2,795 results match your criteria Orbivirus


Seroprevalence of African horse sickness in selected donkey populations in Namibia.

Vet World 2020 May 31;13(5):1005-1009. Epub 2020 May 31.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise "G. Caporale" 64100 Teramo Italy.

Background And Aim: African horse sickness (AHS) is a non-contagious viral disease of horses and other equids caused by an arbovirus belonging to the family and genus . AHS is an endemic disease that is responsible for the death of a high number of horses every year in Namibia. At present, there is no information on the prevalence and distribution of AHS virus (AHSV) serotypes in the different regions of Namibia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2020.1005-1009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311865PMC

Highly efficient vaccines for Bluetongue virus and a related Orbivirus based on reverse genetics.

Authors:
Polly Roy

Curr Opin Virol 2020 Jun 28;44:35-41. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Department of Infection Biology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Bluetongue virus (BTV) reverse genetics (RG), available since 2007, has allowed the dissection of the virus replication cycle, including discovery of a primary replication stage. This information has allowed the generation of Entry-Competent-Replication-Abortive (ECRA) vaccines, which enter cells and complete primary replication but fail to complete the later stage. A series of vaccine trials in sheep and cattle either with a single ECRA serotype or a cocktail of multiple ECRA serotypes have demonstrated that these vaccines provide complete protection against virulent virus challenge without cross-serotype interference. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2020.05.003DOI Listing

Genome Sequence of a CHeRI Orbivirus 3 Strain Isolated from a Dead White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Florida, USA.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2020 Jun 25;9(26). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA

We report the genome sequence of an orbivirus isolated from a dead farmed white-tailed deer in Florida. The deer was coinfected with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus type 2. Phylogenetic and genetic analyses supported the virus as the fourth strain of the CHeRI orbivirus 3 species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00523-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317105PMC

Diversity of Transmission Outcomes Following Co-Infection of Sheep with Strains of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 and 8.

Microorganisms 2020 Jun 5;8(6). Epub 2020 Jun 5.

The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Surrey GU24 0NF, UK.

Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes an economically important disease, bluetongue (BT), in susceptible ruminants and is transmitted primarily by species of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Since 2006, northern Europe has experienced multiple incursions of BTV through a variety of routes of entry, including major outbreaks of strains of BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) and BTV serotype 1 (BTV-1), which overlapped in distribution within southern Europe. In this paper, we examined the variation in response to coinfection with strains of BTV-1 and BTV-8 using an in vivo transmission model involving , low passage virus strains, and sheep sourced in the United Kingdom. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060851DOI Listing

Codon Usage Bias Analysis of Bluetongue Virus Causing Livestock Infection.

Front Microbiol 2020 19;11:655. Epub 2020 May 19.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Life Sciences, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a double-stranded RNA virus with multiple segments and belongs to the genus within the family . BTV is spread to livestock through its dominant vector, biting midges of genus . Although great progress has been made in genomic analyses, it is not fully understood how BTVs adapt to their hosts and evade the host's immune systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7248248PMC

Continuous Cell Lines from the European Biting Midge (Meigen, 1830).

Microorganisms 2020 May 30;8(6). Epub 2020 May 30.

School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, LE12 5RD, UK.

biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) transmit arboviruses of veterinary or medical importance, including bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus, as well as causing severe irritation to livestock and humans. Arthropod cell lines are essential laboratory research tools for the isolation and propagation of vector-borne pathogens and the investigation of host-vector-pathogen interactions. Here we report the establishment of two continuous cell lines, CNE/LULS44 and CNE/LULS47, from embryos of , a midge distributed throughout the Western Palearctic region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060825DOI Listing

Genomic and biological features of a novel orbivirus isolated from mosquitoes, in China.

Virus Res 2020 Aug 8;285:197990. Epub 2020 May 8.

National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

A novel orbivirus had been identified as a member of the Orbivirus genus, which was isolated from pooled Culex fatigans mosquitoes in Guangdong of China, named as the Fengkai virus (FKOV). The cytopathic effects (CPEs) on both Aedes albopictus cells (C6/36) and mammalian cell lines (Vero and BHK-21) emerged in the cell cultures inoculated above virus in. Experimental confirmation as the Orbivirus genus was conducted by the Real-time PCR and based on Ion Torrent Next-Generation in sequencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2020.197990DOI Listing
August 2020
2.324 Impact Factor

An Embryonated Egg Transmission Model for Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA.

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is a vector-borne orbivirus of ruminants; in North America there are three serotypes (EHDV-1, -2, and -6) and these primarily affect white-tailed deer (). EHDV is vectored by biting midges, spp. Embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) have recently been used as an experimental host to investigate the vector competence of Australian spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2590DOI Listing

Development of a Digital RT-PCR Method for Absolute Quantification of Bluetongue Virus in Field Samples.

Front Vet Sci 2020 21;7:170. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Sanità Animale, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Della Sardegna, Sassari, Italy.

Bluetongue (BT) is a major Office International des Epizooties (OIE)-listed disease of wild and domestic ruminants caused by several serotypes of Bluetongue virus (BTV), a virus with a segmented dsRNA genome belonging to the family , genus . BTV is transmitted through the bites of midges. The aim of this study was to develop a new method for quantification of BTV Seg-10 by droplet digital RT-PCR (RTdd-PCR), using nucleic acids purified from complex matrices such as blood, tissues, and midges, that notoriously contain strong PCR inhibitors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186476PMC

Endemic and Emerging Arboviruses in Domestic Ruminants in East Asia.

Front Vet Sci 2020 7;7:168. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Viral Disease and Epidemiology Research Division, National Institute of Animal Health, NARO, Tsukuba, Japan.

Epizootic congenital abnormalities caused by Akabane, Aino, and Chuzan viruses have damaged the reproduction of domestic ruminants in East Asia for many years. In the past, large outbreaks of febrile illness related to bovine ephemeral fever and Ibaraki viruses severely affected the cattle industry in that region. In recent years, vaccines against these viruses have reduced the occurrence of diseases, although the viruses are still circulating and have occasionally caused sporadic and small-scaled epidemics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7154088PMC

Genomic characterization of Changuinola viruses from Panama: evidence for multiple genome segment reassortment.

Virus Genes 2020 Aug 16;56(4):527-530. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Vitalant Research Institute, San Francisco, CA, USA.

The complete coding sequences of five divergent strains of Changuinola virus (CGLV), collected over a 16-year period in Panama, were determined, using viral metagenomics. Each strain had 10 RNA segments that encoded structural and non-structural proteins with amino acid identities ranging from 33 to 99% with sequences of other 15 members of the Changuinola virus (Reoviridae: Orbivirus) species group. Genetic analyses of the five Panamanian virus strains revealed probable reassortment among multiple segments of the viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11262-020-01758-0DOI Listing
August 2020
1.837 Impact Factor

Bluetongue Serotype 3 in Israel 2013-2018: Clinical Manifestations of the Disease and Molecular Characterization of Israeli Strains.

Front Vet Sci 2020 6;7:112. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

OIE Reference Laboratory for Bluetongue, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise (IZSAM), Campo Boario, Teramo, Italy.

In this paper, the results of the diagnostic activities on Bluetongue virus serotype 3 (BTV-3) conducted at Kimron Veterinary Institute (Beit Dagan, Israel) between 2013 and 2018 are reported. Bluetongue virus is the causative agent of bluetongue (BT), a disease of ruminants, mostly transmitted by competent species. In Israel, BTV-3 circulation was first detected in 2013 from a sheep showing classical BT clinical signs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7068852PMC

Identification and Characterization of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 14 in Russia.

Front Vet Sci 2020 28;7:26. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Federal Research Center for Virology and Microbiology, Pokrov, Russia.

This paper reports a case of bluetongue virus (BTV) infection in the Smolensk and Kaluga regions of Russia in 2011-2012. The virus was initially detected in heifers transferred in Russia from Germany through Poland and Belarus in 2011. On day 27 of quarantine, RNA and infectious viruses of BTV were detected in four heifers, but five were serologically positive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059698PMC
February 2020

Development and optimization of a DNA-based reverse genetics systems for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus.

Arch Virol 2020 May 6;165(5):1079-1087. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

The Key Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health, Ministry of Agriculture, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, 150069, China.

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is a member of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae, and has a genome consisting of 10 linear double-stranded (ds) RNA segments. The current reverse genetics system (RGS) for engineering the EHDV genome relies on the use of in vitro-synthesized capped viral RNA transcripts. To obtain more-efficient and simpler RGSs for EHDV, we developed an entirely DNA (plasmid or PCR amplicon)-based RGS for viral rescue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04583-wDOI Listing

Letea Virus: Comparative Genomics and Phylogenetic Analysis of a Novel Reassortant Orbivirus Discovered in Grass Snakes ().

Viruses 2020 Feb 21;12(2). Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, WHO Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus and Hemorrhagic Fever Reference and Research, 20359 Hamburg, Germany.

The discovery and characterization of novel arthropod-borne viruses provide valuable information on their genetic diversity, ecology, evolution and potential to threaten animal or public health. Arbovirus surveillance is not conducted regularly in Romania, being particularly very scarce in the remote and diverse areas like the Danube Delta. Here we describe the detection and genetic characterization of a novel orbivirus (: ) designated as Letea virus, which was found in grass snakes () during a metagenomic and metatranscriptomic survey conducted between 2014 and 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12020243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7077223PMC
February 2020

Experimental infection of calves with seven serotypes of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease virus: production and characterization of reference sera.

Vet Ital 2019 Dec 31;55(4):339-346. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

UMR Virologie, INRA, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, laboratoire de santé animale d'Alfort, ANSES, Université Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France.

The aim of this study was to produce reference sera against the seven serotypes of Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV‑1, EHDV‑2, EHDV‑4, EHDV‑5, EHDV‑6, EHDV‑7, and EHDV‑8). In a high containment unit, seven Prim 'Holstein calves were inoculated at day 0 (D0) with the selected strains (1 EHDV serotype per calf ). Blood samples (EDTA and whole blood) were periodically taken from D0 until the end of the experiment (D31). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12834/VetIt.2104.11179.1DOI Listing
December 2019

Three New Species Isolated from Farmed White-Tailed Deer () in the United States.

Viruses 2019 12 20;12(1). Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

We report the detection and gene coding sequences of three novel species found in six dead farmed white-tailed deer in the United States. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the new orbiviruses are genetically closely related to the Guangxi, Mobuck, Peruvian horse sickness, and Yunnan orbiviruses, which are thought to be solely borne by mosquitos. However, four of the six viruses analyzed in this work were found as co-infecting agents along with a known cervid pathogen, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus-2 (EHDV-2), raising questions as to whether the new viruses are primary pathogens or secondary pathogens that exacerbate EHDV-2 infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12010013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7019857PMC
December 2019
3.279 Impact Factor

First report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) in Orinoquia region of Colombia

Biomedica 2019 12 1;39(4):785-797. Epub 2019 Dec 1.

Laboratorio de Entomología, Secretaría de Salud de Casanare, Yopal, Colombia.

Introducción. Aedes albopictus es vector de arbovirus, como Flavivirus, Alphavirus, Bunyavirus, Phlebovirus, Orbivirus y Picornavirus. Muchos son agentes etiológicos de enfermedades en humanos. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.4344DOI Listing
December 2019

PCR-based reverse genetics strategy for bluetongue virus recovery.

Virol J 2019 12 5;16(1):151. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

The Key Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health, Ministry of Agriculture, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, 150001, People's Republic of China.

Background: Bluetongue virus (BTV), an emerging insect vector mediated pathogen affecting both wild ruminants and livestock, has a genome consisting of 10 linear double-stranded RNA genome segments. BTV has a severe economic impact on agriculture in many parts of the world. Current reverse genetics (RG) strategy to rescue BTV mainly rely on in vitro synthesis of RNA transcripts from cloned complimentary DNA (cDNA) corresponding to viral genome segments with the aid of helper plasmids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-019-1261-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6896262PMC
December 2019

Plant-produced chimeric virus-like particles - a new generation vaccine against African horse sickness.

BMC Vet Res 2019 Dec 3;15(1):432. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

CSIR Chemicals, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa.

Background: African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe arthropod-borne viral disease of equids, with a mortality rate of up to 95% in susceptible naïve horses. Due to safety concerns with the current live, attenuated AHS vaccine, alternate safe and effective vaccination strategies such as virus-like particles (VLPs) are being investigated. Transient plant-based expression systems are a rapid and highly scalable means of producing such African horse sickness virus (AHSV) VLPs for vaccine purposes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-2184-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6892175PMC
December 2019

Genetic diversity of Kemerovo virus and phylogenetic relationships within the Great Island virus genetic group.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2020 Mar 17;11(2):101333. Epub 2019 Nov 17.

Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology, Tropical and Vector Borne Diseases, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia; Saint-Petersburg Pasteur Institute, Federal Service on Consumers' Rights Protection and Human Well-Being Surveillance, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

Kemerovo virus (KEMV) is a member of the Great Island virus genetic group, belonging to the tick-borne arboviruses of the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae. Nine strains of KEMV, which were isolated from various locations in Russia, were sequenced by high-throughput sequencing to study their intraspecific diversity and the interspecific relationships of viruses within the Great Island genetic group. For the first time, multiple reassortment within KEMV was reliably demonstrated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2019.101333DOI Listing

What are the limits of the packaging capacity for genomic RNA in the cores of rotaviruses and of other members of the Reoviridae?

Virus Res 2020 01 26;276:197822. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. Electronic address:

Species A rotaviruses (RVAs) can package additional homologous genomic sequences which have emerged by partial duplication events (genome rearrangements). Due to the availability of a plasmid only-based reverse genetics system for RVs, various heterologous sequences have been rescued as fusion genes into viable RVAs. Using cryo-electron microscopy, the native structures of the dsRNA genome of Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus, a member of the Cypovirus genus of the Reoviridae, and partially of Rotavirus and Orbivirus, have been determined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2019.197822DOI Listing
January 2020
5 Reads

Method validation, reference values, and characterization of acute-phase protein responses to experimentally induced inflammation and bluetongue virus infection in the Iberian ibex.

Vet Clin Pathol 2019 Dec 20;48(4):695-701. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Servei d'Hematologia Clínica Veterinària, Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Acute phase protein (APP) concentrations can change due to inflammation and be used to monitor disease in the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica).

Objectives: This study aimed to validate Haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) analytes, establish reference values, and characterize Hp and SAA responses in the Iberian ibex after experimentally induced inflammation and experimental bluetongue virus (BTV) infection.

Methods: Sera from 40 free-ranging box-trapped ibexes were used to establish Hp and SAA reference values. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12802DOI Listing
December 2019

Ecological niche modelling to estimate the distribution of Culicoides, potential vectors of bluetongue virus in Senegal.

BMC Ecol 2019 11 1;19(1):45. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles/Laboratoire National de l'Elevage et de Recherches Vétérinaires, BP 2057, Dakar-Hann, Senegal.

Background: Vector-borne diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. In the Afrotropical region, some are transmitted by Culicoides, such as Akabane, bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic fever and African horse sickness viruses. Bluetongue virus infection has an enormous impact on ruminant production, due to its high morbidity and mortality rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12898-019-0261-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6825335PMC
November 2019

Assessing the potential of plains zebra to maintain African horse sickness in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

PLoS One 2019 31;14(10):e0222366. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

South African Equine Health & Protocols NPC, Paardevlei, Cape Town, South Africa.

African horse sickness (AHS) is a disease of equids that results in a non-tariff barrier to the trade of live equids from affected countries. AHS is endemic in South Africa except for a controlled area in the Western Cape Province (WCP) where sporadic outbreaks have occurred in the past 2 decades. There is potential that the presence of zebra populations, thought to be the natural reservoir hosts for AHS, in the WCP could maintain AHS virus circulation in the area and act as a year-round source of infection for horses. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0222366PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6822716PMC

Novel Viruses in Mosquitoes from Brazilian Pantanal.

Viruses 2019 10 17;11(10). Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Sáude, Laboratório de Virologia, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), 78060-900 Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

Viruses are ubiquitous and diverse microorganisms arising as a result of interactions within their vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Here we report the presence of different viruses in the salivary glands of 1657 mosquitoes classified over 28 culicinae species from the North region of the Brazilian Pantanal wetland through metagenomics, viral isolation, and RT-PCR. In total, 12 viruses were found, eight putative novel viruses with relatively low similarity with pre-existing species of viruses within their families, named Pirizal iflavirus, Furrundu phlebovirus, Pixé phlebovirus, Guampa vesiculovirus, Chacororé flavivirus, Rasqueado orbivirus, Uru chuvirus, and Bororo circovirus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11100957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6832572PMC
October 2019
1 Read

Vector competence is strongly affected by a small deletion or point mutations in bluetongue virus.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Oct 11;12(1):470. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Department of Virology, Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, Lelystad, The Netherlands.

Background: Transmission of vector-borne virus by insects is a complex mechanism consisting of many different processes; viremia in the host, uptake, infection and dissemination in the vector, and delivery of virus during blood-feeding leading to infection of the susceptible host. Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the prototype vector-borne orbivirus (family Reoviridae). BTV serotypes 1-24 (typical BTVs) are transmitted by competent biting Culicoides midges and replicate in mammalian (BSR) and midge (KC) cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3722-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6790033PMC
October 2019

Virus-induced autophagic degradation of STAT2 as a mechanism for interferon signaling blockade.

EMBO Rep 2019 11 11;20(11):e48766. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal (CISA-INIA), Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Valdeolmos, Madrid, Spain.

The mammalian interferon (IFN) signaling pathway is a primary component of the innate antiviral response, and viral pathogens have evolved multiple mechanisms to antagonize this pathway and to facilitate infection. Bluetongue virus (BTV), an orbivirus of the Reoviridae family, is transmitted by midges to ruminants and causes a disease that produces important economic losses and restriction to animal trade and is of compulsory notification to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Here, we show that BTV interferes with IFN-I and IFN-II responses in two ways, by blocking STAT1 phosphorylation and by degrading STAT2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embr.201948766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6831997PMC
November 2019
1 Read

Potential vectors of bluetongue virus in high altitude areas of Yunnan Province, China.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Oct 4;12(1):464. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

Zhongdian Animal Disease Control Center, Shangri-La, Yunnan Province, China.

Background: Bluetongue disease of ruminants is a typical insect-borne disease caused by bluetongue virus (BTV) of the genus Orbivirus (family Reoviridae) and transmitted by some species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Recently, the detection of BTV in yaks in high altitude meadows of the Shangri-La district of Yunnan Province, China, prompted an investigation of the Culicoides fauna as potential vectors of BTV.

Methods: A total of 806 Culicoides midges were collected by light trapping at three sites at altitudes ranging from 1800 to 3300 m. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3736-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6778386PMC
October 2019
3 Reads

Identification and complete-genome phylogenetic analysis of an epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7 strain isolated in China.

Arch Virol 2019 Dec 19;164(12):3121-3126. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Division of Livestock Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, 150069, Heilongjiang, People's Republic of China.

An epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) strain designated YN09-04 was isolated from sentinel cattle in China. The length of its complete genome was 19,344 bp in total, consisting of 10 segments ranging in size from 810 bp (S10) to 3942 bp (S1). Based on phylogenetic analysis of the S2 sequence, YN09-04 clusters with EHDV serotype 7 (EHDV-7) strains form a distinct, well-supported subgroup, indicating that YN09-04 belongs to EHDV-7. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-019-04412-9DOI Listing
December 2019

African Horse Sickness: A Review of Current Understanding and Vaccine Development.

Viruses 2019 09 11;11(9). Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Biopharming Research Unit, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town, South Africa.

African horse sickness is a devastating disease that causes great suffering and many fatalities amongst horses in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by nine different serotypes of the orbivirus African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and it is spread by Culicoid midges. The disease has significant economic consequences for the equine industry both in southern Africa and increasingly further afield as the geographic distribution of the midge vector broadens with global warming and climate change. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/11/9/844
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11090844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6783979PMC
September 2019
1 Read

Hidden symmetry of the anomalous bluetongue virus capsid and its role in the infection process.

Soft Matter 2019 Oct 6;15(38):7663-7671. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Physics Faculty, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.

Clear understanding of the principles that control the arrangement of proteins and their self-assembly into viral shells is very important for the development of antiviral strategies. Here we consider the structural peculiarities and hidden symmetry of the anomalous bluetongue virus (BTV) capsid. Each of its three concentric shells violates the paradigmatic geometrical model of Caspar and Klug, which is otherwise well suited to describe most of the known icosahedral viral shells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9sm01335kDOI Listing
October 2019

Characterization of bluetongue virus serotype 28.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jan 10;67(1):171-182. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Division of Virology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan, Israel.

Bluetongue virus (Reoviridae; Orbivirus, BTV), which is usually transmitted by biting midges, affects wild and domestic ruminants worldwide, thereby causing an economically important disease. Recently, a putative new BTV strain was isolated from contaminated vaccine batches. In this study, we investigated the genomic and clinical characteristics of this isolate, provisionally designated BTV-28. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13338DOI Listing
January 2020
2 Reads
2.944 Impact Factor

-Acting RNA-RNA Interactions in Segmented RNA Viruses.

Viruses 2019 08 14;11(8). Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada.

RNA viruses represent a large and important group of pathogens that infect a broad range of hosts. Segmented RNA viruses are a subclass of this group that encode their genomes in two or more molecules and package all of their RNA segments in a single virus particle. These divided genomes come in different forms, including double-stranded RNA, coding-sense single-stranded RNA, and noncoding single-stranded RNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11080751DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6723669PMC

Hsp90 Chaperones Bluetongue Virus Proteins and Prevents Proteasomal Degradation.

J Virol 2019 10 30;93(20). Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Department of Pathogen Molecular Biology, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

The molecular chaperone machinery is important for the maintenance of protein homeostasis within the cells. The principle activities of the chaperone machinery are to facilitate protein folding and organize conformationally dynamic client proteins. Prominent among the members of the chaperone family are heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and 90 (Hsp90). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00898-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6798104PMC
October 2019
12 Reads

In situ structures of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inside bluetongue virus before and after uncoating.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 08 26;116(33):16535-16540. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095;

Bluetongue virus (BTV), a major threat to livestock, is a multilayered, nonturreted member of the , a family of segmented dsRNA viruses characterized by endogenous RNA transcription through an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). To date, the structure of BTV RdRp has been unknown, limiting our mechanistic understanding of BTV transcription and hindering rational drug design effort targeting this essential enzyme. Here, we report the in situ structures of BTV RdRp VP1 in both the triple-layered virion and double-layered core, as determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) and subparticle reconstruction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1905849116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6697807PMC
August 2019
7 Reads

Serological evidence of bluetongue virus infection and serotype distribution in dairy cattle in South Korea.

BMC Vet Res 2019 Jul 23;15(1):255. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Department of Life Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Academy-ro 119, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, 22012, South Korea.

Background: Bluetongue is a vector-borne viral disease, and bluetongue virus (BTV) outbreaks can cause substantial economic losses. Even subclinical infection may carry significant associated costs, including a loss of condition, reduced milk yield, and infertility and abortion, and indirect costs, largely due to the export restrictions and surveillance requirements imposed to limit the spread of the virus. However, the BTV epidemiology in the Far East remains incompletely understood, especially in the cattle population in South Korea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-2000-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6651986PMC
July 2019
2 Reads

Ixodes persulcatus/pavlovskyi natural hybrids in Siberia: Occurrence in sympatric areas and infection by a wide range of tick-transmitted agents.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2019 10 21;10(6):101254. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation. Electronic address:

Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes pavlovskyi ticks, two closely related species of the I. ricinus - I. persulcatus group, are widely distributed in the southern part of Western Siberia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2019.05.020DOI Listing
October 2019
1 Read

Evidence of Intragenic Recombination in African Horse Sickness Virus.

Viruses 2019 07 18;11(7). Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, 100 Old Soutpan road, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa.

Intragenic recombination has been described in various RNA viruses as a mechanism to increase genetic diversity, resulting in increased virulence, expanded host range, or adaptability to a changing environment. Orbiviruses are no exception to this, with intragenic recombination previously detected in the type species, bluetongue virus (BTV). African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is a double-stranded RNA virus belonging to the genus in the family . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11070654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6669442PMC

Antibodies to Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV) in Farmed and Wild Florida White-Tailed Deer ().

J Wildl Dis 2020 01 12;56(1):208-213. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, 110 Newins-Ziegler Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA.

The transmission of multiple serotypes of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) between farmed and free-ranging wildlife is of interest to livestock industries and natural resource agencies. We compared the seroprevalence of EHDV-1, -2, and -6 in wild and farmed white-tailed deer () herds in Florida, US. We compared serological prevalence, circulating serotypes, antibody titers, and viremia with the use of 171 whole-blood samples from 150 unvaccinated white-tailed deer from farm pens, a farm preserve, and wild deer on adjacent public lands between March 2016 and May 2017. Read More

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January 2020
3 Reads

The serologic investigation and viral isolation of bluetongue virus in Shangri-La in Southwest China.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2019 Nov 22;66(6):2353-2361. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Yunnan Tropical and Subtropical Animal Virus Diseases Laboratory, Yunnan Animal Science and Veterinary Institute, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Bluetongue is an arthropod-borne viral disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV). In China, BTV is relatively common in Yunnan Province with the exception of northern regions around Shangri-La, where the average altitude is approximately 3,450 metres. Recently, the seroprevalence of BTV has been measured in yaks in Shangri-La; therefore, this study investigated BTV infections in this area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6899809PMC
November 2019
3 Reads

Emergence of a Novel Reassortant Strain of Bluetongue Serotype 6 in Israel, 2017: Clinical Manifestations of the Disease and Molecular Characterization.

Viruses 2019 07 10;11(7). Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Kimron Veterinary Institute, Division of Virology, Beit Dagan 50250, Israel.

Reassortment contributes to the evolution of RNA viruses with segmented genomes, including Bluetongue virus (BTV). Recently, co-circulation of natural and vaccine BTV variants in Europe, and their ensuing reassortment, were proposed to promote appearance of novel European BTV strains, with potential implications for pathogenicity, spread and vaccination policies. Similarly, the geographical features of the Mediterranean basin, which spans over portions of three continents, may facilitate the appearance of clinically relevant reassortants via co-circulation of BTV strains of African, Asian and European origins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11070633DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6669665PMC
July 2019
3.279 Impact Factor

Transplacental transmission of the Italian Bluetongue virus serotype 2 in sheep

Vet Ital 2019 06 30;55(2):131-141. Epub 2019 Jun 30.

OIE Reference Laboratory for Bluetongue, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise 'G. Caporale', Campo Boario, 64100 Teramo, Italy.

In order to study the capability of a Bluetongue virus serotype 2 (BTV‑2) field isolate to cross the placental barrier, 2 groups of 5 pregnant ewes were infected with a field BTV‑2 Italian strain (Group A) or with the same strain passaged once in Culicoides cells (Kc) (Group B). Following infection, EDTA‑blood and serum samples were collected weekly and tested for the presence of BTV RNA/infectious virus and anti‑BTV‑2 antibodies, respectively. At lambing, precolostral EDTA‑blood and serum samples were collected from lambs and tested as before. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12834/VetIt.1913.10140.1DOI Listing

Detection of a novel reassortant epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 6 in cattle in Trinidad, West Indies, containing nine RNA segments derived from exotic EHDV strains with an Australian origin.

Infect Genet Evol 2019 10 22;74:103931. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

Non-vesicular reference laboratory, The Pirbright Institute, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NF, UK.

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is a Culicoides-transmitted orbivirus that infects domestic and wild ruminants in many parts of the world. Of the eight proposed serotypes, only EHDV-1, 2 and 6 have been reported to be present in the Americas. Following the identification of a virulent EHD-6 reasssortant virus in the USA in 2007 (EHDV-6 Indiana), with outer coat protein segments derived from an Australian strain of EHDV and all remaining segments derived from a locally circulating EHDV-2 strain, questions have remained about the origin of the Australian parent strain and how it may have arrived in the USA. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15671348193015
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2019.103931DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6857627PMC
October 2019
4 Reads

Establishing post-outbreak freedom from African horse sickness virus in South Africa's surveillance zone.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2019 Nov 7;66(6):2288-2296. Epub 2019 Jul 7.

Epidemiology Section, Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

An African horse sickness (AHS) outbreak occurred in South Africa's AHS controlled area in autumn 2016. A freedom from disease survey was performed to establish the likelihood of ongoing circulation of the associated virus during the same period the following year. A single-stage surveillance strategy was employed with a population-level design prevalence of 1% to establish a survey population sensitivity of 95% (probability that one or more positive horses would be detected if AHS was present at a prevalence greater than or equal to the design prevalence). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13279DOI Listing
November 2019
10 Reads

Country-wide distribution of bluetongue virus with expanding host spectrum and evidence of vector competence in Hungary.

Acta Virol 2019 ;63(2):229-234

Following the introduction of bluetongue virus type 4 (BTV-4) in 2014, country-wide monitoring of bluetongue (BT) disease was performed to see whether the virus has become enzootic in Hungary. To analyse the epizootiology of BT, over 110,000 samples collected from domestic and wild ruminants were screened for the presence of BTV RNA and virus-specific antibodies using real-time RT-PCR assay and commercial ELISA kit, respectively. During laboratory analysis, specimens collected from 333 (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4149/av_2019_213DOI Listing
August 2019
6 Reads

Replication kinetics and cellular tropism of emerging reoviruses in sheep and swine respiratory ex vivo organ cultures.

Vet Microbiol 2019 Jul 4;234:119-127. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

OIE Reference Laboratory for Bluetongue, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise (IZSAM), Teramo, Italy. Electronic address:

Ex vivo organ cultures (EVOCs) are extensively used to study the cellular tropism and infectivity of different pathogens. In this study, we used ovine and porcine respiratory EVOCs to investigate the replication kinetics and cellular tropism of selected emerging reoviruses namely Pteropine orthoreovirus, an emerging bat-borne zoonotic respiratory virus, and atypical Bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes which, unlike classical serotypes, do not cause Bluetongue, a major OIE-listed disease of ruminants. BTV failed to replicate in ovine EVOCs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.06.001DOI Listing
July 2019
3 Reads

Transcriptome analysis of responses to bluetongue virus infection in Aedes albopictus cells.

BMC Microbiol 2019 06 10;19(1):121. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xujiaping 1, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730046, People's Republic of China.

Background: Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes a disease among wild and domesticated ruminants which is not contagious, but which is transmitted by biting midges of the Culicoides species. BTV can induce an intense cytopathic effect (CPE) in mammalian cells after infection, although Culicoides- or mosquito-derived cell cultures cause non-lytic infection with BTV without CPE. However, little is known about the transcriptome changes in Aedes albopictus cells infected with BTV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-019-1498-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6558886PMC
June 2019
22 Reads

Culicoides species as potential vectors of African horse sickness virus in the southern regions of South Africa.

Med Vet Entomol 2019 12 7;33(4):498-511. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa.

African horse sickness (AHS), a disease of equids caused by the AHS virus, is of major concern in South Africa. With mortality reaching up to 95% in susceptible horses and the apparent reoccurrence of cases in regions deemed non-endemic, most particularly the Eastern Cape, epidemiological research into factors contributing to the increase in the range of this economically important virus became imperative. The vectors, Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), are considered unable to proliferate during the unfavourable climatic conditions experienced in winter in the province, although the annual occurrence of AHS suggests that the virus has become established and that vector activity continues throughout the year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mve.12391DOI Listing
December 2019
2 Reads

Novel Function of Bluetongue Virus NS3 Protein in Regulation of the MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathway.

J Virol 2019 08 30;93(16). Epub 2019 Jul 30.

UMR Virologie, INRA, École Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, ANSES, Université Paris-Est, Maisons-Alfort, France

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arbovirus transmitted by blood-feeding midges to a wide range of wild and domestic ruminants. In this report, we showed that BTV, through its nonstructural protein NS3 (BTV-NS3), is able to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathway, as assessed by phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and the translation initiation factor eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). By combining immunoprecipitation of BTV-NS3 and mass spectrometry analysis from both BTV-infected and NS3-transfected cells, we identified the serine/threonine-protein kinase B-Raf (BRAF), a crucial player in the MAPK/ERK pathway, as a new cellular interactor of BTV-NS3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00336-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6675888PMC
August 2019
19 Reads