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    Bioinformatic Analysis Reveals Archaeal tRNA(Tyr) and tRNA(Trp) Identities in Bacteria.
    Life (Basel) 2017 Feb 21;7(1). Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.
    The tRNA identity elements for some amino acids are distinct between the bacterial and archaeal domains. Searching in recent genomic and metagenomic sequence data, we found some candidate phyla radiation (CPR) bacteria with archaeal tRNA identity for Tyr-tRNA and Trp-tRNA synthesis. These bacteria possess genes for tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) predicted to be derived from DPANN superphylum archaea, while the cognate tRNA(Tyr) and tRNA(Trp) genes reveal bacterial or archaeal origins. Read More

    Hepatitis E Virus Detection and Quantification by an RT-qPCR Assay calibrated to the World Health Organization Standard for HEV RNA.
    J Clin Microbiol 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Dept. of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, U.S.A.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged as a cause of chronic hepatitis among immunocompromised patients. Molecular assays have become important tools for the diagnosis and management of these chronically-infected patients. A reverse transcription, real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) assay utilizing Pleiades probe chemistry and an RNA internal control for simultaneous detection and quantification of HEV RNA in human serum was developed based on adaptation of a previously described and broadly reactive primer set targeting the overlapping open reading frame (ORF) 2/3 nucleotide sequence of HEV. Read More

    H2A and Ca-L-hipposin gene: Characteristic analysis and expression responses to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Carassius aurutus.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Feb 18. Epub 2017 Feb 18.
    College of Fisheries, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, China.
    Antimicrobial peptide is an important component of the host innate immune system and thus serves a crucial function in host defense against microbial invasion. In this study, H2A and derived antimicrobial peptide Ca-L-hipposin were cloned and characterized in Carassius aurutus. The gene H2A full-length cDNA is 908 bp and includes a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 55 bp and a 3'-terminal UTR of 466 bp with a canonical polyadenylation signal sequence AATAA, as well as an open reading frame (ORF) of 387 bp encoding a polypeptide of 128 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 13. Read More

    A ThDREB gene from Tamarix hispida improved the salt and drought tolerance of transgenic tobacco and T. hispida.
    Plant Physiol Biochem 2017 Feb 10;113:187-197. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Northeast Forestry University, 26 Hexing Road, 150040 Harbin, China. Electronic address:
    Dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB) transcription factors are important abiotic stress tolerance related genes, and some reports on the roles of DREB have primarily addressed herbal plants. To explore the abiotic stress tolerance role of DREB (ThDREB) from Tamarix hispida, a ThDREB gene with a complete ORF of 783 bp that encodes a 28.74 kDa protein with 260 amino acids, was isolated and functionally annotated. Read More

    Reevaluating species number, distribution and endemism of the coral genus Pocillopora Lamarck, 1816 using species delimitation methods and microsatellites.
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 2017 Feb 17. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    UMR ENTROPIE (Université de La Réunion, IRD, CNRS), Laboratoire d'excellence-CORAIL; Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, 15 Bd René Cassin, CS 92003, 97744 St Denis Cedex 09, La Réunion, France. Electronic address:
    Species delimitation methods based on genetic information, notably using single locus data, have been proposed as means of increasing the rate of biodiversity description, but can also be used to clarify complex taxonomies. In this study, we explore the species diversity within the cnidarian genus Pocillopora, widely distributed in the tropical belt of the Indo-Pacific Ocean. From 943 Pocillopora colonies sampled in the Western Indian Ocean, the Tropical Southwestern Pacific and Southeast Polynesia, representing a huge variety of morphotypes, we delineated Primary Species Hypotheses (PSH) applying the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery method, the Poisson tree processes algorithm and the Generalized mixed Yule-coalescent model on two mitochondrial markers (Open Reading Frame and Dloop) and reconstructing a haploweb using one nuclear marker (Internal Transcribed Spacer 2). Read More

    A novel HRM assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses of medical and veterinary importance.
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 20;7:42892. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, Austria.
    Poxviruses belonging to the Orthopoxvirus, Capripoxvirus and Parapoxvirus genera share common host species and create a challenge for diagnosis. Here, we developed a novel multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses, belonging to three genera: cowpox virus (CPXV) and camelpox virus (CMLV) [genus Orthopoxvirus]; goatpox virus (GTPV), sheeppox virus (SPPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) [genus Capripoxvirus]; orf virus (ORFV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) [genus Parapoxvirus]. The assay is based on high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRMCA) of PCR amplicons produced using genus specific primer pairs and dsDNA binding dye. Read More

    cDNA cloning and expression analysis of a phosphopyruvate hydratase gene from the chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Feb 13;63:173-180. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Marine Fisheries Resources, Ministry of Agriculture, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, 106 Nanjing Road, Qingdao 266071, PR China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, 1 Wenhai Road, Qingdao 266300, PR China. Electronic address:
    In the present study a cDNA encoding a phosphopyruvate hydratase (enolase) was cloned from the muscle of the Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) and named as FcEnolase. The cDNA of FcEnolase encoded a protein of 434 amino acid residues with a molecular mass 47.22 kDa. Read More

    A NLRC3-like gene from blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala): Molecular characterization, expression and association with resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    College of Fisheries, Key Lab of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture, Key Lab of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, PR China; Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovation Center of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070, PR China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Efficient and Health Production of Fisheries in Hunan Province, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changde 415000, PR China. Electronic address:
    NLRC (the nucleotide-oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor subfamily C) consists of teleost-specific NLRs (NOD-like receptors) and plays pivotal roles in microbial recognition and regulation of innate immune response. In this study, we cloned and characterized a NLRC3-like gene (MamNLRC3-like) from blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) by using the quantitative real-time PCR method, and analyzed the correlation between its polymorphisms and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. The full length cDNA of MamNLRC3-like was 2863 bp, with a 5'-UTR of 169 bp, ORF of 2301 bp and 3'-UTR of 393 bp, encoding 766 amino acid residues. Read More

    HcToll3 was involved in anti-Vibrio defense in freshwater pearl mussel, Hyriopsis cumingii.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Feb 16;63:189-195. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    College of Life Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007, China. Electronic address:
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the activation of innate immune response but their functions in bivalves remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified a TLR from the freshwater pearl mussel Hyriopsis cumingii (HcToll3) and investigated its functions in immunity. The full-length cDNA of HcToll3 is 3852 bp and includes an open reading frame (ORF) of 3228 bp that encodes a polypeptide of 1075 amino acids. Read More

    Autochthonous sporadic acute hepatitis E caused by two distinct subgenotype 3b hepatitis E virus strains with only 90% nucleotide identity.
    Clin J Gastroenterol 2017 Feb 15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Division of Virology, Department of Infection and Immunity, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke-Shi, Tochigi, 329-0498, Japan.
    Hepatitis E, which is caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV), is a public health concern in Japan, where the zoonotic food-borne transmission of HEV from domestic pigs and wild boars plays an important role. A 44-year-old Japanese man with autochthonous sporadic acute hepatitis E was admitted with general fatigue and moderate liver dysfunction. In the present study, two distinct HEV strains were recovered from the patient, who had consumed the raw or undercooked pig liver and intestine two or three times per week for 3 months before the disease onset. Read More

    Genotype analysis of ORF 62 identifies varicella-zoster virus infections caused by a vaccine strain in children.
    Arch Virol 2017 Feb 15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Korea.
    This study was performed to differentiate vaccine-type strains from wild-type strains and determine the genotype of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in 51 Korean children. A sequencing analysis of ORF 62 identified two cases of herpes zoster caused by the vaccine-type virus, without a previous history of varicella, 22 months and 5 months after VZV vaccination. The wild-type strain was identified in the remaining children. Read More

    Subcellular localization and interactions of Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus (ISAV) M1 and NEP as well as host Hsc70.
    Virol J 2017 Feb 15;14(1):30. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is an important fish pathogen that causes high mortality in farmed Atlantic salmon. The ISAV genome consists of eight single-stranded, negative-sense RNA segments. The six largest segments contain one open reading frame (ORF) each, and encode three polymerase proteins, nucleoprotein, fusion protein, and hemagglutinin esterase protein. Read More

    Differential paralog divergence modulates genome evolution across yeast species.
    PLoS Genet 2017 Feb 14;13(2):e1006585. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.
    Evolutionary outcomes depend not only on the selective forces acting upon a species, but also on the genetic background. However, large timescales and uncertain historical selection pressures can make it difficult to discern such important background differences between species. Experimental evolution is one tool to compare evolutionary potential of known genotypes in a controlled environment. Read More

    Translation of poly(A) tails leads to precise mRNA cleavage.
    RNA 2017 Feb 13. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
    Translation of poly(A) tails leads to mRNA cleavage but the mechanism and global pervasiveness of this "nonstop/no-go" decay process is not understood. Here we performed ribosome profiling (in a yeast strain lacking exosome function) of short 15-18 nt mRNA footprints to identify ribosomes stalled at 3' ends of mRNA decay intermediates. In this background, we found mRNA cleavage extending hundreds of nucleotides upstream of ribosome stalling in poly(A) and predominantly in one reading frame. Read More

    Molecular characterization of a fish-specific toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) gene from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Evolutionary relationship and induced expression upon immune stimulants.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Feb 11;63:74-86. Epub 2017 Feb 11.
    Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Resistance Biology, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, No. 88 East Wenhua Road, Jinan 250014, PR China. Electronic address:
    In the host innate immune system, various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize conserved pathogens-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and represent an efficient first line of defense against invading pathogens. TLR22 is one of the fish-specific Toll-like receptors (TLRs), identified in a variety of fish species. In this study, we report the cloning and identification of a TLR22 cDNA from the gills of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. Read More

    Molecular cloning, purification and characterization of Brugia malayi phosphoglycerate kinase.
    Protein Expr Purif 2017 Feb 9. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India. Electronic address:
    Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) is a glycolytic enzyme present in many parasites. It has been reported as a candidate molecule for drug and vaccine developments. In the present study, a full-length cDNA encoding the Brugia malayi 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (BmPGK) with an open reading frame of 1. Read More

    Molecular characterisation of tumour necrosis factor alpha and its potential connection with lipoprotein lipase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).
    J Appl Genet 2017 Feb 13. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Key Laboratory of Aquatic Nutrition and Feed Science of Jiangsu Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, No. 1 Weigang Road, Nanjing, 210095, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.
    Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is one kind of cytokines which is related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. TNF-α cDNA was cloned from the liver of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) through real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. The full-length cDNA of TNF-α covered 1467 bp, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 723 bp, which encodes 240 amino acids. Read More

    Molecular Epidemiology of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpes Virus, and Risk Factors in HIV-infected Patients in Tehran, 2014.
    Iran Red Crescent Med J 2016 Nov 19;18(11):e32603. Epub 2016 Jun 19.
    Department of Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, IR Iran.
    Background: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) remains the most common malignancy among HIV-infected patients. Human herpesvirus type-8 (HHV-8) is regarded as the infectious etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KSHV). Diagnostic procedures associated with KSHV are not routinely performed in HIV-infected subjects. Read More

    Development of Dual TaqMan Based One-Step rRT-PCR Assay Panel for Rapid and Accurate Diagnostic Test of MERS-CoV: A Novel Human Coronavirus, Ahead of Hajj Pilgrimage.
    Iran Red Crescent Med J 2016 Nov 21;18(11):e23874. Epub 2016 Jun 21.
    Applied Virology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
    Background: Coronaviruses (CoVs) are large ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses causing primarily respiratory disease in humans. A novel human coronavirus, subsequently named middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), was first reported in Saudi Arabia in September of 2012. With increasing numbers of infections and deaths from MERS-CoV, development of a rapid and reliable kit was crucial to prevent further spread of MERS-CoV. Read More

    Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of feline calicivirus isolates in China.
    Vet J 2017 Feb 21;220:24-27. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:
    The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of Chinese feline calicivirus (FCV) isolates and their phylogenetic relationship with isolates from elsewhere in the world. Phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the partial open reading frame (ORF) 2 sequences (regions B-F) of 21 Chinese FCV isolates and 30 global isolates. The Chinese isolates included 13 isolates from Wuhan, which were isolated in this study, and eight previously published isolates. Read More

