest patches in Brazil.

Sci Rep 2021 May 10;11(1):9839. Epub 2021 May 10.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Gestão Ambiental, Universidade Positivo, Curitiba, 81280-330, Brasil.

With the growing global concern on pesticide management, the relationship between its environmental recalcitrance, food security and human health has never been more relevant. Pesticides residues are known to cause significant environmental contamination. Here, we present a case study on long-term no-tillage farming systems in Brazil, where Glyphosate (GLY) has been applied for more than 35 years. Read More

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Prenatal exposure to pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides and language development at age 20-36 months among children in the Odense Child Cohort.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2021 May 5;235:113755. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, J.B. Winsløws Vej 17A, 5000, Odense, Denmark; Hans Christian Andersen Children's Hospital, Odense University Hospital, Sdr. Boulevard 29, 5000, Odense C, Denmark.

Background: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides has been associated with impaired neurodevelopment. Few longitudinal studies have investigated associations with early language development in populations with mainly low dietary exposure.

Objective: To investigate associations between biomarkers of maternal gestational exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides and the child's language development at age 20-36 months in the prospective Odense Child Cohort. Read More

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Self-Poisoning With Safer Insecticide: A Case Series on Imidacloprid Poisoning.

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

From the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, AIIMS Bhubaneswar, Odisha Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, IMS and SUM Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Abstract: Imidacloprid (IMI) is a systemic insecticide that belongs to the neonicotinoid group of insecticides. It is highly effective against sucking, boring, and root-feeding insects. Besides, it has a favorable toxicological profile on humans. Read More

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Different Timing of Prenatal Organophosphate Pesticides Exposure Is Influenced Different Aspects of Infant Developmental Performance.

Toxics 2021 Apr 30;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences and Non Communicable Diseases Center of Excellence, Chiang Mai University, 110 Inthavaroros Road, Sriphum Subdistrict, Muang District, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

Organophosphate (OP) pesticides can transfer from mother to fetus via the placenta and amniotic fluid and may affect the development of infants. This study aims to evaluate the associations between maternal OP concentrations collected in the 1st-2nd trimester and the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and the infant developmental performance. The Screening Test of the Bayley Scales of Infants and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III screening test) was used to assess development performance at 2 and 6 months of age. Read More

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DNA damage and biochemical responses in estuarine bivalve Donax incarnatus (Gmelin, 1791) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of an organophosphate pesticide monocrotophos.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 May 3;193(6):317. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Zoology, Goa University, University Road, Taleigao, Goa, 403206, India.

Monocrotophos (MCP) is a highly toxic and broad-spectrum pesticide extensively used for agricultural and household purposes. The present study was aimed to evaluate the genotoxicity and alterations in the biochemical and physiological conditions induced by monocrotophos in a non-target organism, an estuarine bivalve, Donax incarnatus. The bivalves were exposed to three sub-lethal concentrations (6. Read More

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Ensemble machine learning to evaluate the in vivo acute oral toxicity and in vitro human acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of organophosphates.

Arch Toxicol 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

State Key Laboratory of NBC Protection for Civilian, Beijing, 102205, China.

Organophosphates (OPs) are hazardous chemicals widely used in industry and agriculture. Distribution of their residues in nature causes serious risks to humans, animals, and plants. To reduce hazards from OPs, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for predicting their acute oral toxicity in rats and mice and inhibition constants concerning human acetylcholinesterase were developed according to the bioactivity data of 456 unique OPs. Read More

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The Role of Prevention in Reducing the Economic Impact of ME/CFS in Europe: A Report from the Socioeconomics Working Group of the European Network on ME/CFS (EUROMENE).

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Apr 16;57(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.

This report addresses the extent to which there may be scope for preventive programmes for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), and, if so, what economic benefits may accrue from the implementation of such programmes. We consider the economic case for prevention programmes, whether there is scope for preventive programmes for ME/CFS, and what are the health and economic benefits to be derived from the implementation of such programmes. We conclude that there is little scope for primary prevention programmes, given that ME/CFS is attributable to a combination of host and environmental risk factors, with host factors appearing to be most prominent, and that there are few identified modifiable risk factors that could be the focus of such programmes. Read More

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A Fluidics-Based Biosensor to Detect and Characterize Inhibition Patterns of Organophosphate to Acetylcholinesterase in Food Materials.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Apr 3;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Biomedical Engineering Department, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.

A chip-based electrochemical biosensor is developed herein for the detection of organophosphate (OP) in food materials. The principle of the sensing platform is based on the inhibition of dimethoate (DMT), a typical OP that specifically inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Carbon nanotube-modified gold electrodes functionalized with polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) and oxidized nanocellulose (NC) were investigated for the sensing of OP, yielding high sensitivity. Read More

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Acetylcholinesterase target sites for developing environmentally friendly insecticides against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

Exp Appl Acarol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Key Laboratory of Northern Urban Agriculture of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Bioscience and Resource Environment, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing, 102206, China.

The non-target toxicity and resistance problems of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) insecticides, such as organophosphates and carbamates, are of growing concern. To explore the potential targets for achieving inhibitor selectivity, the AChE structures at or near the catalytic pocket of Tetranychus urticae (TuAChE), honey bees, and humans were compared. The entrances to the AChE catalytic pocket differ significantly because of their different peripheral sites. Read More

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Monoclonal antibody-based icELISA for the screening of diazinon in vegetable samples.

Anal Methods 2021 04 31;13(16):1911-1918. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety/Guangdong Laboratory of Lingnan Modern Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

Diazinon (DAZ) is an organophosphorus pesticide (OP), which is commonly used to prevent and control harmful pests that endanger agricultural products. In this study, we developed a novel heterology coating strategy for the immunoassay of DAZ. The DAZ coating hapten can be directly conjugated to the carrier protein without requiring a spacer arm. Read More

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High-Resolution Metabolomic Assessment of Pesticide Exposure in Central Valley, California.

Chem Res Toxicol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Epidemiology, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, California 90095, United States.

Pesticides are widely used in the agricultural Central Valley region of California. Historically, this has included organophosphates (OPs), organochlorines (OCs), and pyrethroids (PYRs). This study aimed to identify perturbations of the serum metabolome in response to each class of pesticide and mutual associations between groups of metabolites and multiple pesticides. Read More

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[Effect of organophosphate pesticides poisoning on cognitive impairment].

Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 2021 Apr;39(4):313-316

Department of Emergency, Second People's Hospital of Hefei City, Hefei 230000, China.

It has been suggested that organophosphate pesticides can cause cognitive impairment, most of which are presented as mild cognitive impairment such as decreased attention or vigilance, reduced information processing speed and memory impairment. An early diagnosis and timely intervention in mild cognitive impairment, which may provide a better prognosis. Mild cognitive impairment in clinical work can be easily ignored for a long time. Read More

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[Factors affecting the recovery of cholinesterase activity in patients with acute chlorpyrifos poisoning].

Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 2021 Apr;39(4):286-288

Department of Emergency, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Military Medical University, Xian 710038, China.

To investigate the related factors affecting the recovery of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in patients with acute chlorpyrifos poisoning. In February 2020, the clinical data of acute chlorpyrifos poisoning patients admitted in our hospital from January 2016 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. The outcome variable was the time of ChE activity recovered to 50% lower limit of normal value, and multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to explore its influencing factors. Read More

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Neurobehavioral anomalies in zebrafish after sequential exposures to DDT and chlorpyrifos in adulthood: Do multiple exposures interact?

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2021 Apr 24;87:106985. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address:

A sequence of different classes of synthetic insecticides have been used over the past 70 years. Over this period, the widely-used organochlorines were eventually replaced by organophosphates, with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) as the principal prototypes. Considerable research has characterized the risks of DDT and CPF individually, but little is known about the toxicology of transitioning from one class of insecticides to another, as has been commonplace for agricultural and pest control workers. Read More

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Establishment of a Target, Suspect, and Functional Group-Dependent Screening Strategy for Organophosphate Esters (OPEs): "Into the Unknown" of OPEs in the Sediment of Taihu Lake, China.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 05 23;55(9):5836-5847. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, P. R. China.

Current environmental monitoring studies are generally confined to several target organophosphate esters (OPEs), and there is a lack of strategies for comprehensively screening all potential OPEs in environmental samples. Here, an effective and accurate strategy was developed for the target, suspect, and functional group-dependent screening of OPEs by the use of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-Q Exactive hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS), and this strategy was applied for the analysis of = 74 sediment samples (including 23 surface sediment samples and 51 sediment core samples) collected from Taihu Lake (eastern China) in 2019. In these analyzed samples, we successfully identified = 35 OPEs, and 23 of them were reported in this region for the first time. Read More

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Phenotypic and haplotypic profiles of insecticide resistance in populations of Aedes aegypti larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) from central Lao PDR.

Trop Med Health 2021 Apr 21;49(1):32. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Aedes aegypti, which is widely distributed in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), is the primary vector of arboviral diseases. Chemical insecticides have been intensively used to eliminate mosquito-borne diseases, resulting in the development of insecticide resistance. However, little is known about the insecticide resistance of mosquito populations in Lao PDR and the mechanisms responsible for it, which have important implications for vector management programs. Read More

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Insecticide resistance status in Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) in coastal Kenya.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Apr 20;14(1):207. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Center for Geographic Medicine Research, Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute, P.O Box 230-80108, Kilifi, Kenya.

Background: The rapid and widespread evolution of insecticide resistance has emerged as one of the major challenges facing malaria control programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the insecticide resistance status of mosquito populations and the underlying mechanisms of insecticide resistance can inform the development of effective and site-specific strategies for resistance prevention and management. The aim of this study was to investigate the insecticide resistance status of Anopheles gambiae (s. Read More

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Comparative profile of refractory status epilepticus models following exposure of cholinergic agents pilocarpine, DFP, and soman.

Neuropharmacology 2021 Apr 17:108571. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, Texas A&M University Health Science Center College of Medicine, Bryan, TX 77807.

Status epilepticus (SE) is a medical emergency with continuous seizure activity that causes profound neuronal damage, morbidity, or death. SE incidents can arise spontaneously, but mostly are elicited by seizurogenic triggers. Chemoconvulsants such as the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine and organophosphates (OP), such as the pesticide diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) and the nerve agent soman, can induce SE. Read More

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Comparative sensitivity of Neoseiulus cucumeris and its prey Tetranychus cinnabarinus, after exposed to nineteen pesticides.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 14;217:112234. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

College of Chemistry and Environment Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing 100083, China. Electronic address:

The toxicity tests of nineteen commonly used pesticides were carried out to compare the sensitivity differences between predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris and its prey Tetranychus cinnabarinus by a "leaf spray method" in laboratory microcosms. For two avermectins, emamectin benzoate and abamectin, exhibited high bioactivity against T. cinnabarinusf with LR values of 0. Read More

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Detection of chlorpyrifos and carbendazim residues in the cabbage using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Aug 1;257:119759. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, China; Key Laboratory of Spectroscopy Sensing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Contamination of agricultural plants and food in the environment caused by pesticide residues has gained great attention of the world. Pesticide residues on vegetables constitute a potential risk to human health. A visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods was employed to quantitatively determine chlorpyrifos and carbendazim residues in the cabbage (Brassica chinensis L. Read More

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Efficacy of a water-based botanical acaricide formulation applied in portable spray box against the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae), infesting cattle.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 Apr 3;12(4):101721. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

USDA-ARS, Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory, and Veterinary Pest Genomics Center, 2700 Fredericksburg Rd, Kerrville, TX, 78028, United States.

Ectoparasitism result in annual losses to livestock producers estimated to reach billions of dollars in tropical and subtropical parts of the world where the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is established because this invasive pest is also a vector of pathogens causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Reintroduction of R. microplus could be economically devastating for the cattle industry in the United States. Read More

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Chlorpyrifos alters expression of enzymes involved in vitamin D synthesis in skin cells.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 May 27;174:104812. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Molecular Biology and Translational Research, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

Skin acts as a mechanical barrier between human body and environment. Epidermal cells are regularly exposed to many physiological and environmental stressors, such as pesticides, like chlorpyrifos (CPS). It is recognised that CPS may affect metabolism of other exo- and endogenous substances by affecting enzyme activity and expression. Read More

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The adipokinetic hormone signaling system regulates the sensitivity of Bactrocera dorsalis to malathion.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 May 25;174:104808. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Key Laboratory of Entomology and Pest Control Engineering, College of Plant Protection, China; State Cultivation Base of Crop Stress Biology for Southern Mountainous Land of Southwest University, China; International Joint Laboratory of China-Belgium on Sustainable Crop Pest Control, Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China. Electronic address:

The neuropeptide adipokinetic hormone (AKH) binds to the AKH receptor (AKHR) to regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It also participates in the insect anti-stress response. We used RT-qPCR to detect the expression levels of 39 neuropeptides in malathion-susceptible (MS) and malathion-resistant (MR) strains of Bactrocera dorsalis. Read More

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Enhanced production of L-arginine by improving carbamoyl phosphate supply in metabolically engineered Corynebacterium crenatum.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Apr 10;105(8):3265-3276. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology of the Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China.

Carbamoyl phosphate is an important precursor for L-arginine and pyrimidines biosynthesis. In view of this importance, the cell factory should enhance carbamoyl phosphate synthesis to improve related compound production. In this work, we verified that carbamoyl phosphate is essential for L-arginine production in Corynebacterium sp. Read More

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Neuroprotection by delayed triple therapy following sarin nerve agent insult in the rat.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 05 3;419:115519. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological, Chemical and Environmental Sciences, Ness-Ziona 74100, Israel. Electronic address:

The development of refractory status epilepticus (SE) induced by sarin intoxication presents a therapeutic challenge. In our current research we evaluate the efficacy of a delayed combined triple treatment in ending the abnormal epileptiform seizure activity (ESA) and the ensuing of long-term neuronal insult. SE was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by exposure to 1. Read More

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A hollow visible-light-responsive surface molecularly imprinted polymer for the detection of chlorpyrifos in vegetables and fruits.

Food Chem 2021 Sep 23;355:129656. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

The Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry of Chongqing Municipality, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, PR China. Electronic address:

A visible-light-responsive azobenzene derivative, 3,5-dichloro-4-((2,6-dichloro-4-(methacryloyloxy)phenyl)diazenyl)benzoic acid, was synthesized and used as the functional monomer to fabricate a visible-light-responsive core-shell structured surface molecularly imprinted polymer (PS-co-PMAA@VSMIP). After removal of the sacrificial PS-co-PMAA core, a hollow structured surface molecularly imprinted polymer (HVSMIP) was obtained. Both the PS-co-PMAA@VSMIP and HVSMIP were used for the detection of chlorpyrifos, a moderately toxic organophosphate pesticide. Read More

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September 2021

Ultrasonic-assisted preparation of halloysite nanotubes/zirconia/carbon black nanocomposite for the highly sensitive determination of methyl parathion.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Apr 23;123:111982. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Ecosystem Science and Management and Materials Research Institute, Materials Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Electronic address:

Herein, a cost-effective and scalable ultrasound assisted approach was proposed to prepare the nanocomposite of halloysite nanotubes/zirconia/carbon black (Hal/ZrO/CB), which was used to fabricate a novel electrochemical sensor for the highly sensitive determination of methyl parathion (MP). In the Hal/ZrO/CB nanocomposite, Hal with large specific surface area and numerous active sites could enhance the adsorption capacity and accelerate the redox reaction of MP; ZrO nanoparticles with high affinity toward the phosphate group could contribute to good recognition performance for MP; CB nanoparticles with good dispersibility formed an interconnected pearl-chain-like conductive network. Benefitting from the synergistic effect of the three components, the Hal/ZrO/CB/GCE (glassy carbon electrode) sensor showed a remarkably low detection limit of 5. Read More

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New Approaches to the Prevention and Treatment of Viral Diseases.

Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 2021 Apr 3;69(1):10. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

N.F. Gamaleya National Research Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology of the Ministry of Health of Russia, Gamaleya 18, Moscow, Russia, 123098.

The review discusses a new approach to the prevention and treatment of viral infections based on the use of pine needles polyprenyl phosphate (PPP) and associated with the infringement of prenylation process-the attachment of farnesol or geranyl geraniol to the viral protein. Currently, prenylation has been detected in type 1 adenovirus, hepatitis C virus, several herpes viruses, influenza virus, HIV. However, this list is far from complete, given that prenylated proteins play an extremely important role in the activity of the virus. Read More

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Organophosphate Flame Retardants and Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Drinking Water Treatment Plants from Korea: Occurrence and Human Exposure.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 5;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea.

In this study, the concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFR) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were investigated in raw water and treated water samples obtained from 18 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). The ∑OPFR concentrations in the treated water samples (29.5-122 ng/L; median 47. Read More

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Experimental and Established Oximes as Pretreatment before Acute Exposure to Azinphos-Methyl.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 17;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi P.O. Box 127788, United Arab Emirates.

Poisoning with organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) represents an ongoing threat to civilians and rescue personal. We have previously shown that oximes, when administered prophylactically before exposure to the OPC paraoxon, are able to protect from its toxic effects. In the present study, we have assessed to what degree experimental (K-27; K-48; K-53; K-74; K-75) or established oximes (pralidoxime, obidoxime), when given as pretreatment at an equitoxic dosage of 25% of LD, are able to reduce mortality induced by the OPC azinphos-methyl. Read More

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