2,898 results match your criteria Orbivirus


Diagnostic applications of molecular and serological assays for bluetongue and African horse sickness.

Rev Sci Tech 2021 Jun;40(1):91-104

The availability of rapid, highly sensitive and specific molecular and serologic diagnostic assays, such as competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), has expedited the diagnosis of emerging transboundary animal diseases, including bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS), and facilitated more thorough characterisation of their epidemiology. The development of assays based on real-time, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect and identify the numerous serotypes of BT virus (BTV) and AHS virus (AHSV) has aided in-depth studies of the epidemiology of BTV infection in California and AHSV infection in South Africa. The subsequent evaluation of pan-serotype, real-time, RT-PCR-positive samples through the use of serotype-specific RT-PCR assays allows the rapid identification of virus serotypes, reducing the need for expensive and time-consuming conventional methods, such as virus isolation and serotype-specific virus neutralisation assays. Read More

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Pathogen detection and disease diagnosis in wildlife: challenges and opportunities.

Rev Sci Tech 2021 Jun;40(1):105-118

The availability of rapid, highly sensitive and specific molecular and serologic diagnostic assays, such as competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), has expedited the diagnosis of emerging transboundary animal diseases, including bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS), and facilitated more thorough characterisation of their epidemiology. The development of assays based on real-time, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect and identify the numerous serotypes of BT virus (BTV) and AHS virus (AHSV) has aided in-depth studies of the epidemiology of BTV infection in California and AHSV infection in South Africa. The subsequent evaluation of pan-serotype, real-time, RT-PCR-positive samples through the use of serotype-specific RT-PCR assays allows the rapid identification of virus serotypes, reducing the need for expensive and time-consuming conventional methods, such as virus isolation and serotype-specific virus neutralisation assays. Read More

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Study of molecular diagnosis and viremia of bluetongue virus in sheep and cattle.

Braz J Microbiol 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Laboratório Nacional Agropecuário de Minas Gerais, Avenida Rômulo Joviano, Centro, Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais, ZIP 33600-000, Brazil.

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an RNA virus that infects cattle and sheep. The objective of this study was to compare two real-time PCRs for the detection of BTV and to monitor Orbivirus viremia in sheep and cattle for 6 months. The PCR results showed the occurrence of infected animals throughout the experiment without records of clinical signs. Read More

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Bat Flies of the Family (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) Host Relatives of Medically and Agriculturally Important "Bat-Associated" Viruses.

Viruses 2021 05 8;13(5). Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Bat flies (Hippoboscoidea: and ) are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites of bats. We collected streblid bat flies from the New World (México) and the Old World (Uganda), and used metagenomics to identify their viruses. In México, we found méjal virus (; ), Amate virus (: ), and two unclassified viruses of invertebrates. Read More

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Genome Sequence of a Yunnan Orbivirus Isolated from a Dead Florida White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

Microbiol Resour Announc 2021 May 6;10(18). Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA

We report the complete coding sequences of a Yunnan orbivirus isolated from a dead white-tailed deer () in Florida in 2019. The prevalence of Yunnan orbivirus and its role in disease among farmed white-tailed deer remain to be determined. Read More

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Entry-competent-replication-abortive African horse sickness virus strains elicit robust immunity in ponies against all serotypes.

Vaccine 2021 05 3;39(23):3161-3168. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Infection Biology, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Disease, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an Orbivirus within the Reoviridae family, spread by Culicoides species of midges, which infects equids with high mortality, particularly in horses and has a considerable impact on the equine industry. In order to control the disease, we previously described Entry Competent Replication Abortive (ECRA) virus strains for each of the nine distinct AHSV serotypes and demonstrated their potential as vaccines, first in type I interferon receptor (IFNAR-/-) knockout mice, and then in ponies. In this report we have investigated whether or not a combination ECRA vaccine comprising nine vaccine strains as two different cocktails is as efficient in ponies and the duration of the immunity triggered by ECRA vaccines. Read More

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Vector Competence of Florida (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) for Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Serotype-2.

Viruses 2021 03 5;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Vero Beach, FL 32962, USA.

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV; family , genus ) is an arthropod-borne virus of ungulates, primarily white-tailed deer in North America. , the only confirmed North American vector of EHDV, is rarely collected from Florida despite annual virus outbreaks. is an abundant species in Florida and is also a confirmed vector of the closely related Bluetongue virus. Read More

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Epidemiology and Genomic Analysis of Equine Encephalosis Virus Detected in Horses with Clinical Signs in South Africa, 2010-2017.

