3,163 results match your criteria Orchitis

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 and Male Reproduction: Relationship, Explanations, and Clinical Remedies.

Front Physiol 2021 14;12:651408. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Institute of Reproductive Health, Center for Reproductive Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been an ongoing pandemic and worldwide public health emergency, having drawn a lot of attention around the world. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is characterized by infecting angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-expressing cells, including testis-specific cells, namely, Leydig, Sertoli, and spermatogenic cells, which are closely related to male reproduction. This leads to aberrant hyperactivation of the immune system generating damage to the infected organs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Heat shock protein A4L is a potent autoantigen for testicular autoimmunity in mice.

J Reprod Immunol 2021 Apr 1;145:103318. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8402, Japan. Electronic address:

Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) may be used as a model to investigate immunological infertility in men. Murine EAO is induced via immunization with auto-immunogenic antigens (AIAgs) from testicular germ cells (TGCs). CD4 + T cells play a crucial role in EAO induction. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Specific Tests and Inflammatory Biomarkers in the Evaluation of Brucellosis Disease].

Mikrobiyol Bul 2021 Apr;55(2):113-124

Health Sciences University Erzurum Regional Education and Research Hospital, Department of Infection Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Erzurum, Turkey.

Brusellosis is the world's most common bacterial zoonotic infection and is still endemic in many developing countries. The clinical appearance of brucellosis is not specific, but the course and severity of the infection varies. In this study, it was aimed to determine the relationship between laboratory parameters and clinical response and organ involvement in patients with Brucellosis diagnosed with specific diagnostic tests. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Men's Health: Scrotal and Testicular Conditions.

FP Essent 2021 Apr;503:23-27

University of Michigan Medical School Department of Family Medicine, 300 North Ingalls St NI4C06, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5435.

Scrotal and testicular conditions include benign masses, infections, testicular torsion, and testicular cancer. Common palpable benign scrotal masses include spermatocele, varicocele, and hydrocele. Most patients with these masses require no treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Potential effects of COVID-19 on reproductive systems and fertility; assisted reproductive technology guidelines and considerations: a review.

Hong Kong Med J 2021 04 15;27(2):118-126. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) employs the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in the renin-angiotensin system for viral entry. The ACE2 receptor is present in both female and male reproductive systems, and reports of multi-organ involvement have led to uncertainty regarding its effects on the reproductive system and fertility. We review the existing literature regarding the function of ACE2 and the renin-angiotensin system in the female and male reproductive systems to postulate the possible implications of SARS-CoV-2 regarding fertility. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mumps Orchitis: Clinical Aspects and Mechanisms.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:582946. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

The causative agent of mumps is a single-stranded, non-segmented, negative sense RNA virus belonging to the family. Besides the classic symptom of painfully swollen parotid salivary glands (parotitis) in mumps virus (MuV)-infected men, orchitis is the most common form of extra-salivary gland inflammation. Mumps orchitis frequently occurs in young adult men, and leads to pain and swelling of the testis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Unilateral vasectomy for intractable epididiymo-orchitis in patients with anorectal malformation.

J Pediatr Urol 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

General and Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Piazza Sant'Onofrio 4, 00165 Roma, Italy.

Background: Male patients treated for anorectal malformations (ARM) and recto-urethral fistula (RUF) tend to develop recurrent epididymo-orchitis (EO) which occurs approximately in 20% of all them. The optimal management of this condition is unclear because of the extreme its rarity and the unavailability of detailed analysis in literature. To date the majority of this patients benefits from medical treatment and symptoms reduce over time but few data have been published in literature about management of patients with intractable EO. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tuberculous epididymo-orchitis secondary to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in non-muscular invasive bladder cancer.

Urol Case Rep 2021 Jul 4;37:101629. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Hospital Complejo Medico Churruca - Visca, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Intravesical BCG therapy is effective in treating bladder cancer. Tuberculous epididymo-orchitis presents as a rare complication. There are very few cases described in which Mycobacterium Bovis produces epididymo-orchitis by itself. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Biopsy-confirmed Genitourinary Tuberculosis in a Secondary Health Care Hospital: An Evidence-based Clinical Review.

Res Rep Urol 2021 17;13:133-137. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Urology, St. Carolus Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is a worldwide disease and remains a major public health problem in developing countries, with 95% of cases occurring in developing countries, including Indonesia. It is caused by , an acid-fast aerobic bacillus. When infects other than lung, it is called extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

COVID-19 and male fertility: Taking stock of one year after the outbreak began.

Arch Ital Urol Androl 2021 Mar 22;93(1):115-119. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Division of Urology, University Hospital "Ospedali Riuniti", School of Medicine, Department of Clinical, Special and Dental Sciences, Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona.

Objectives: The aim of this review is to summarize, following a timeline, the current knowledge regarding the effects of the Sars-cov2 virus on male fertility, researching the pathological and clinical results of the studies published in the last year.

Methods: A systematic research was performed on the major international online databases; Thirty-five articles were selected.

Results: A statistically significant reduction in testosterone levels and sperm quality in subjects with COVID-19 has been highlighted in several papers; however, in many cases the tests have been conducted in patients with active disease and long-term consequences are still not known. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effects of COVID-19 on male sex function and its potential sexual transmission.

Arch Ital Urol Androl 2021 Mar 18;93(1):48-52. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Laboratorio de Morfología, ICBM, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago.

Introduction: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified by the Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on January 8, 2020 and was declared as a global pandemic on March 11, 2020 by WHO. SARS-CoV-2 uses the Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor as an entry route, associated with the transmembrane serine protease protein (TMPRSS2), which makes the testis and particularly spermatogenesis potentially vulnerable, since this tissue has high expression of ACE2.

Material And Methods: We performed a systematic literature review by electronic bibliographic databases in Pubmed, Scopus and ScienceDirect up to August 2020 about the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on male sexual function and its transmission, to assess possible repercussions on sex organs and the existence of a sexual transmission path. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

An unusual location of hand, foot and mouth disease.

J Ultrasound 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Radiological, Oncological and Pathobiological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a childhood febrile disease. Oral lesions and papulovesicular lesions on the hands and feet are the clinical signs of the disease. In our case, a 17-year-old boy presented to the emergency department, where he was diagnosed with HFMD. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Complicated diverticular disease presenting as recurrent epididymo-orchitis: a case report.

ANZ J Surg 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Urology, Ballarat Base Hospital, Ballarat, Victoria, Australia.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Presenting as a Testicular Mass: A Case Report.

Int Med Case Rep J 2021 2;14:145-149. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Division of Pulmonology, Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Extrapulmonary drug-resistant tuberculosis is extremely rare and is almost always associated with poor treatment outcomes. This is partly due to the difficulty in confirming the diagnosis.

Case Presentation: A 40-year-old HIV-negative male presented with a painless scrotal mass, low-grade fever, general malaise, night sweats, and no pulmonary symptoms. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A challenging case of surgical management of a single ischemic testicle from severe epididymo-orchitis.

Urol Case Rep 2021 Jul 18;37:101610. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

A 41 years-old male patient presented acutely with severe right testicular pain, and fever for 48 hours. Patient had a backround of previous left orchidectomy for epididymo-orchitis and sexually-transmitted disease. A clinical diagnosis of right epididymo-orchitis was made and patient was treated with intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Isolated tuberculosis of testis: A case report.

Caspian J Intern Med 2021 ;12(1):111-114

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis accounts for only 15% of new cases of tuberculosis. In extrapulmonary tuberculosis, usually affected areas include bone, pleura, lymph nodes, genitourinary system, joints, peritoneum and meninges. Tuberculosis epididymo-orchitis is an uncommon type of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Uropathogenic Infection Compromises the Blood-Testis Barrier by Disturbing mTORC1-mTORC2 Balance.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:582858. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Reproductive Medicine Centre, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

The structural and functional destruction of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) following uropathogenic (UPEC) infection may be a critical component of the pathologic progress of orchitis. Recent findings indicate that the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR)-signaling pathway is implicated in the regulation of BTB assembly and restructuring. To explore the mechanisms underlying BTB damage induced by UPEC infection, we analyzed BTB integrity and the involvement of the mTOR-signaling pathway using and UPEC-infection models. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Does SARS-CoV-2 Threaten Male Fertility?

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1321:139-146

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

In the continuing COVID-19 pandemic, one of the most important concerns in reproductive health is the issue of male fertility of recovered patients. In this study, we discuss the potential mechanisms that justify the possible impact of COVID-19 on male fertility. The main point of entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the host cells appears to be through the viral spike protein which permits entry into cells via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2 receptor). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Acute prostatitis associated with noncancerous prostate at the Lubumbashi University Clinics: epidemioclinical and therapeutic features].

Pan Afr Med J 2020 1;37:290. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Département de Chirurgie, Faculté de Médecine, Cliniques Universitaires de Lubumbashi, Université de Lubumbashi, Province du Haut Katanga, Ville de Lubumbashi, République Démocratique du Congo.

Introduction: acute prostatitis is a common urological condition. The purpose of this study was to analyze the epidemioclinical features and therapy of acute prostatitis associated with noncancerous prostate at the Lubumbashi University Clinics.

Methods: we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional and retrospective study of a series of 25 patients with documented acute prostatitis and treated at the Lubumbashi University Clinics over a period of four years, from 2015 to 2018. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Silencing of MEG3 attenuated the role of lipopolysaccharides by modulating the miR-93-5p/PTEN pathway in Leydig cells.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2021 Feb 27;19(1):33. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Reproductive Medicine Center, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, China.

Background: Leydig cells reflect the activation of inflammation, decrease of androgen production, inhibition of cell growth and promotion of cell apoptosis under orchitis. Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) exerts a crucial role in various human diseases, but under orchitis, the role and underlying molecular mechanism of MEG3 in Leydig cells remain unclear.

Methods: Lipofectamine 2000 was used for the cell transfections. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Testicular torsion in the medicolegal perspective: Why is the diagnosis missing?

Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 2021 Mar;27(2):207-213

Forensic Medicine Institute of the Republic of Turkey, İstanbul-Turkey.

