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    Protein composition analysis of polyhedra matrix of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) showed powerful capacity of polyhedra to encapsulate foreign proteins.
    Sci Rep 2017 Aug 18;7(1):8768. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    College of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and technology, 2# Mengxi Road, Zhenjiang, 212018, Jiangsu, P.R. China.
    Polyhedra can encapsulate other proteins and have potential applications as protein stabilizers. The extremely stable polyhedra matrix may provide a platform for future engineered micro-crystal devices. However, the protein composition of the polyhedra matrix remains largely unknown. Read More

    The whole genomic analysis of orf virus strain HN3/12 isolated from Henan province, central China.
    BMC Vet Res 2017 Aug 18;13(1):260. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Laboratory Medicine and Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, People's Republic of China.
    Background: The Orf virus (ORFV) is the causative agent of orf, a globally-occurring, acute, pustular, contagious disease affecting sheep, goats and humans with a worldwide distribution. Currently, the genomic analysis of four ORFV strains from the Fujian province in southern China and a NA1/11 strain isolated from the Jilin province in northeast China have been reported. However, little is known about the genomic information of ORFV strains from central China. Read More

    Ctenopharyngodon idella p53 mediates between NF-κB and PKR at the transcriptional level.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Aug 14. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    College of Life Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China; Poyang Lake Key Laboratory of Environment and Resource Utilization, Nanchang University, Ministry of Education, China. Electronic address:
    p53, NF-κB and PKR are well-known to be involved in antiviral response. Although p53 has been reported in fish, its role in the regulation of NF-κB and PKR is not well understood. Here, we cloned and characterized the full length of cDNA sequence of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) p53 (Cip53) and its promoter sequence. Read More

    Short versus long double-stranded RNA activation of a post-transcriptional gene knockdown pathway.
    RNA Biol 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    a Department of Life Sciences , Ben-Gurion University of the Negev , P.O.B. 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 , Israel.
    RNA interference (RNAi) utilizes a conserved cellular autoimmune defense mechanism involving the internalization of dsRNA into cells and the activation of a set of RNAi related genes. Using RNAi, complete sex reversal is achievable in males of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii by knocking down the transcript level of an insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (Mr-IAG) through injections of dsRNA of the entire Mr-IAG ORF sequence (dsMr-IAG - 518 bp). Interestingly, in-vivo knockdown success and dsMr-IAG lengths seemed to correlate, with long dsRNA being the most effective and short dsRNA fragments showing no effect. Read More

    Identification of a novel envelope protein encoded by ORF 136 from Cyprinid herpesvirus 3.
    Arch Virol 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Key Laboratory of Fishery Drug Development of Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Immune Technology of Guangdong Province, Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Liwan District, Guangzhou, 510380, People's Republic of China.
    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the pathogenic agent of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) afflicting common carp and koi (Cyprinus carpio L.) populations globally. As described previously, proteomic analyses of purified CyHV-3 particles have shown that at least 46 structural proteins are incorporated into CyHV-3 virions; among these ORF136 may encode a putative envelope protein. Read More

    Molecular characterization of a beet ringspot nepovirus isolated from Begonia ricinifolia in Hungary.
    Arch Virol 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Department for Plant Biotechnology, National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, Szent-Györgyi Albert ut 4, Gödöllő, 2100, Hungary.
    A nepovirus was isolated from Begonia ricinifolia showing chlorotic ringspot and line pattern symptoms. The purified virus had spherical particles of ca. 30 nm and contained a single coat protein subunit of ca. Read More

    Metabolic Flexibility Underpins Growth Capabilities of the Fastest Growing Alga.
    Curr Biol 2017 Aug 3. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:
    The factors rate-limiting growth of photosynthetic organisms under optimal conditions are controversial [1-8]. Adaptation to extreme environments is usually accompanied by reduced performance under optimal conditions [9, 10]. However, the green alga Chlorella ohadii, isolated from a harsh desert biological soil crust [11-17], does not obey this rule. Read More

    In vitro and in vivo studies of deglycosylated chimeric porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus as a vaccine candidate and its realistic revenue impact at commercial pig production level.
    Vaccine 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Veterinary Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes major economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. Vaccination is the most effective method to control the disease. In a previous study, a chimeric PRRSV named as K418 which had a genome composed of ORF 1 from the FL12 strain and ORF 2-7 from the Korean representative LMY strain was created. Read More

    Identification and elucidation of in vivo function of two alanine racemases from Pseudomonas putida KT2440.
    Environ Microbiol Rep 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    CSIC-Estación Experimental del Zaidín, Granada, Spain.
    The genome of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 contains two open reading frames (ORFs), PP_3722 and PP_5269, that encode proteins with a Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) binding motif and a high similarity to alanine racemases. Alanine racemases play a key role in the biosynthesis of D-alanine, a crucial amino acid in the peptidoglycan layer. For these ORFs, we generated single and double mutants and found that inactivation of PP_5269 resulted in D-alanine auxotrophy, while inactivation of PP_3722 did not. Read More

    Expression of Cholesterol Hydroxylase/Lyase System Proteins in Yeast S. cerevisiae Cells as a Self-Processing Polyprotein.
    Mol Biotechnol 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.
    2A peptide discovered in Picornaviridae is capable of self-cleavage providing an opportunity to carry out synthesis of several proteins using one transcript. Dissociation in the 2A sequence during translation leads to the individual proteins formation. We constructed cDNA including genes of the bovine cholesterol hydroxylase/lyase (CHL) system proteins-cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1), adrenodoxin (Adx) and adrenodoxin reductase (AdR), that are fused into a single ORF using FMDV 2A nucleotide sequences. Read More

    Evidence for the role of BmNPV Bm65 protein in the repair of ultraviolet-induced DNA damage.
    J Invertebr Pathol 2017 Aug 8;149:82-86. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, 301# Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang 212013, China. Electronic address:
    It is unclear how, or to what extent, baculovirus DNA that has been damaged by ultraviolet (UV) light is repaired during infection and replication. In our previous study, expression of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) ORF Bm65, a homolog of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac79, correlated with decreased inactivation of virus by UV irradiation. In the current study, we accumulated more evidence pointing to a role for Bm65 in repair of UV-induced DNA damage. Read More

    From an Easily Accessible Pentacarbonylcobalt(I) Salt to Piano Stool Cations [(arene)Co(CO)₂].
    Chemistry 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Albert-Ludwigs Universität Freiburg, Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Albertstr. 21, 79104, Freiburg, GERMANY.
    The facile synthesis of a pentacarbonyl cobalt(I) salt without the need for a super acid as solvent is presented. This readily on a multigram scale accessible [Co(CO)₅]+[Al(ORF)₄]- {RF = C(CF₃)₃} salt undergoes substitution reactions with arenes yielding the hitherto unknown class of two-legged cobalt piano stool complexes [(arene)Co(CO)₂]+ with four different arene ligands. Such a substitution chemistry would have been impossible in super acid solution, as the arenes used would have been oxidized and / or protonated. Read More

    Direct Interaction of Chivosazole F with Actin Elicits Cell Responses Similar to Latrunculin A but Distinct from Chondramide.
    ACS Chem Biol 2017 Aug 15. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research , Novartis Pharma AG, Forum 1 Novartis Campus, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.
    The microbial metabolite Chivosazole F has been described to affect the cytoskeleton and to inhibit actin polymerization in vitro. Applying orthogonal genomic and proteomics approaches, we now show for the first time that Chivosazole F exerts its effect by directly interacting with actin and demonstrate the cellular impact of Chivosazole F in an unbiased, genome-wide context in yeast and in mammalian cells. Furthermore, mutation-based resistance mapping identifies two SNPs located in the putative Chivosazole F binding site of actin. Read More

    Reverse genetics system demonstrates that rotavirus non-structural protein NSP6 is not essential for viral replication in cell culture.
    J Virol 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Virology and Parasitology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.
    The use of overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) to synthesize more than one unique protein from a single mRNA has been described for several viruses. Segment 11 of the rotavirus genome encodes two non-structural proteins, NSP5 and NSP6. The NSP6 ORF is present in the vast majority of rotavirus strains, and therefore the NSP6 protein would be expected to have a function in viral replication. Read More

    Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Type R Pseudogene Presence in Staphylococcus aureus Reference and Outbreak Strains.
    J AOAC Int 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    U.S. Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD.
    Novel staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) expressed by Staphylococcus aureus strains have been described throughout the years, among these being the SE protein SER. To further characterize this toxin, this research used 13 S. aureus strains previously determined to contain the SE type R (ser) gene. Read More

    A parapoxviral virion protein inhibits NF-κB signaling early in infection.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Aug 7;13(8):e1006561. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America.
    Poxviruses have evolved unique proteins and mechanisms to counteract the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, which is an essential regulatory pathway of host innate immune responses. Here, we describe a NF-κB inhibitory virion protein of orf virus (ORFV), ORFV073, which functions very early in infected cells. Infection with ORFV073 gene deletion virus (OV-IA82Δ073) led to increased accumulation of NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), marked phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK) subunits IKKα and IKKβ, IκBα and NF-κB subunit p65 (NF-κB-p65), and to early nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65 in virus-infected cells (≤ 30 min post infection). Read More

    An Inactivated Novel Genotype Fowl Adenovirus 4 Protects Chickens against the Hydropericardium Syndrome That Recently Emerged in China.
    Viruses 2017 Aug 8;9(8). Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001, China.
    Since 2015, China has experienced outbreaks of severe hydropericardium syndrome (HPS), associated with a novel genotype and hypervirulent fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) infection, with a prevalence in various provinces of the country. This has resulted in huge economic losses in the poultry industry. The novel FAdV-4 showed new genome characters, such as the natural deletion of open reading frame (ORF) 19 and ORF 27 (1966 bp), and high pathogenicity toward chickens. Read More

    Pyogenic Granuloma - A Common Benign Vascular Tumor with Variable Clinical Presentation: New Findings and Treatment Options.
    Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2017 Jul 13;5(4):423-426. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Medical Institute of Ministry of Interior (MVR), Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Dermatologic Surgery, Sofia, and Onkoderma-Policlinic for Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Pyogenic granuloma is a common benign vascular tumour occurring in all ages. Both skin and mucous membranes can be affected. Of pathogenetic importance are trauma, BRAF mutations and probably herpes virus type 1, Orf virus and/or human papilloma virus type 2. Read More

    Cap analog and Potato virus A HC-Pro silencing suppressor improve GFP transient expression using an infectious virus vector in Nicotiana benthamiana.
    Mol Biol Res Commun 2017 Jun;6(2):45-56
    Plant Virology Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
    Transient expression of proteins in plants has become a choice to facilitate recombinant protein production with its fast and easy application. On the other hand, host defensive mechanisms have been reported to reduce the efficiency of transient expression in plants. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of cap analog and Potato virus A helper component proteinase (PVA HC-Pro) on green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression efficiency. Read More

    Astrovirus infection in hospitalized children: Molecular, clinical and epidemiological features.
    J Clin Virol 2017 Jul 25;94:79-85. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Virology Section, Evandro Chagas Institute, Health Surveillance Secretariat, Brazilian Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Pará, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Background: Astrovirus (HAstV) is a common viral pathogen that causes gastroenteritis worldwide. It is classified into eight classical human types (HAstV-1/8) and seven other less prevalent types, described as HAstV VA1, VA2, VA3, VA4, MLB-1, MLB-2 and MLB-3. During outbreaks, the elderly and children are the most affected, and the spread of the virus is associated with person-to-person contact, food ingestion and contaminated water. Read More

    Occurrence of endogenous Piper yellow mottle virus in black pepper.
    Virusdisease 2017 Jun 19;28(2):213-217. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Division of Crop Protection, ICAR-Indian Institute of Spices Research, Marikunnu, Kozhikode, Kerala 673012 India.
    Some badnaviruses are known to occur as endogenous viruses integrated into their host genome. In the present study, Piper yellow mottle virus (PYMoV), a badnavirus infecting black pepper was shown to occur as endogenous virus based on the PCR, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, ELISA and Southern hybridization tests. Black pepper plants that tested positive in PCR for PYMoV gave negative reaction in RT-PCR indicating that they harbour endogenous PYMoV (ePYMoV) sequences. Read More

    UL36 Rescues Apoptosis Inhibition and In vivo Replication of a Chimeric MCMV Lacking the M36 Gene.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 14;7:312. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Department of Vaccinology and Applied Microbiology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection ResearchBraunschweig, Germany.
    Apoptosis is an important defense mechanism mounted by the immune system to control virus replication. Hence, cytomegaloviruses (CMV) evolved and acquired numerous anti-apoptotic genes. The product of the human CMV (HCMV) UL36 gene, pUL36 (also known as vICA), binds to pro-caspase-8, thus inhibiting death-receptor apoptosis and enabling viral replication in differentiated THP-1 cells. Read More

    Human Metapneumovirus M2-2 Protein Acts as a Negative Regulator of Alpha Interferon Production by Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells.
    J Virol 2017 Aug 2. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Department of Pathology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192, Japan
    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) has the ability to inhibit TLR7- and TLR9-dependent alpha interferon (IFN-α) production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). However the inhibition mechanism remains largely unknown. To identify viral proteins responsible for this inhibition, we performed a screening of HMPV open reading frames (ORFs) for their abilities to block TLR7/9-dependent signaling reconstituted in HEK293T cells by transfection with MyD88, TRAF6, IKKα, and IRF7. Read More

    MicroRNA‑494 inhibits nerve growth factor‑induced cell proliferation by targeting cyclin D1 in human corneal epithelial cells.
    Mol Med Rep 2017 Jul 25. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Shanghai Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031, P.R. China.
    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is expressed in the human corneal epithelium and stroma. It is an efficient therapy for human corneal ulcers caused by neurotropic disease. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of NGF in healing human corneal epithelial diseases. Read More

    Isolation and Tissue Distribution of an Insulin-Like Androgenic Gland Hormone (IAG) of the Male Red Deep-Sea Crab, Chaceon quinquedens.
    Mar Drugs 2017 Aug 1;15(8). Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, 701 E. Pratt Street Columbus Center, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA.
    The insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) found in decapod crustaceans is known to regulate sexual development in males. IAG is produced in the male-specific endocrine tissue, the androgenic gland (AG); however, IAG expression has been also observed in other tissues of decapod crustacean species including Callinectes sapidus and Scylla paramamosain. This study aimed to isolate the full-length cDNA sequence of IAG from the AG of male red deep-sea crabs, Chaceon quinquedens (ChqIAG), and to examine its tissue distribution. Read More

    Characterisation and pharmacological analysis of a crustacean G protein-coupled receptor: the red pigment-concentrating hormone receptor of Daphnia pulex.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jul 31;7(1):6851. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa.
    This is the first pharmacological characterisation of a neuropeptide G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) in a crustacean. We cloned the ORF of the red pigment-concentrating hormone from a German strain of Daphnia pulex (Dappu-RPCH), as well as that of the cognate receptor (Dappu-RPCHR). Dappu-RPCHR has the hallmarks of the rhodopsin superfamily of GPCRs, and is more similar to insect adipokinetic hormone (AKH) receptor sequences than to receptor sequences for AKH/corazonin-like peptide or corazonin. Read More

    TitSmall but Mighty: Functional Peptides Encoded by Small ORFs in Plants.
    Proteomics 2017 Jul 31. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
    Peptides encoded by small open reading frames (sORFs, usually < 100 codons) play critical regulatory roles in plant development and environmental responses. Despite their importance, only a small number of these peptides have been identified and characterized. Genomic studies have revealed that many plant genomes contain thousands of possible sORFs, which could potentially encode small peptides. Read More

    Examining Predictive Validity of Oral Reading Fluency Slope in Upper Elementary Grades Using Quantile Regression.
    J Learn Disabil 2017 Jul 1:22219417719887. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    2 The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk, University of Texas at Austin, USA.
    Within multitiered instructional delivery models, progress monitoring is a key mechanism for determining whether a child demonstrates an adequate response to instruction. One measure commonly used to monitor the reading progress of students is oral reading fluency (ORF). This study examined the extent to which ORF slope predicts reading comprehension outcomes for fifth-grade struggling readers ( n = 102) participating in an intensive reading intervention. Read More

    Genomic characterisation of Felis catus papillomavirus type 5 with proposed classification within a new papillomavirus genus.
    Vet Microbiol 2017 Aug 2;207:50-55. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Biochemistry Department, Otago University, 710 Cumberland Street, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Four Felis catus papillomavirus (FcaPV) types have been fully sequenced from domestic cats. Of these, FcaPV-2 and -3 are thought to cause feline viral plaques and Bowenoid in situ carcinomas. Two short sequences of DNA from a previously unreported PV type were amplified from a feline viral plaque using consensus PCR primers. Read More

    Generation of a recombinant viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) expressing olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) interferon-γ and its effects on type I interferon response and virulence.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Jul 27;68:530-535. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Department of Aquatic Life Medicine, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, South Korea. Electronic address:
    Rhabdoviruses including viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) are highly susceptible to type I interferon (IFN) responses, and IFN-γ that is belonging to the type II IFN has been known to enhance type I IFN responses in mammals. In this study, we generated a recombinant VHSV that can express olive flounder IFN-γ (rVHSV-A-IFNγ) using reverse genetics technology, and analyzed the effect of rVHSV-A-IFNγ infection on type I IFN response in Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells. Furthermore, the virulence of rVHSV-A-IFNγ was evaluated by infection to olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Read More

    Identification and functional analysis of a new glyphosate resistance gene from a fungus cDNA library.
    Pestic Biochem Physiol 2017 Aug 15;140:65-68. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, PR China.
    Glyphosate is a widely used broad spectrum herbicide; however, this limits its use once crops are planted. If glyphosate-resistant crops are grown, glyphosate can be used for weed control in crops. While several glyphosate resistance genes are used in commercial glyphosate tolerant crops, there is interest in identifying additional genes for glyphosate tolerance. Read More

    OH1 from Orf Virus: A New Tyrosine Phosphatase that Displays Distinct Structural Features and Triple Substrate Specificity.
    J Mol Biol 2017 Jul 25. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Sección Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, UdelaR, 11400 Montevideo, Uruguay. Electronic address:
    Viral tyrosine phosphatases such as VH1 from Vaccinia and Variola virus are recognized as important effectors of host-pathogen interactions. While proteins sharing sequence to VH1 have been identified in other viruses, their structural and functional characterization is not known. In this work, we determined the crystal structure of the VH1 homolog in the Orf virus, herein named OH1. Read More

    Knockout of a P-glycoprotein gene increases susceptibility to abamectin and emamectin benzoate in Spodoptera exigua.
    Insect Mol Biol 2017 Jul 28. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.
    P-glycoprotein [P-gp or the ATP-binding cassette transporter B1 (ABCB1)] is an important participant in multidrug resistance of cancer cells, yet the precise function of this arthropod transporter is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of P-gp for susceptibility to insecticides in the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) gene-editing technology. We cloned an open reading frame (ORF) encoding the S. Read More

    'MN1606SP' by 'Spencer' filial soybean population reveals novel quantitative trait loci and interactions among loci conditioning SDS resistance.
    Theor Appl Genet 2017 Jul 26. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011, USA.
    Key Message: Four novel QTL and interactions among QTL were identified in this research, using as a parent line the most SDS-resistant genotype within soybean cultivars of the US early maturity groups. Soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) reduces soybean yield in most of the growing areas of the world. The causal agent of SDS, soilborne fungus Fusarium virguliforme (Fv), releases phytotoxins taken up by the plant to produce chlorosis and necrosis in the leaves. Read More

    Targeted Genome Sequencing Reveals Varicella-Zoster Virus Open Reading Frame 12 Deletion.
    J Virol 2017 Jul 26. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA.
    The neurotropic herpesvirus varicella zoster virus (VZV) establishes a life-long latent infection in humans following primary infection. The low abundance of VZV nucleic acids in human neurons has hindered an understanding of the mechanisms that regulate viral gene transcription during latency. To overcome this critical barrier, we optimized a targeted capture protocol to enrich VZV DNA and cDNA prior to whole-genome/transcriptome sequence analysis. Read More

    Full-length genome sequence analysis of enzootic nasal tumor virus isolated from goats in China.
    Virol J 2017 Jul 26;14(1):141. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV) is a betaretrovirus of sheep (ENTV-1) and goats (ENTV-2) associated with neoplastic transformation of epithelial cells of the ethmoid turbinate. Confirmation of the role of ENTV in the pathogenesis of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA) has yet to be resolved due to the inability to culture the virus. Very little is known about the prevalence of this disease, particularly in China. Read More

    Molecular characterization and functional analysis of the hepcidin gene from roughskin sculpin (Trachidermus fasciatus).
    Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Jul 22;68:349-358. Epub 2017 Jul 22.
    Ocean College, Shandong University (Weihai), Weihai 264209, China. Electronic address:
    Hepcidin is a kind of cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide that plays a vital role in host innate immune activity and iron regulation. Here, we report the molecular characterization and functional analysis of a novel hamp1 hepcidin isoforms Tf-Hep from roughskin sculpin, Trachidermus fasciatus. A cDNA fragment of 988 bp with an ORF of 273 bp was obtained. Read More

    Manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a role player in seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis) antioxidant defense system and adaptive immune system.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Jul 22;68:435-442. Epub 2017 Jul 22.
    Department of Marine Life Sciences & Fish Vaccine Research Center, Jeju National University, Jeju Self-Governing Province 63243, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a metaloenzyme that catalyzes dismutation of the hazardous superoxide radicals into less hazardous H2O2 and H2O. Here, we identified a homolog of MnSOD from big belly seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis; HaMnSOD) and characterized its structural and functional features. HaMnSOD transcript possessed an open reading frame (ORF) of 672 bp which codes for a peptide of 223 amino acids. Read More

    HEMO, an ancestral endogenous retroviral envelope protein shed in the blood of pregnant women and expressed in pluripotent stem cells and tumors.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 Aug 24;114(32):E6642-E6651. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Unité Physiologie et Pathologie Moléculaires des Rétrovirus Endogènes et Infectieux, CNRS UMR 9196, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, F-94805, France.
    Capture of retroviral envelope genes is likely to have played a role in the emergence of placental mammals, with evidence for multiple, reiterated, and independent capture events occurring in mammals, and be responsible for the diversity of present day placental structures. Here, we uncover a full-length endogenous retrovirus envelope protein, dubbed HEMO [human endogenous MER34 (medium-reiteration-frequency-family-34) ORF], with unprecedented characteristics, because it is actively shed in the blood circulation in humans via specific cleavage of the precursor envelope protein upstream of the transmembrane domain. At variance with previously identified retroviral envelope genes, its encoding gene is found to be transcribed from a unique CpG-rich promoter not related to a retroviral LTR, with sites of expression including the placenta as well as other tissues and rather unexpectedly, stem cells as well as reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), where the protein can also be detected. Read More

    Microglia and C9orf72 in neuroinflammation and ALS and frontotemporal dementia.
    J Clin Invest 2017 Jul 24. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute and.
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disorder that is characterized by loss of motor neurons and shows clinical, pathological, and genetic overlap with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Activated microglia are a universal feature of ALS/FTD pathology; however, their role in disease pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. The recent discovery that ORF 72 on chromosome 9 (C9orf72), the gene most commonly mutated in ALS/FTD, has an important role in myeloid cells opened the possibility that altered microglial function plays an active role in disease. Read More

    Effect of Mouse Strain on Equine Herpesvirus 9 Infection.
    J Comp Pathol 2017 Jul 6;157(1):67-74. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Applied Biological Science, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, Japan. Electronic address:
    The infectivity of equine herpesvirus (EHV)-9 has been studied in different animal models including immunocompromised animals. The current study focused on the infectivity of EHV-9 in different mouse strains (C3H, C57BL, DBA, BALB/c-nu/nu, BALB/c and ICR) by intranasal inoculation of 2 × 10(6) plaque forming units (PFU). Various organs, including head and lungs, were collected 7 days post infection (dpi) to investigate microscopical lesions and the distribution of EHV-9 antigen. Read More

    Identification of an MITF gene and its polymorphisms associated with the Vibrio resistance trait in the clam Meretrix petechialis.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Jul 19;68:466-473. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, 266000 Qingdao, China. Electronic address:
    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) regulates the transcription of its target genes by binding to their promoters. In this study, an MITF gene, MpMITF was identified in the clam Meretrix petechialis. The full-length cDNA of MpMITF is 3564 bp with an ORF of 1365 bp. Read More

    Molecular, structural, and functional comparison of N lobe and C lobe of the transferrin from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus, with respect to its immune response.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Jul 18;68:299-309. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju Self-Governing Province, 63243, Republic of Korea; Fish Vaccine Research Center, Jeju National University, Jeju Self-Governing Province, 63243, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    The iron-withholding strategy of innate immunity is an effective antimicrobial defense mechanism that combats microbial infection by depriving microorganisms of Fe(3+), which is important for their growth and propagation. Transferrins (Tfs) are a group of iron-binding proteins that exert their antimicrobial function through Fe(3+) sequestration. The current study describes both structural and functional characteristics of a transferrin ortholog from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus (RbTf). Read More

    Common and phylogenetically widespread coding for peptides by bacterial small RNAs.
    BMC Genomics 2017 Jul 21;18(1):553. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Systems Biology Laboratory, Department of Genomes and Genetics, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
    Background: While eukaryotic noncoding RNAs have recently received intense scrutiny, it is becoming clear that bacterial transcription is at least as pervasive. Bacterial small RNAs and antisense RNAs (sRNAs) are often assumed to be noncoding, due to their lack of long open reading frames (ORFs). However, there are numerous examples of sRNAs encoding for small proteins, whether or not they also have a regulatory role at the RNA level. Read More

    Isolable Bis(triarylamine) Dications: Analogues of Thiele's, Chichibabin's, and Müller's Hydrocarbons.
    Acc Chem Res 2017 Aug 21;50(8):1997-2006. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University , Nanjing 210023, China.
    Since the pioneering work by Thiele and Chichibabin, who synthesized the first diradicals bridged by phenylene and biphenylene groups in 1904 and 1907, respectively, numerous efforts have been devoted to synthesizing stable diradicals during the last few decades, and several strategies have been developed to stabilize these highly reactive diradicals. In this Account, we describe the synthesis and characterization of isolable bis(triarylamine) dications, nitrogen analogues of Thiele's, Chichibabin's, and Müller's hydrocarbons, which represent facilely accessible, stable diradicals by replacing carbinyl centers with isoelectronic aminium centers. Along with discussing the molecular structures and electronic structures of the isolated bis(triarylamine) dications, their spectroscopic and magnetic properties are also introduced. Read More

    A genomic glance through the fog of plasticity and diversification in Pocillopora.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jul 20;7(1):5991. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Kāne'ohe, HI, 96744, USA.
    Scleractinian corals of the genus Pocillopora (Lamarck, 1816) are notoriously difficult to identify morphologically with considerable debate on the degree to which phenotypic plasticity, introgressive hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting obscure well-defined taxonomic lineages. Here, we used RAD-seq to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among seven species of Pocillopora represented by 15 coral holobiont metagenomic libraries. We found strong concordance between the coral holobiont datasets, reads that mapped to the Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) transcriptome, nearly complete mitochondrial genomes, 430 unlinked high-quality SNPs shared across all Pocillopora taxa, and a conspecificity matrix of the holobiont dataset. Read More

    Development of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) open reading frame 2 DNA vaccine with different adjuvants and comparison with commercial PCV2 subunit vaccine in an experimental challenge.
    Can J Vet Res 2017 Jul;81(3):171-177
    Seoul National University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pathology, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, 08826, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    The objective of this study was to compare the protection against challenge with porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) induced by an experimental vaccine based on open reading frame (ORF) 2 of PCV2 DNA plus an adjuvant (aluminum hydroxide, cobalt oxide, or liposome) and a commercial PCV2 subunit vaccine. A total of 35 colostrum-fed, cross-bred, conventional piglets were randomly divided into 7 groups. The commercial vaccine was more efficacious against PCV2 challenge than the 4 experimental vaccines according to immunologic, virologic, and pathological outcomes. Read More

    Molecular characterization, modeling, in silico analysis of equine pituitary gonadotropin alpha subunit and docking interaction studies with ganirelix.
    In Silico Pharmacol 2016 Dec 18;5(1). Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Equine Production Centre, ICAR-National Research Centre on Equines, Bikaner, Rajasthan, 334 001, India.
    Equine pituitary gonadotropins (eLH, eFSH, eCG) are heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones with alpha (α) and beta (β) subunits. It is responsible for maintenance of pregnancy in mares during early gestation and fairly valuable for inducing superovulation in animals other than equines. The alpha subunit is common, while beta subunit is species-specific in all glycoprotein hormones. Read More

    A versatile papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) vaccine platform based on sortase-mediated antigen coupling.
    J Nanobiotechnology 2017 Jul 18;15(1):54. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Microbiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Infectious Disease Research Center, Laval University, 2705 Boul. Laurier, Quebec City, PQ, G1V 4G2, Canada.
    Background: Flexuous rod-shaped nanoparticles made of the coat protein (CP) of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) have been shown to trigger innate immunity through engagement of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). PapMV nanoparticles can also serve as a vaccine platform as they can increase the immune response to fused peptide antigens. Although this approach shows great potential, fusion of antigens directly to the CP open reading frame (ORF) is challenging because the fused peptides can alter the structure of the CP and its capacity to self assemble into nanoparticles-a property essential for triggering an efficient immune response to the peptide. Read More

    Hepatitis E virus ORF 1 induces proliferative and functional T-cell responses in patients with ongoing and resolved hepatitis E.
    Liver Int 2017 Jul 18. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.
    Background And Aims: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute viral hepatitis with > 3 million symptomatic cases per year accounting for 70,000 HEV-related deaths. HEV-specific T-cell responses have been investigated against structural proteins expressed by open reading frames (ORF) 2 and 3. T-cell responses against non-structural HEV proteins encoded by ORF1 are hardly studied. Read More

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