Viruses 2021 03 2;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Centre for Viral Zoonoses, Department Medical Virology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0001, South Africa.

Equine encephalosis virus (EEV) is a neglected virus endemic to South Africa and is considered to generally result in mild disease in equines. Specimens were analyzed from live horses that presented with undefined neurological, febrile, or respiratory signs, or sudden and unexpected death. Between 2010 and 2017, 111 of 1523 (7. Read More

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Virulent African horse sickness virus serotype 4 interferes with the innate immune response in horse peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Jul 31;91:104836. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Agricultural Research Council - Onderstepoort Veterinary Research, Private Bag X5, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa; Department of Veterinary Tropical Disease, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa.

African horse sickness (AHS) is caused by African horse sickness virus (AHSV), a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. For the development of new generation AHS vaccines or antiviral treatments, it is crucial to understand the host immune response against the virus and the immune evasion strategies the virus employs. To achieve this, the current study used transcriptome analysis of RNA sequences to characterize and compare the innate immune responses activated during the attenuated AHSV serotype 4 (attAHSV4) (in vivo) and the virulent AHSV4 (virAHSV4) (in vitro) primary and secondary immune responses in horse peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after 24 h. Read More

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The virome of German bats: comparing virus discovery approaches.

Sci Rep 2021 04 1;11(1):7430. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens, Robert Koch Institute, Seestrasse 10, 13353, Berlin, Germany.

Bats are known to be reservoirs of several highly pathogenic viruses. Hence, the interest in bat virus discovery has been increasing rapidly over the last decade. So far, most studies have focused on a single type of virus detection method, either PCR, virus isolation or virome sequencing. Read More

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Vaccination With Recombinant Adenoviruses Expressing the Bluetongue Virus Subunits VP7 and VP2 Provides Protection Against Heterologous Virus Challenge.

Front Vet Sci 2021 10;8:645561. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal (CISA-INIA), Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid, Spain.

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent of a disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants and leads to critical economic losses. BTV is an arbovirus from the Reoviridae family that is typically transmitted by the bite of infected midges. BTV possesses multiple serotypes (up to 28 have been described), and immunity to one serotype offers little cross-protection to other serotypes. Read More

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Sero-epidemiological survey of bluetongue disease in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Kassala State, Eastern Sudan.

Ir Vet J 2021 Mar 26;74(1). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Central Laboratory, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, P.O. Box 2081, Khartoum, Sudan.

Background: Bluetongue (BT) is a vector-borne viral disease of ruminant and camelid species which is transmitted by Culicoides spp. The causative agent of BT is bluetongue virus (BTV) that belongs to genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae. The clinical disease is seen mainly in sheep but mostly sub-clinical infections of BT are seen in cattle, goats and camelids. Read More

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Sero-surveillance of emerging viral diseases in camels and cattle in Nouakchott, Mauritania: an abattoir study.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Mar 5;53(2):195. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise "G. Caporale" - IZSAM, Teramo, Italy.

This study reports the monitoring of several emerging viral pathogens in Mauritania, which was carried out by the analysis of bovine and camel samples taken at the slaughterhouse of Nouakchott. Blood and serum were collected by random sampling from 159 camels and 118 cattle in March 2013 at the large animals abattoir in Nouakchott. Serological tests for Rift Valley Fever (RVF), Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR), West Nile disease (WND), epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) and African horse sickness (AHS) were carried out using commercial ELISA kits. Read More

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The Effect of Maternal Antibodies on Clinical Response to Infection with Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Fawns.

J Wildl Dis 2021 01;57(1):189-193

Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, 589 D. W. Brooks Drive, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA.

We investigated whether naturally acquired maternal antibodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 2 (EHDV-2) would protect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns against infection and clinical disease following an EHDV-2 challenge. We compared viremia and clinical response in 27-47-d-old, experimentally infected fawns with and without maternally derived antibodies to EHDV-2. Mild to moderate clinical signs were observed in four seronegative (maternal antibody-negative) fawns, which were viremic from 3 to 14 d postinoculation. Read More

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January 2021

SPATIAL VARIATION OF WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) POPULATION IMPACTS AND RECOVERY FROM EPIZOOTIC HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE.

J Wildl Dis 2021 01;57(1):82-93

Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, 480 Wilson Road, Room 13, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) is the most significant source of viral disease-related mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the US. Deer mortality from EHD has increased in the state of Michigan, US, since 2006, with the largest outbreak occurring in 2012. The 2012 outbreak provided an opportunity to evaluate how this disease affected EHD-related mortality in deer populations at a spatial scale typical of that expected for the greatest disease risk. Read More

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January 2021

Genomic analysis of putative novel serotypes of Tibet orbivirus isolated in Japan.

Arch Virol 2021 Apr 6;166(4):1151-1156. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Kyushu Research Station, National Institute of Animal Health (NIAH), National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 2702 Chuzan, Kagoshima, Kagoshima, 891-0105, Japan.

Tibet orbivirus (TIBOV) was initially isolated in Tibet in 2009 and subsequently in Guangdong, Hunan, and Yunnan, China. We document the first isolation of TIBOV outside of China: two TIBOV isolates from Culicoides collected in 2009 and 2010 in Kagoshima, Japan. Their complete genome sequences were also determined. Read More

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The VP3 Protein of Bluetongue Virus Associates with the MAVS Complex and Interferes with the RIG-I-Signaling Pathway.

Viruses 2021 02 2;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

UMR 1161 Virologie, Laboratory for Animal Health, INRAE, Department of Animal Health, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, ANSES, Université Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France.

Bluetongue virus (BTV), an arbovirus transmitted by biting midges, is a major concern of wild and domestic ruminants. While BTV induces type I interferon (alpha/beta interferon [IFN-α/β]) production in infected cells, several reports have described evasion strategies elaborated by this virus to dampen this intrinsic, innate response. In the present study, we suggest that BTV VP3 is a new viral antagonist of the IFN-β synthesis. Read More

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February 2021

Detection of Changuinola virus (Reoviridae: Orbivirus) in field-caught sand flies in southern Thailand.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jan 29. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Vector Biology and Vector Borne Disease Research Unit, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

Background: Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors for several pathogenic bacteria, parasites and viruses that have significant impacts on public health. Sand fly-associated viruses that cause diseases in humans and animals have recently received more attention. This study aimed to detect pathogenic viruses belonging to the Orbivirus genus, Phlebovirus genus, Flavivirus genus and family Rhabdoviridae in several field-caught sand fly species in southern Thailand. Read More

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January 2021

Bluetongue Viruses Act as Novel Oncolytic Viruses to Effectively Inhibit Human Renal Cancer Cell Growth In Vitro and In Vivo.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Jan 28;27:e930634. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Urology, Capital Medical University Beijing Chao-yang Hospital, Institute of Urology, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND The bluetongue virus (BTV) is the prototype virus in the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae. Recent studies indicate that BTVs are capable of infecting and selectively lysing human hepatic carcinoma cells (Hep-3B) and prostate carcinoma cells (pc-3). This study was designed to evaluate the oncolytic potential of BTV in experimental models of human renal cancer in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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January 2021

EVIDENCE OF EPIZOOTIC HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE VIRUS AND BLUETONGUE VIRUS EXPOSURE IN NONNATIVE RUMINANT SPECIES IN NORTHERN FLORIDA.

J Zoo Wildl Med 2021 Jan;51(4):745-751

Spatial Epidemiology and Ecology Research Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA,

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and bluetongue virus (BTV) are vector-borne viruses of ruminants nearly worldwide. They can affect white-tailed deer (WTD; ), the ranching industry, and nonindigenous hoof stock species managed for conservation. One potential risk factor for ranched WTD is commingling with nonindigenous species on high-fenced properties. Read More

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January 2021

Putative Novel Serotypes '33' and '35' in Clinically Healthy Small Ruminants in Mongolia Expand the Group of Atypical BTV.

Viruses 2020 12 29;13(1). Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17943 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

Between 2015 and 2018, we identified the presence of three so-far-unknown Bluetongue virus (BTV) strains (BTV-MNG1/2018, BTV-MNG2/2016, and BTV-MNG3/2016) circulating in clinical healthy sheep and goats in Mongolia. Virus isolation from EDTA blood samples of BTV-MNG1/2018 and BTV-MNG3/2016 was successful on the mammalian cell line BSR using blood collected from surveillance. After experimental inoculation of goats with BTV-MNG2/2016 positive blood as inoculum, we observed viraemia in one goat and with the EDTA blood of the experimental inoculation, the propagation of BTV-MNG2/2016 in cell culture was successful on mammalian cell line BSR as well. Read More

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December 2020

VP2 Gene-Based Molecular Evolutionary Patterns of Major Circulating Bluetongue Virus Serotypes Isolated during 2014-2018 from Telangana and Andhra Pradesh States of India.

Intervirology 2020 Dec 30:1-8. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Departments of Veterinary Microbiology and Veterinary Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Science, PVNRTVU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India,

Introduction: Bluetongue disease is an economically important viral disease of livestock caused by bluetongue virus (BTV) having multiple serotypes. It belongs to the genus Orbivirus of family Reoviridae and subfamily Sedoreovirinae. The genome of BTV is 10 segmented dsRNA that codes for 7 structural and 4 nonstructural proteins, of which VP2 was reported to be serotype-specific and a major antigenic determinant. Read More

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December 2020

Viral Vector Vaccines against Bluetongue Virus.

Microorganisms 2020 Dec 25;9(1). Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA.

Bluetongue virus (BTV), the prototype member of the genus (family ), is the causative agent of an important livestock disease, bluetongue (BT), which is transmitted via biting midges of the genus To date, up to 29 serotypes of BTV have been described, which are classified as classical (BTV 1-24) or atypical (serotypes 25-27), and its distribution has been expanding since 1998, with important outbreaks in the Mediterranean Basin and devastating incursions in Northern and Western Europe. Classical vaccine approaches, such as live-attenuated and inactivated vaccines, have been used as prophylactic measures to control BT through the years. However, these vaccine approaches fail to address important matters like vaccine safety profile, effectiveness, induction of a cross-protective immune response among serotypes, and implementation of a DIVA (differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals) strategy. Read More

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December 2020

Bluetongue virus serotype 12 enters Australia - a further incursion of novel western lineage genome segments.

J Gen Virol 2021 Mar 15;102(3). Epub 2020 Dec 15.

CSIRO Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness (formerly: Australian Animal Health Laboratory), Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arbovirus (genus: ) that occurs worldwide. It infects domestic and wild ruminant species and can cause disease in livestock, producing high economic impact. Recently, it gained extra prominence throughout Europe, with disease occurring in regions traditionally free of BTV. Read More

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Global emergence and evolutionary dynamics of bluetongue virus.

Sci Rep 2020 12 10;10(1):21677. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

VISAVET Health Surveillance Centre and Animal Health Department, Veterinary School, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Bluetongue virus (BTV) epidemics are responsible for worldwide economic losses of up to US$ 3 billion. Understanding the global evolutionary epidemiology of BTV is critical in designing intervention programs. Here we employed phylodynamic models to quantify the evolutionary characteristics, spatiotemporal origins, and multi-host transmission dynamics of BTV across the globe. Read More

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December 2020

Isolation and characterization of Wad Medani virus obtained in the tuva Republic of Russia.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 03 25;12(2):101612. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides FSBSI Chumakov FSC R&D IBP RAS, Moscow, Russia; Institute for Translational Medicine and Biotechnology, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

Wad Medani virus (WMV) belongs to the genus Orbivirus and is a poorly studied arbovirus with unclear medical significance. Presently, a limited number of WMV strains are characterized and available in NCBI GenBank, some isolated many years ago. A new WMV strain was isolated in 2012 from Dermacentor nuttalli ticks collected from sheep in the Tuva Republic, Russia, and sequenced using high-throughput methods. Read More

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Recombinant Rift Valley fever viruses encoding bluetongue virus (BTV) antigens: Immunity and efficacy studies upon a BTV-4 challenge.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 12 4;14(12):e0008942. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal (CISA), Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Valdeolmos (Madrid), Spain.

Background: Many ruminant diseases of viral aetiology can be effectively prevented using appropriate vaccination measures. For diseases such as Rift Valley fever (RVF) the long inter-epizootic periods make routine vaccination programs unfeasible. Coupling RVF prophylaxis with seasonal vaccination programmes by means of multivalent vaccine platforms would help to reduce the risk of new RVF outbreaks. Read More

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December 2020

Novel Serotype of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, China.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 12;26(12):3081-3083

In 2018, a strain of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), named YNDH/V079/2018, was isolated from a sentinel calf in Mangshi County, Yunnan Province, China. