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Silencing of transcription factor E93 inhibits adult morphogenesis and disrupts cuticle, wing and ovary development in Locusta migratoria.

Insect Sci 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Research Institute of Applied Biology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, China.

Ecdysone-induced protein 93F (E93) plays important roles during the metamorphosis process in insects. In this study, a cDNA of the LmE93 gene was identified from the transcriptome of Locusta migratoria, which consists of the 3378-nucleotide open-reading frame (ORF) and encodes 1125 amino acids with helix-turn-helix (HTH) motifs. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that LmE93 was highest expressed in ovary. Read More

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The Adenylate Cyclase, CyaB, Is Important for Virulence Factor Production and Mammalian Infection.

Front Microbiol 2021 25;12:676192. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Microbial Pathogenesis and Immunology, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Bryan, TX, United States.

, the causative agent of Lyme disease, traverses through vastly distinct environments between the tick vector and the multiple phases of the mammalian infection that requires genetic adaptation for the progression of pathogenesis. Borrelial gene expression is highly responsive to changes in specific environmental signals that initiate the RpoS regulon for mammalian adaptation, but the mechanism(s) for direct detection of environmental cues has yet to be identified. Secondary messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) produced by adenylate cyclase is responsive to environmental signals, such as carbon source and pH, in many bacterial pathogens to promote virulence by altering gene regulation. Read More

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The Notch receptor-ligand Delta is involved in the immune response of Penaeus vannamei.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jun 7:104147. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Biology and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Shantou University, Shantou, 515063, China; STU-UMT Joint Shellfish Research Laboratory, Shantou University, Shantou, 515063, China. Electronic address:

In the Notch signaling pathway in vertebrates and invertebrates, the ligand Delta plays crucial roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, and immunity. Although the Notch signaling pathway has recently been implicated in the immune defense of Penaeus vannamei, the association of Delta with this immune response remains unclear. Here, we cloned and characterized the Delta homolog in P. Read More

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Genetic Variation in Two Populations From Ecuador Highlands-Extensive Copy-Number Variation, Distinctive Distribution of Functional Polymorphisms, and a Novel, Locally Common, Chimeric (CD16B/A) Gene.

Front Immunol 2021 24;12:615645. Epub 2021 May 24.

Immunogenetics & Histocompatibility Lab, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Puerta de Hierro-Segovia de Arana, Majadahonda, Spain.

Fcγ receptors (FcγR), cell-surface glycoproteins that bind antigen-IgG complexes, control both humoral and cellular immune responses. The locus on chromosome 1q23.3 comprises five homologous genes encoding low-affinity FcγRII and FcγRIII, and displays functionally relevant polymorphism that impacts on human health. Read More

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Translation role of circRNAs in cancers.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Jun 7:e23866. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Li Huili Hospital Affiliated to Ningbo University School, Ningbo, China.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) constitute a class of covalently closed RNA molecules. With the continuous advancement of high-throughput sequencing technology and bioinformatics tools, many circRNAs have been identified in various human tissues and cell lines. Notably, recent studies have indicated that some circRNAs have translational functions. Read More

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Open reading frame 3 protein of hepatitis E virus: Multi-function protein with endless potential.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 May;27(20):2458-2473

Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi Province, China.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a fecal-orally transmitted foodborne viral pathogen, causes acute hepatitis in humans and is responsible for hepatitis E outbreaks worldwide. Since the identification of HEV as a zoonotic agent, this virus has been isolated from a variety of hosts with an ever-expanding host range. HEV-open reading frame (ORF) 3, the smallest ORF in HEV genomes, initially had been perceived as an unremarkable HEV accessory protein. Read More

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Effect of E2 and long control region polymorphisms on disease severity in human papillomavirus type 11 mediated mucosal disease: Protein modelling and functional analysis.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Jun 2:104948. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt.98, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary. Electronic address:

Interaction of the long control region (LCR) and the E2 protein of HPV11s was studied by in silico modelling and in vitro functional analysis. Genomes of HPV11s from fifteen (six known and nine novel) patients (two solitary papillomas, eleven respiratory papillomatoses of different severity, one condyloma acuminatum and one cervical atypia) were sequenced; E2 polymorphisms were analysed in silico by protein modelling. E2 and LCR variants were cloned into pcDNA3. Read More

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Expression and functional analysis of the BCL2-Associated agonist of cell death (BAD) gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) during bacterial infection.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jun 2;123:104160. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Guangdong Provincial Water Environment and Aquatic Products Security Engineering, Technology Research Center, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Diseases and Waterfowl Breeding, College of Animal Sciences and Technology, Zhongkai, University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510222, China. Electronic address:

The BCL2-associated agonist of cell death protein is a key participant in apoptosis dependent on mitochondria and in disease progression that involves the regulation of cell death, such as tumorigenesis, diabetes, sepsis shock, and epilepsy. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the immune responses to teleost BAD bacterial infection and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis remains unclear. In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved, in this study, a Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp) BAD gene named GcBAD1 was firstly cloned and characterized. Read More

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Epitope-specific antibody responses differentiate COVID-19 outcome and variants of concern.

JCI Insight 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Biochemistry, Western University, London, Canada.

Background: The role of humoral immunity in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not fully understood owing, in large part, to the complexity of antibodies produced in response to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is a pressing need for serology tests to assess patient-specific antibody response and predict clinical outcome.

Methods: Using SARS-CoV-2 proteome and peptide microarrays, we screened 146 COVID-19 patients plasma samples to identify antigens and epitopes. Read More

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A Comparison of Parapoxviruses in North American Pinnipeds.

Front Vet Sci 2021 17;8:653094. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Parapoxviruses cause nodular lesions on the skin and mucosal membranes of pinnipeds and infections by these viruses have been documented worldwide. Seal parapoxvirus is currently classified as a tentative species of the genus. Tissue or swab samples were analyzed from 11 pinnipeds of different host species undergoing rehabilitation on the east and west coasts of the United States of America (USA) that were positive for parapoxvirus. Read More

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FKBP39 controls nutrient dependent Nprl3 expression and TORC1 activity in Drosophila.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jun 2;12(6):571. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety, the Ministry of Education of China, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, China.

Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) is a master regulator that coordinates nutrient status with cell metabolism. The GTPase-activating protein towards Rags complex 1 (GATOR1) inhibits TORC1 activity and protects cells from damage during periods of stress. Here we characterize multiple pathways that regulate the expression of the GATOR1 component Nprl3 in Drosophila. Read More

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Immune role of the complement component 6 gene and its associated novel miRNA, miR-727, in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 May 30;123:104156. Epub 2021 May 30.

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266237, China. Electronic address:

The complement component 6 (C6) gene is a component of the membrane attack complex (MAC), which causes rapid lytic destruction of bacteria. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene stability, including that of immune genes. However, current research on the function of C6 and its regulation by miRNAs is lacking. Read More

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Angiopoietin-like protein 8, molecular cloning and regulating lipid accumulation in goat intramuscular preadipocytes.

Anim Biotechnol 2021 Jun 2:1-8. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Animal Genetic Resource Reservation and Utilization Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Southwest Minzu University, Chengdu, China.

This study aimed to clone the full-length open reading frame (ORF) of goat gene sequence, reveal its molecular and expression characteristics, and explore its effect on the differentiation of goat intramuscular preadipocytes. The full-length ORF sequence of goat gene was cloned by RT-PCR technology, and bioinformatics analysis was performed by related biological software. RT-qPCR was used to detect the expression of mRNA in goat tissues. Read More

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Translation inhibitory elements from and mRNAs use uORFs for translation inhibition.

Elife 2021 Jun 2;10. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, "Architecture et Réactivité de l'ARN" CNRS UPR9002, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

During embryogenesis, Hox mRNA translation is tightly regulated by a sophisticated molecular mechanism that combines two RNA regulons located in their 5'UTR. First, an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) enables cap-independent translation. The second regulon is a translation inhibitory element or TIE, which ensures concomitant cap-dependent translation inhibition. Read More

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Molecular epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from COVID-19 family clusters.

BMC Med Genomics 2021 06 1;14(1):144. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada/Dr, Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Background: Transmission within families and multiple spike protein mutations have been associated with the rapid transmission of SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to: (1) describe full genome characterization of SARS-CoV-2 and correlate the sequences with epidemiological data within family clusters, and (2) conduct phylogenetic analysis of all samples from Yogyakarta and Central Java, Indonesia and other countries.

Methods: The study involved 17 patients with COVID-19, including two family clusters. Read More

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Origin, Evolution and Stability of Overlapping Genes in Viruses: A Systematic Review.

Angelo Pavesi

Genes (Basel) 2021 May 26;12(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Chemistry, Life Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 23/A, I-43124 Parma, Italy.

During their long evolutionary history viruses generated many proteins by a mechanism called "overprinting". Overprinting is a process in which critical nucleotide substitutions in a pre-existing gene can induce the expression of a novel protein by translation of an alternative open reading frame (ORF). Overlapping genes represent an intriguing example of adaptive conflict, because they simultaneously encode two proteins whose freedom to change is constrained by each other. Read More

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Evaluation of Gilthead Seabream () Immune Response after LCDV-Sa DNA Vaccination.

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 29;11(6). Epub 2021 May 29.

Departamento de Microbiología, Instituto de Biotecnología y Desarrollo Azul (IBYDA), Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain.

Lymphocystis disease is the main viral pathology reported in gilthead seabream. Its etiological agent is (LCDV-Sa), genus , family There are no effective treatments or vaccines for LCDV control, thus the main aim of this study was to develop a DNA vaccine, and to evaluate both the protection conferred against LCDV-Sa infection and the immune response in vaccinated fish. The vaccine was constructed by cloning the gene (ORF LCDVSa062R) into pcDNA3. Read More

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Molecular Characterization of Chitin Synthase Gene in (Boisduval) and Its Response to Sublethal Concentrations of an Insecticide.

Insects 2021 May 28;12(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Life Sciences, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China.

The carmine spider mite, (Boisduval), is one of the most important acarine pest species. At present, its control remains primarily dependent on using various chemical insecticides/acaricides in agricultural crops worldwide. To clarify the mechanism whereby responds to insecticide exposure, we identified the chitin synthase 1 gene () and then explored the gene expression levels of at different developmental stages of . Read More

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An Intramuscular DNA Vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 Decreases Viral Lung Load but Not Lung Pathology in Syrian Hamsters.

Microorganisms 2021 May 12;9(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA.

The 2019 novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, first reported in December 2019, has infected over 102 million people around the world as of February 2021 and thus calls for rapid development of safe and effective interventions, namely vaccines. In our study, we evaluated a DNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in the Syrian hamster model. Hamsters were vaccinated with a DNA-plasmid encoding the SARS-CoV-2 full length spike open reading frame (ORF) to induce host cells to produce spike protein and protective immune responses before exposure to infectious virus. Read More

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Ectopic Overexpression of Histone H3K4 Methyltransferase CsSDG36 from Tea Plant Decreases Hyperosmotic Stress Tolerance in .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 11;22(10). Epub 2021 May 11.

Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology, Ministry of Education, College of Horticulture and Forestry Sciences, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Histone methylation plays an important regulatory role in the drought response of many plants, but its regulatory mechanism in the drought response of the tea plant remains poorly understood. Here, drought stress was shown to induce lower relative water content and significantly downregulate the methylations of histone H3K4 in the tea plant. Based on our previous analysis of the SET Domain Group () gene family, the full-length coding sequence (CDS) of was cloned from the tea cultivar ''. Read More

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Molecular Insights into the Genetic Variability of ORF Virus in a Mediterranean Region (Sardinia, Italy).

Life (Basel) 2021 May 4;11(5). Epub 2021 May 4.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna, 07100 Sassari, Italy.

Orf virus (ORFV) represents the causative agent of contagious ecthyma, clinically characterized by mild papular and pustular to severe proliferative lesions, mainly occurring in sheep and goats. In order to provide hints on the evolutionary history of this virus, we carried out a study aimed to assess the genetic variation of ORFV in Sardinia that hosts a large affected small ruminant population. We also found a high worldwide mutational viral evolutionary rate, which resulted, in turn, higher than the rate we detected for the strains isolated in Sardinia. Read More

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High Fat Activates O-GlcNAcylation and Affects AMPK/ACC Pathway to Regulate Lipid Metabolism.

Nutrients 2021 May 21;13(6). Epub 2021 May 21.

The Key Laboratory of Aquaculture Nutrition and Feed (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs), The Key Laboratory of Mariculture (Ministry of Education), Ocean University of China, 5 Yushan Road, Qingdao 266003, China.

A high-fat diet often leads to excessive fat deposition and adversely affects the organism. However, the mechanism of liver fat deposition induced by high fat is still unclear. Therefore, this study aimed at acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) to explore the mechanism of excessive liver deposition induced by high fat. Read More

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Molecular characterization of a novel partitivirus and a fusarivirus coinfecting the fungus Nigrospora sphaerica.

Arch Virol 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Plant Protection, Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China.

In this report, we describe the molecular characterization of two novel mycoviruses coinfecting the plant pathogenic fungus Nigrospora sphaerica, which were designated "Nigrospora sphaerica fusarivirus 1" (NsFV1) and "Nigrospora sphaerica partitivirus 1" (NsPV1). NsFV1 has an undivided genome measuring 6,147 nt, excluding the polyA tail, and was predicted to contain two nonoverlapping open reading frames (ORF1 and 2). The larger ORF1 encodes a polyprotein containing a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a helicase domain that has functions related to RNA replication, and the smaller ORF2 encodes a putative protein with an unknown function. Read More

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Detection and Quantification of the E6 Oncogene in Bovine Papillomavirus Types 2 and 13 From Urinary Bladder Lesions of Cattle.

Front Vet Sci 2021 14;8:673189. Epub 2021 May 14.

Laboratory of Animal Virology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Brazil.

Bovine papillomavirus types 2 and 13 can induce tumors in both the cutaneous and mucosal epithelia of cattle. These viral types are associated with the development of benign cutaneous papillomas and malignant lesions in the urinary bladders of cattle, with the latter being known as bovine enzootic hematuria. Among the viral oncoproteins encoded by DNA, the E6 oncoprotein has an important role in cell proliferation and might be related to cancer initiation and promotion. Read More

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Overexpression of a single ORF can extend chronological lifespan in yeast if retrograde signaling and stress response are stimulated.

Biogerontology 2021 May 30. Epub 2021 May 30.

Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387, Cracow, Poland.

Systematic collections of single-gene deletions have been invaluable in uncovering determinants of lifespan in yeast. Overexpression of a single gene does not have such a clear outcome as cancellation of its function but it can lead to a variety of imbalances, deregulations and compensations, and some of them could be important for longevity. We report an experiment in which a genome-wide collection of strains overexpressing a single gene was assayed for chronological lifespan (CLS). Read More

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Characterization of toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 May 27;115:27-34. Epub 2021 May 27.

School of Marine Science and Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, 266109, China. Electronic address:

TLRs are the first and best-characterized pattern recognition receptors conserved across all the species. Different from mammals, the TLRs in teleost fishes are very diversified due to various evolutionary mechanisms. Here, we characterized one TLR1 gene in turbot, with a 2,415 bp open reading frame (ORF), that encoding 804 amino acid residues, and have the highest similarity and identity both to Paralichthys olivaceus with 88. Read More

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A tripartite motif protein (CgTRIM1) involved in CgIFNLP mediated antiviral immunity in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 May 28;123:104146. Epub 2021 May 28.

Liaoning Key Laboratory of Marine Animal Immunology, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, 116023, China; Functional Laboratory of Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266235, China; Liaoning Key Laboratory of Marine Animal Immunology and Disease Control, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, 116023, China; Dalian Key Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Disease Prevention and Control, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, 116023, China.

Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins are a large family of E3 ubiquitin ligases involved in many biological processes, such as inflammation and antiviral immunity. In the present study, a novel TRIM protein homolog named CgTRIM1 was identified from Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The open reading frame (ORF) of CgTRIM1 was of 1914 bp encoding a putative polypeptide of 637 amino acid residues. Read More

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A novel ferritin subunit gene from Asian green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 May 27;115:1-6. Epub 2021 May 27.

Marine Biotechnology Division, ICAR-Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Post Box No. 1603, Ernakulam North P.O., Kochi, 682 018, India.

Iron sequestration through ferritin forms a major part of innate immune response in molluscs and detailed understanding of ferritin gene and its functions can be directly applied in infection and disease management studies. Accordingly, identification and detailed molecular characterization of a ferritin subunit gene from a commercially significant marine mussel Perna viridis was targeted. Molecular screening using degenerate primers in total mantle RNA resulted in the amplification of a novel ferritin gene fragment having <87% identity to the reported ferritin gene sequences. Read More

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Cloning, characterisation and expression of the gene, and association of promoter polymorphisms with egg quality traits in layer chicken.

Br Poult Sci 2021 Jun 11:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Molecular Genetics Lab, ICAR-Directorate of Poultry Research, Rajendranagar, India.

1. Ovalbumin (SERPINB14) is the most abundant protein present in egg white contributing about 54% of the total egg protein. In this study, the objectives were to clone and characterise the coding sequence of the gene, to explore its expression profile, identify polymorphisms in the promoter of the gene and explore any association with egg quality traits in White Leghorn chickens. Read More

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An umbra-related virus found in babaco (Vasconcellea × heilbornii).

Arch Virol 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas del Ecuador, Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, ESPOL, Guayaquil, Ecuador.

The complete sequence of a new viral RNA from babaco (Vasconcellea × heilbornii) was determined. The genome consisted of 4,584 nucleotides, containing two open reading frames (ORFs 1 and 2), a 9-nt-long noncoding region (NCR) at the 5' terminus, and an unusually long (1,843 nt) NCR at the 3' terminus. The presence of a potential heptameric slippery signal located 12 nt upstream the stop codon of ORF 1 suggests a -1 ribosomal frameshift mechanism for the translation of ORF 2. Read More

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