    The genetic diversity of bovine papillomaviruses (BPV) from different papillomatosis cases in dairy cows in Turkey.
    Arch Virol 2017 Feb 11. Epub 2017 Feb 11.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are epitheliotropic viruses that cause benign proliferative lesions in the skin (warts or papillomas) and mucous membranes of their natural hosts. In bovines specifically, 13 types of Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are currently described in the literature, although the actual number may be greater than 20. BPV types are classified into four genera based on homology within the genomic regions of the L1 ORF, the most conserved sequence. Read More

    Strawberry vein banding virus isolates in eastern Canada are molecularly divergent from other isolates.
    Arch Virol 2017 Feb 11. Epub 2017 Feb 11.
    Fredericton Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, P.O. Box 20280, 850 Lincoln Road, Fredericton, NB, E3B 4Z7, Canada.
    The complete sequence of a strawberry vein banding virus (SVBV) isolate collected in Nova Scotia, Canada, and designated NS8, was determined. The 7,856-nucleotide circular double-stranded DNA genome contains seven open-reading frames (ORFs), which is consistent with other SVBV isolates and other members of the genus Caulimovirus. Comparison of NS8 with other whole-genome sequences retrieved from databases revealed that NS8 shares the highest sequence similarity (96. Read More

    Identification and characterization of Orf virus 050 protein proteolysis.
    Virus Genes 2017 Feb 11. Epub 2017 Feb 11.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510120, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.
    The Orf virus 050 (ORFV050) gene is located in the core region of the ORFV genome. It is similar to Vaccinia virus (VV) Copenhagen L4R, and encodes the DNA-binding virion core protein VP8, which has structures similar to the VV P25K core protein and may undergo similar proteolytic processing during virus assembly. Three conserved Ala-Gly-X motifs at putative cleavage sites were identified in ORFV050. Read More

    Targeted in Situ Mutagenesis of Histone Genes in Budding Yeast.
    J Vis Exp 2017 Jan 26(119). Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    Biology Department, Hendrix College.
    We describe a PCR- and homologous recombination-based system for generating targeted mutations in histone genes in budding yeast cells. The resulting mutant alleles reside at their endogenous genomic sites and no exogenous DNA sequences are left in the genome following the procedure. Since in haploid yeast cells each of the four core histone proteins is encoded by two non-allelic genes with highly homologous open reading frames (ORFs), targeting mutagenesis specifically to one of two genes encoding a particular histone protein can be problematic. Read More

    Molecular identification and functional characterization of a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene in Crassostrea hongkongensis.
    Immunobiology 2017 Feb 6. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China; South China Sea Bio-Resource Exploitation and Utilization Collaborative Innovation Center, Guangzhou 510275, China. Electronic address:
    Tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) represents a group of multifunctional inflammatory cytokines that have been shown to participate in a variety of pathological and immunological process. However, the functions of these proteins in oyster are still poorly understood. In the present study, an oyster TNF homolog (named ChTNF) was identified from a cDNA library of Crassostrea hongkongensis. Read More

    Quantitative Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Soil samples Using Multiple Gene Targets in Real Time PCR.
    Appl Environ Microbiol 2017 Feb 10. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Friedrich Loeffler Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
    Burkholderia pseudomallei is present in the environment in many parts of the world and causes the often-fatal disease melioidosis. The sensitive detection and quantification of B. pseudomallei in the environment is a prerequisite to assess the risk of infection. Read More

    Identification of Bacterial Surface Antigens by Screening Peptide Phage Libraries Using Whole Bacteria Cell-Purified Antisera.
    Front Microbiol 2017 26;8:82. Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University Changsha, China.
    Bacterial surface proteins can be good vaccine candidates. In the present study, we used polyclonal antibodies purified with intact Erysipelothrix rhusiopthiae to screen phage-displayed random dodecapeptide and loop-constrained heptapeptide libraries, which led to the identification of mimotopes. Homology search of the mimotope sequences against E. Read More

    Corrigendum: Orf Virus 002 Protein Targets Ovine Protein S100A4 and Inhibits NF-κB Signaling.
    Front Microbiol 2017 7;8:160. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical UniversityGuangzhou, China; State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical UniversityGuangzhou, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, School of Public Health, Southern Medical UniversityGuangzhou, China.
    [This corrects the article on p. 1389 in vol. 7, PMID: 27679610. Read More

    A Sequence-Independent, Unstructured IRES is Responsible for Internal Expression of the Coat Protein of Turnip Crinkle Virus.
    J Virol 2017 Feb 8. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland - College Park, College Park, Maryland, USA
    To maximize the coding potential of viral genomes, internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) can be used to bypass the traditional requirement of a 5' cap and some/all of the associated translation initiation factors. Although viral IRES typically contain higher order RNA structure, an unstructured sequence of about 84-nt immediately upstream of the Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) coat protein (CP) ORF has been found to promote internal expression of the CP from the genomic (g)RNA both in vitro and in vivo Absence of extensive RNA structure was predicted using RNA folding algorithms and confirmed by SHAPE structure probing. Analysis of the IRES region in vitro using both the TCV gRNA and reporter constructs did not reveal any sequence-specific elements but rather suggested that overall lack of structure was an important feature for IRES activity. Read More

    Expression and regulation of C/EBPα in normal myelopoiesis and in malignant transformation.
    Blood 2017 Feb 8. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Department of Hematology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    One of the most studied transcription factors in hematopoiesis is the leucine zipper CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), which is mainly involved in cell fate decisions for myeloid differentiation. Its involvement in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is diverse, with patients frequently exhibiting mutations, deregulation of gene expression or alterations in the function of C/EBPα. In this review, we emphasize the importance of C/EBPα for neutrophil maturation, its role in myeloid priming of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and its indispensable requirement for AML development. Read More

    Enhancement of cold and salt tolerance of Arabidopsis by transgenic expression of the S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene from Leymus chinensis.
    J Plant Physiol 2017 Jan 19;211:90-99. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100093, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:
    Leymus chinensis is an important perennial forage grass natively distributed in the Eurasian Steppe. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of its adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. Based on L. Read More

    Complete genome sequence of Menghai flavivirus, a novel insect-specific flavivirus from China.
    Arch Virol 2017 Feb 7. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, 100071, China.
    Menghai flavivirus (MFV) was isolated from Aedes albopictus in Menghai county of Yunnan Province, China, during an arboviruses screening program in August 2010. Whole genome sequencing of MFV was performed using an Ion PGM™ Sequencer. The complete genome of MFV was 10897 nucleotides in length and encoded a polyprotein and fairly interesting flavivirus orf (FIFO). Read More

    Deletion of the Chemokine Binding Protein Gene from the Parapoxvirus Orf Virus Reduces Virulence and Pathogenesis in Sheep.
    Front Microbiol 2017 24;8:46. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Orf virus (ORFV) is the type species of the Parapoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae and infects sheep and goats, often around the mouth, resulting in acute pustular skin lesions. ORFV encodes several secreted immunomodulators including a broad-spectrum chemokine binding protein (CBP). Chemokines are a large family of secreted chemotactic proteins that activate and regulate inflammation induced leukocyte recruitment to sites of infection. Read More

    Development of real-time and lateral flow strip reverse transcription recombinase polymerase Amplification assays for rapid detection of peste des petits ruminants virus.
    Virol J 2017 Feb 7;14(1):24. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Xujiaping 1, Lanzhou, 730046, Gansu, China.
    Background: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an economically important, Office International des Epizooties (OIE) notifiable, transboundary viral disease of small ruminants such as sheep and goat. PPR virus (PPRV), a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus, is the causal agent of PPR. Therefore, sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic assay for the detection of PPRV are necessary to accurately and promptly diagnose suspected case of PPR. Read More

    The bamboo aquaporin gene PeTIP4;1-1 confers drought and salinity tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell Rep 2017 Feb 6. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    State Forestry Administration Key Open Laboratory on the Science and Technology of Bamboo and Rattan, Institute of Gene Science for Bamboo and Rattan Resources, International Center for Bamboo and Rattan, Beijing, 100102, China.
    Key Message: PeTIP4;1-1, an aquaporin gene involved in bamboo shoot growth, is regulated by abiotic stresses. Overexpression of PeTIP4;1-1 confers drought and salinity tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Aquaporins play a central role in numerous physiological processes throughout plant growth and development. Read More

    Localization of Barley yellow dwarf virus Movement Protein Modulating Programmed Cell Death in Nicotiana benthamiana.
    Plant Pathol J 2017 Feb 1;33(1):53-65. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Department of Agricultural Biology, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea; Plant Medicinal Research Center, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea; Institute of Agricultural Science & Technology, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea.
    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) belongs to Luteovirus and is limited only at phloem related tissues. An open reading frame (ORF) 4 of BYDV codes for the movement protein (MP) of BYDV gating plasmodesmata (PD) to facilitate virus movement. Like other Luteoviruses, ORF 4 of BYDV is embedded in the ORF3 but expressed from the different reading frame in leaky scanning manner. Read More

    Characterization of a novel member of genus Iflavirus in Helicoverpa armigera.
    J Invertebr Pathol 2017 Feb 3;144:65-73. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, PR China. Electronic address:
    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is one of the most important agricultural pests of many economic crops worldwide. Herein, we found a novel single-strand RNA virus by RNA-Seq and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method in H. armigera named Helicoverpa armigera iflavirus (HaIV), which possessed a genome with 10,017 nucleotides in length and contained a single large open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative polyprotein of 3021 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 344. Read More

    Chloride channel ClC- 2 enhances intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier function via regulation of caveolin-1 and caveolar trafficking of occludin.
    Exp Cell Res 2017 Feb 2. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.
    Previous studies have demonstrated that the chloride channel ClC-2 plays a critical role in intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ) barrier function via intracellular trafficking of TJ protein occludin. To study the mechanism of ClC-2-mediated TJ barrier function and intracellular trafficking of occludin, we established ClC-2 over-expressing Caco-2 cell line (Caco-2(CLCN2)) by full length ClC-2 ORF transfection. ClC-2 over-expression (Caco-2(CLCN2)) significantly enhanced TJ barrier (increased TER by ≥2 times and reduced inulin flux by 50%) compared to control Caco-2(pEZ) cells. Read More

    A molluscan extracellular signal-regulated kinase is involved in host response to immune challenges in vivo and in vitro.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Mar 31;62:311-319. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China; South China Sea Bio-Resource Exploitation and Utilization Collaborative Innovation Center, Guangzhou 510275, China. Electronic address:
    Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) are a group of highly conserved serine/threonine-specific protein kinases that function as important signaling intermediates in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, which are involved in a wide variety of cellular activities, including proliferation, inflammation and cytokine production. However, little is known about the roles of this kinase in mollusk immunity. In this study, we identified a molluscan ERK homolog (ChERK) in the Hong Kong oyster (Crassostrea hongkongensis) and investigated its biological functions. Read More

    Identification of cvSI-3 and evidence for the wide distribution and active evolution of the I84 family of protease inhibitors in mollusks.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Mar 31;62:332-340. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    School of Animal Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.
    Protease inhibitors are an extremely diverse group of proteins that control the proteolytic activities of proteases and play a crucial role in biological processes including host defenses. The I84 family of protease inhibitors in the MEROPS database currently consists of cvSI-1 and cvSI-2, two novel serine protease inhibitors purified and characterized from the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica plasma and believed to play a role in host defense and disease resistance. In the present study, a third member of I84 family, named cvSI-3, was identified from C. Read More

    Full-length genome sequence of the tospovirus melon severe mosaic virus.
    Arch Virol 2017 Feb 2. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante, CNR, Strada delle Cacce 73, 10135, Turin, Italy.
    The complete genome sequence of melon severe mosaic virus (MSMV), genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae, was determined. The small segment is 3283 nucleotide (nt) long and contains two open reading frames in an ambisense organization. The medium segment is 4873 nt long and also encodes two proteins in an ambisense organization. Read More

    Evaluation of the new commercial recombinant chimeric subunit vaccine PRRSFREE in challenge with heterologous types 1 and 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.
    Can J Vet Res 2017 Jan;81(1):12-21
    Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, 151-742, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new recombinant chimeric vaccine against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The subunit vaccine, PRRSFREE, from Reber Genetics, Taiwan, Republic of China, is based on a plasmid containing a detoxified Pseudomonas exotoxin carrying open reading frame (ORF) 7, 1b, and 5 and 6 chimeric subunits of types 1 and 2 PRRSV. Pigs were injected intramuscularly with 2. Read More

    Genome sequence of spinach cryptic virus 1, a new member of the genus Alphapartitivirus (family Partitiviridae), was identified in spinach.
    J Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Feb 1. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Department of Life Science, Research Center for Biomolecules and Biosystems, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, South Korea.
    A distinct double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) cryptic virus, named spinach cryptic virus 1 (SpCV1), was identified from spinach transcriptome datasets. The SpCV1 genome has two dsRNA genome segments. The larger dsRNA1 has an open reading frame (ORF) for a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Read More

    A Novel Repressor of the ica Locus Discovered in Clinically Isolated Super-Biofilm-Elaborating Staphylococcus aureus.
    MBio 2017 Jan 31;8(1). Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Department of Bacteriology, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima City, Hiroshima, Japan
    Staphylococcus aureus TF2758 is a clinical isolate from an atheroma and a super-biofilm-elaborating/polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA)/poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG)-overproducing strain (L. Shrestha et al., Microbiol Immunol 60:148-159, 2016, https://doi. Read More

    Molecular characterization of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus strains isolated from the three types of salmonids farmed in Chile.
    Virol J 2017 Jan 31;14(1):17. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Instituto de Bioquímica y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 567, Valdivia, Chile.
    Background: The infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) causes significant economic losses in Chilean salmon farming. For effective sanitary management, the IPNV strains present in Chile need to be fully studied, characterized, and constantly updated at the molecular level.

    Methods: In this study, 36 Chilean IPNV isolates collected over 6 years (2006-2011) from Salmo salar, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and Oncorhynchus kisutch were genotypically characterized. Read More

    Operon mRNAs are organized into ORF-centric structures that predict translation efficiency.
    Elife 2017 Jan 31;6. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, United States.
    Bacterial mRNAs are organized into operons consisting of discrete open reading frames (ORFs) in a single polycistronic mRNA. Individual ORFs on the mRNA are differentially translated, with rates varying as much as 100-fold. The signals controlling differential translation are poorly understood. Read More

    Complete nucleotide sequence of clematis chlorotic mottle virus, a new member of the family Tombusviridae.
    Arch Virol 2017 Jan 30. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    USDA ARS, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, MD, 20705, USA.
    Clematis chlorotic mottle virus (ClCMV) is a previously undescribed virus associated with symptoms of yellow mottling and veining, chlorotic ring spots, line pattern mosaics, and flower distortion and discoloration on ornamental Clematis. The ClCMV genome is 3,880 nt in length with five open reading frames (ORFs) encoding a 27-kDa protein (ORF 1), an 87-kDa replicase protein (ORF 2), two centrally located movement proteins (ORF 3 and 4), and a 37-kDa capsid protein (ORF 5). Based on morphological, genomic, and phylogenetic analysis, ClCMV is predicted to be a member of the genus Pelarspovirus in the family Tombusviridae. Read More

    SmProt: a database of small proteins encoded by annotated coding and non-coding RNA loci.
    Brief Bioinform 2017 Jan 29. Epub 2017 Jan 29.
    Small proteins is the general term for proteins with length shorter than 100 amino acids. Identification and functional studies of small proteins have advanced rapidly in recent years, and several studies have shown that small proteins play important roles in diverse functions including development, muscle contraction and DNA repair. Identification and characterization of previously unrecognized small proteins may contribute in important ways to cell biology and human health. Read More

    Identification of genetic variation in NOD-like receptor 2 gene and influence of polymorphism on gene structure and function in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).
    Res Vet Sci 2017 Jan 22;115:43-50. Epub 2017 Jan 22.
    ICAR-National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, GT Road By-Pass, Karnal, 132 001, Haryana, India. Electronic address:
    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor 2 is one of the important mediators of innate as well as adaptive immune response to microbial infections. In this study, NOD-like receptor-2 was characterized by determining the full gene sequence and analyzing genetic diversity in Indian buffaloes. Sequence analysis of buffalo NOD2 revealed 3042 nucleotides long ORF, encoding 1013 amino acids from 12 exons. Read More

    Clone and functional analysis of Seryl-tRNA synthetase and Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from silkworm, Bombyx mori.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jan 30;7:41563. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    School of Basic Medicine and Biological Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, P.R. China.
    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are the key enzymes for protein synthesis. Glycine, alanine, serine and tyrosine are the major amino acids composing fibroin of silkworm. Among them, the genes of alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) and glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) have been cloned. Read More

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