Background: By examining patients with testicular torsion (TT) that caused problems in medicolegal terms, the present study aims to define markers causing medical neglect or malpractice in similar conditions and perform a retrospective examination to characterize the medical aspects of patients with TT.

Methods: In this study, 53 patients who underwent orchiectomy for TT following interventions made between 2004 and 2019 in different hospitals of Turkey and had satisfactory clinical findings in their files based on medicolegal inspections were included.

Results: The median age of the patients was nine years. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A retrospective multicentric analysis on testicular torsion: is there still something to learn?

Scand J Urol 2021 Feb 23:1-7. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Urology Clinic, Department of Surgical, Oncological and Gastroenterological Sciences, Padova University, Italy.

Introduction And Aim: Speedy diagnosis are mandatory in testicular torsion, nevertheless some cases of irreversible ischemia still occur. In this study we analysed the results of patients undergoing surgical exploration for acute scrotum.

Materials And Methods: A multicentric retrospective clinical evaluation was carried out on patients who underwent urgent scrotal exploration at 12 different departments in North-Eastern Italy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Amyand's hernia: presumptive diagnosis by CT and literature review.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 Apr 9;16(4):911-915. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Radiologist, Department of Radiology, IASO Thessaly, Larissa, Greece.

Amyand's hernia is a rare inguinal hernia containing the appendix presenting mainly in male adults. The clinical presentation is usually without symptoms, however an inflammation can occur leading to strangulation, necrosis or rupture of the appendix. Differential diagnosis may be difficult including orchitis, testicular torsion, inflammation of the ovaries and bowel inflammation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Assessment of the Pathogenicity of , , and in a Guinea Pig Model.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 Apr 17;21(4):232-241. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Members of the genus range from nonpathogenic endosymbionts to virulent pathogens such as , the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Many rickettsiae are considered nonpathogenic because they have been isolated from ticks but not vertebrate hosts. We assessed the ability of three presumed endosymbionts: , , and , to infect a guinea pig animal model. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A severe complication of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin: An effect of different strains.

Urol Case Rep 2021 May 3;36:101592. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Urology Department, Level B1, Waikato Hospital, Hamilton, New Zealand.

The use of intravesical BCG has improved the survival and outcomes in the treatment of bladder cancer. However, the worldwide shortage of OncoTice BCG has caused disruption and changes in treatment regimes, leading to use of alternative strains. We describe a severe complication as the result of using intravesical SII Onco BCG for the treatment bladder cancer, in an 82 year old man presenting with granulomatous epididymo-orchitis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

SARS-CoV-2 infection affects the lower urinary tract and male genital system: A systematic review.

J Med Virol 2021 May 1;93(5):3133-3142. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive Sciences and Odontostomatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases were searched to identify studies published up to December 2020 on the involvement of urinary and male genital systems in COVID-19. Sixteen studies involving a total of 575 patients (538 males and 37 females) were included in this systematic review. The COVID-19 phase was available for 479 patients: 426 in the acute and 53 in the recovery phase. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Immune checkpoint inhibitor-related hypogonadism and infertility: a neglected issue in immuno-oncology.

Berna C Özdemir

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Feb;9(2)

Department of Medical Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

Despite a significant amount of data on incidence and therapy of immune-related adverse events affecting virtually all organ systems, the potential impact of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) on gonadal function has not been sufficiently studied. The limited evidence available suggests that ICI-related primary hypogonadism due to orchitis as well as secondary hypogonadism due to hypophysitis are a potential risk for infertility. A systematic investigation of gonadal function under ICIs is warranted given the increasing application of ICIs in the adjuvant setting, among young adults and children and the possible influence of sex hormone levels on the efficacy and toxicity of ICIs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Relationship between COVID-19 and the male reproductive system.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Jan;25(2):1109-1113

Department of Emergency Medicine, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Objective: The objective of this review is to provide currently available information on the potential effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on male fertility.

Materials And Methods: This is a mini-review. Due to the similarity between the COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus, we searched for the following keywords: "SARS-CoV, male reproductive system, infertility, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, and orchitis". Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Synthetic Food dyes cause testicular damage via up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and down-regulation of FSH-R and TESK-1 gene expression.

JBRA Assist Reprod 2020 Nov 5. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Madonna University, Nigeria.

Objective: This study investigated the effects of Tartrazine and Erythrosine (T+E) on the reproductive hormones and expression of some pro-inflammatory cytokines and testicular genes in testis of male Wistar rats.

Methods: 25 male Wistar rats (150-180g) were divided into 5 groups (n=5). Group 1 received distilled water while groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were treated with T+E (2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Radiological patterns of incidental epididymitis in mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients revealed by colour Doppler ultrasound.

Andrologia 2021 May 9;53(4):e13973. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Androscience, Science and Innovation Center in Andrology and High-Complex Clinical and Research Andrology Laboratory, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

The testis is a potential target organ for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study intended to investigate any testicular involvement in mild-to-moderate COVID-19 men. We conduct a cross-sectional study in 18 to 55-year-old men hospitalised for confirmed COVID-19. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF