3,017 results match your criteria Orbivirus

Orbivirus Screening from Imported Captive Oryx in the United Arab Emirates Stresses the Importance of Pre-Import and Transit Measures.

Pathogens 2022 Jun 17;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

CARE-FEPEX Experimental Station, Fundamental and Applied Research for Animals & Health (FARAH) Center, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, 4000 Liege, Belgium.

From 1975 to 2021, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) imported more than 1300 live Arabian oryxes (AOs) and scimitar-horned oryxes (SHOs) for conservation programs. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of orbiviruses Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) in AOs and SHOs from captive herds in the UAE. Between October 2014 and April 2015, 16 AOs and 13 SHOs originating from Texas (USA) and 195 out of about 4000 SHOs from two locations in the UAE were blood sampled to be tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays. Read More

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Field-Reassortment of Bluetongue Virus Illustrates Plasticity of Virus Associated Phenotypic Traits in the Arthropod Vector and Mammalian Host .

J Virol 2022 Jun 21:e0053122. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Surrey, United Kingdom.

Segmented RNA viruses are a taxonomically diverse group that can infect plant, wildlife, livestock and human hosts. A shared feature of these viruses is the ability to exchange genome segments during coinfection of a host by a process termed "reassortment." Reassortment enables rapid evolutionary change, but where transmission involves a biological arthropod vector, this change is constrained by the selection pressures imposed by the requirement for replication in two evolutionarily distant hosts. Read More

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A serologic investigation of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in China between 2014 and 2019.

Virol Sin 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Yunnan Tropical and Subtropical Animal Virus Diseases Laboratory, Yunnan Animal Science and Veterinary Institute, Kunming, 650000, China. Electronic address:

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is a member of the genus Orbivirus, family Sedoreoviridae. It was firstly recognized in 1955 to cause a highly fatal disease of wild white-tailed deer in America. So far, EHDV was detected and isolated in many wild or domestic ruminants, and widely distributed all over the world. Read More

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Evaluation of Vector Competence of Ticks for Kemerovo Virus.

Viruses 2022 05 20;14(5). Epub 2022 May 20.

ANSES, INRAE, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, UMR BIPAR, Laboratoire de Santé Animale, F-94700 Maisons-Alfort, France.

Tick-borne viruses are responsible for various symptoms in humans and animals, ranging from simple fever to neurological disorders or haemorrhagic fevers. The Kemerovo virus (KEMV) is a tick-borne orbivirus, and it has been suspected to be responsible for human encephalitis cases in Russia and central Europe. It has been isolated from and ticks. Read More

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Bluetongue Virus Infection of Goats: Re-Emerged European Serotype 8 vs. Two Atypical Serotypes.

Viruses 2022 05 13;14(5). Epub 2022 May 13.

Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Südufer 10, 17943 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

In recent years, numerous atypical Bluetongue virus (BTV) strains have been discovered all around the world. Atypical BTV strains are phylogenetically distinct from the classical BTV serotypes 1-24 and differ in terms of several biological features. For the first time, the atypical strains BTV-25-GER2018 and BTV-33-MNG3/2016 as well as the re-emerged classical strain BTV-8-GER2018 were evaluated comparatively in a pathogenesis study in goats-the natural host of atypical BTV. Read More

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Characterization of a Novel Reassortant Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Serotype 6 Strain Isolated from Diseased White-Tailed Deer () on a Florida Farm.

Viruses 2022 05 10;14(5). Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

We report an outbreak of a novel reassortant epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 6 (EHDV-6) in white-tailed deer (WTD) on a Florida farm in 2019. At necropsy, most animals exhibited hemorrhagic lesions in the lung and heart, and congestion in the lung, liver, and spleen. Histopathology revealed multi-organ hemorrhage and congestion, and renal tubular necrosis. Read More

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Full Genome Sequencing of Three Viruses Isolated from spp. (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in China.

Viruses 2022 05 5;14(5). Epub 2022 May 5.

Yunnan Tropical and Subtropical Animal Virus Diseases Laboratory, Yunnan Animal Science and Veterinary Institute, Kunming 650224, China.

is a family of viruses belonging to the order and comprises six genera, two of which, and , contain arboviruses that cause disease in humans and livestock. Areas such as Yunnan Province in southwestern China, have high arboviral activity due in part to warm and wet summers, which support high populations of biting flies such as mosquitoes and . Three viral isolates previously obtained from collected at cattle farms in Shizong County of Yunnan Province, China, between 2019 and 2020 were completely sequenced and identified as Banna virus (BAV) genotype A of and serotypes 1 and 7 of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) of . Read More

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Experimental bluetongue virus infection of Culicoides austropalpalis, collected from a farm environment in Victoria, Australia.

Vet Ital 2021 Dec 31;57(4):341-345. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, 4072, QLD, Australia.

Following the emerging bluetongue virus transmission in European temperate regions, we question the vector competence of the abundant Culicoides austropalpalis Lee and Reye in South-East temperate Australia. Field collected Culicoides midges were membrane fed with a bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV-1). The average feeding rate was 50%. Read More

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December 2021

Inference for a spatio-temporal model with partial spatial data: African horse sickness virus in Morocco.

Epidemics 2022 Jun 28;39:100566. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

The Zeeman Institute for Systems Biology & Infectious Disease Epidemiology Research, School of Life Sciences and Mathematics Institute, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK.

African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is a vector-borne virus spread by midges (Culicoides spp.). The virus causes African horse sickness (AHS) disease in some species of equid. Read More

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Diversity and seasonal abundance of Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in Shizong County, Yunnan Province, China.

Parasite 2022 11;29:26. Epub 2022 May 11.

Yunnan Tropical and Subtropical Animal Virus Diseases Laboratory, Yunnan Animal Science and Veterinary Institute, Kunming 650224, Yunnan Province, China.

Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) are small biting midges, some of which are vectors for animal associated arboviruses such as bluetongue virus (BTV) and Akabane virus (AKAV). BTV and AKAV are both pathogenic for livestock, with BTV in particular posing a major threat to domestic ruminants. Ongoing problems with BTV in ruminants in Shizong County of Yunnan Province, China, promoted a year-long investigation of the Culicoides in Shizong to determine relative abundance and seasonality of midges and to attempt to identify species that might be acting as vectors in the area. Read More

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Insight on Bluetongue virus transmission in small ruminants in Senegal.

Acta Trop 2022 Aug 26;232:106487. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Laboratoire National de l'Elevage et de Recherches Vétérinaires (ISRA-LNERV), Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles, BP: 2057 Dakar-Hann, Sénégal. Electronic address:

Bluetongue (BT) is an infectious, arthropod-borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. The disease causes animal mortality, production decrease and commercial limits for herds. Despite the active circulation of the disease in the world, few studies have been carried out in Senegal. Read More

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Exposure to multiple pathogens - serological evidence for Rift Valley fever virus, Coxiella burnetii, Bluetongue virus and Brucella spp. in cattle, sheep and goat in Mali.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 04 29;16(4):e0010342. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

International Livestock Research Institute, Dakar, Senegal.

An important problem for livestock production in Mali is occurrence of several infectious diseases. A particular challenge for control of pathogens that affect different species, especially in a system with mixed herds with cattle, sheep and goats. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate co-exposure with Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Coxiella burnetii, Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Brucella spp. Read More

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Spatial epidemiology of hemorrhagic disease in Illinois wild white-tailed deer.

Sci Rep 2022 04 27;12(1):6888. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Illinois Natural History Survey - Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 1816 S. Oak Street, Champaign, IL, 61820, USA.

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and bluetongue (BT) are vector-borne viral diseases that affect wild and domestic ruminants. Clinical signs of EHD and BT are similar; thus, the syndrome is referred to as hemorrhagic disease (HD). Syndromic surveillance and virus detection in North America reveal a northern expansion of HD. Read More

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Genetic characteristics and pathogenicity of the first bluetongue virus serotype 20 strain isolated in China.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2022 Apr 11. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China.

Bluetongue virus (BTV), a member of the genus Orbivirus in the family Reoviridae, is transmitted by biting midges and causes severe disease in domestic and wild ruminants. In the present study, a BTV strain, BTV-20/GX015/China/2013 (GX015), was isolated from sentinel cattle in Guangxi, China. Virus neutralization tests and phylogenetic analyses based on genomic segments 2 (S2) and 6 (S6) indicated that GX015 belongs to BTV serotype 20 (BTV-20) and represents a new topotype within BTV-20 strains, which makes GX015 the first BTV-20 strain isolated in China. Read More

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Development of a Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Based on Purified Recombinant Viral Protein 7 for Serological Diagnosis of Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease in Camels.

J Trop Med 2022 21;2022:5210771. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise G. Caporale, Teramo, Italy.

Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is a member of the genus in the Reoviridae family, and it is the etiological agent of an arthropod-transmitted disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. Due to its significant economic impact, many attempts have been done in order to develop diagnostic immunoassays mainly based on the use of the viral protein 7 (VP7), that is, the immunodominant serogroup-specific antigen. In this work, a recombinant VP7 (recVP7) of EHDV serotype 2 was produced in a baculovirus system, and after purification using ion metal affinity chromatography, we obtained a high yield of recombinant protein characterized by a high degree of purity. Read More

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Role of eco-climatic factors in the distribution of bluetongue in endemic areas in Tunisia.

Open Vet J 2022 Jan-Feb;12(1):114-123. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

National School of Veterinary Medicine Sidi-Thabet, University of Manouba, Ariana, Tunisia.

Background: Bluetongue (BT) is an important infectious, non-contagious, OIE-listed viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. The disease is transmitted among susceptible animals by a few species of an insect vector in the genus . Recently, during the fall of 2020 (September and October), a Bluetongue virus-4 epizootic marked the epidemiological situation in several delegations of Tunisia with clinical cases recorded in sheep and cattle. Read More

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A Qualitative Risk Assessment for Bluetongue Disease and African Horse Sickness: The Risk of Entry and Exposure at a UK Zoo.

Viruses 2022 02 28;14(3). Epub 2022 Feb 28.

The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Woking GU24 0NF, UK.

Bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) cause economically important diseases that are currently exotic to the United Kingdom (UK), but have significant potential for introduction and onward transmission. Given the susceptibility of animals kept in zoo collections to vector-borne diseases, a qualitative risk assessment for the introduction of BTV and AHSV to ZSL London Zoo was performed. Risk pathways for each virus were identified and assessed using published literature, animal import data and outputs from epidemiological models. Read More

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February 2022

Predicting the possibility of African horse sickness (AHS) introduction into China using spatial risk analysis and habitat connectivity of Culicoides.

Sci Rep 2022 03 10;12(1):3910. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

College of Wildlife & Protected Area, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, 26 Hexing Road, Xiangfang District, Harbin, 150040, Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China.

African horse sickness (AHS) is a devastating equine infectious disease. On 17 March 2020, it first appeared in Thailand and threatened all the South-East Asia equine industry security. Therefore, it is imperative to carry out risk warnings of the AHS in China. Read More

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Wolbachia wAlbB inhibits bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic fever viruses in Culicoides midge cells.

Med Vet Entomol 2022 Mar 10. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA.

Culicoides midges are hematophagous insects that transmit arboviruses of veterinary importance. These viruses include bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic fever virus (EHDV). The endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis Hertig spreads rapidly through insect host populations and has been demonstrated to inhibit viral pathogen transmission in multiple mosquito vectors. Read More

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Development of microsatellite markers for population genetics of biting midges and a potential tool for species identification of Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones.

Parasit Vectors 2022 Mar 2;15(1):69. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.

Background: Proper vector surveillance relies on the ability to identify species of interest accurately and efficiently, though this can be difficult in groups containing cryptic species. Culicoides Latreille is a genus of small biting flies responsible for the transmission of numerous pathogens to a multitude of vertebrates. Regarding pathogen transmission, the C. Read More

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Updated checklist of Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) of Turkey with ten new records.

J Vector Ecol 2021 12;46(2):124-136

Veterinary Control Central Research Institute, Ankara, Turkey.

We investigated the fauna in Turkey during the years 2016-2019 in the process of entomological surveillance for arboviral diseases. The entomological survey was conducted at 104 sampling stations in 51 provinces in Turkey during four consecutive years. There were approximately 450,000 specimens and 59 identified species collected during the surveillance. Read More

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December 2021

Comparative Virus-Host Protein Interactions of the Bluetongue Virus NS4 Virulence Factor.

Viruses 2022 01 19;14(2). Epub 2022 Jan 19.

UMR VIROLOGIE, INRAE, École Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, ANSES Laboratoire de Santé Animale, Université Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France.

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the etiologic agent of a non-contagious arthropod-borne disease transmitted to wild and domestic ruminants. BTV induces a large panel of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic infection to lethal hemorrhagic fever. Despite the fact that BTV has been studied extensively, we still have little understanding of the molecular determinants of BTV virulence. Read More

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January 2022

Extended characterisation of five archival tick-borne viruses provides insights for virus discovery in Australian ticks.

Parasit Vectors 2022 Feb 18;15(1):59. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Background: A subset of Australians who have been bitten by ticks experience a complex of chronic and debilitating symptoms which cannot be attributed to the known pathogenic species of bacteria present in Australia. As a result, there has been a renewed effort to identify and characterise viruses in Australian terrestrial ticks. Recent transcriptome sequencing of Ixodes and Amblyomma ticks has revealed the presence of multiple virus sequences. Read More

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February 2022

Bluetongue Research at a Crossroads: Modern Genomics Tools Can Pave the Way to New Insights.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2022 02;10:303-324

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA; email:

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arthropod-borne, segmented double-stranded RNA virus that can cause severe disease in both wild and domestic ruminants. BTV evolves via several key mechanisms, including the accumulation of mutations over time and the reassortment of genome segments.Additionally, BTV must maintain fitness in two disparate hosts, the insect vector and the ruminant. Read More

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February 2022

Equine Encephalosis Virus.

Animals (Basel) 2022 Jan 29;12(3). Epub 2022 Jan 29.

Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 7610001, Israel.

Equine encephalosis (EE) is an arthropod-borne, noncontagious, febrile disease of horses. It is caused by EE virus (EEV), an of the Reoviridae family transmitted by . Within the EEV serogroup, seven serotypes (EEV-1-7) have been identified to date. Read More

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January 2022

Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Development to Express VP2, NS1, and VP7 Proteins of Bluetongue Virus.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2465:177-193

Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal (CISA), INIA-CSIC, Madrid, Spain.

Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is employed widely as an experimental vaccine vector for its abortive replication in mammalian cells and high expression level of foreign/heterologous genes. Recombinant MVAs (rMVAs) are used as platforms for protein production as well as vectors to generate vaccines against a wide range of infectious diseases and other pathologies. The portrait of the virus combines desirable elements such as high-level biological safety, the ability to activate appropriate innate immune mediators upon vaccination , and the capacity to deliver substantial amounts of heterologous antigens. Read More

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Plant expression systems as an economical alternative for the production of iELISA coating antigen AHSV VP7.

N Biotechnol 2022 May 31;68:48-56. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Biopharming Research Unit, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7700, South Africa. Electronic address:

African horse sickness (AHS) is a debilitating and highly infectious arthropod-borne disease affecting all species of Equidae. The causative agent of AHS is the non-enveloped dsRNA African horse sickness virus (AHSV), belonging in the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. The identification and surveillance of AHSV by simple and reliable diagnostic tools is essential for managing AHS outbreaks. Read More

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Ecological niche modeling predicting the potential distribution of African horse sickness virus from 2020 to 2060.

Sci Rep 2022 02 2;12(1):1748. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Woldia University, Woldia, Ethiopia.

African horse sickness is a vector-borne, non-contagious and highly infectious disease of equines caused by African horse sickness viruses (AHSv) that mainly affect horses. The occurrence of the disease causes huge economic impacts because of its high fatality rate, trade ban and disease control costs. In the planning of vectors and vector-borne diseases like AHS, the application of Ecological niche models (ENM) used an enormous contribution in precisely delineating the suitable habitats of the vector. Read More

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February 2022

Evaluation of two artificial infection methods of live ticks as tools for studying interactions between tick-borne viruses and their tick vectors.

Sci Rep 2022 01 11;12(1):491. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Anses, INRAE, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, UMR BIPAR, Laboratoire de Santé Animale, 94700, Maisons-Alfort, France.

Up to 170 tick-borne viruses (TBVs) have been identified to date. However, there is a paucity of information regarding TBVs and their interaction with respective vectors, limiting the development of new effective and urgently needed control methods. To overcome this gap of knowledge, it is essential to reproduce transmission cycles under controlled laboratory conditions. Read More

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January 2022

Antiviral Properties of DBZ39 Mediated Gold Nanoparticles Against .

Pak J Biol Sci 2022 Jan;25(1):90-99

<b>Background and Objective:</b> The proposed study involves the approach from the point of anti-viral activity of gold nanoparticles against the <i>Bluetongue virus</i>. Among viral diseases, Bluetongue is regarded as an economically scouring disease. Neither a vaccine nor an antiviral drug is available for the prevention or treatment of this disease. Read More

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January 2022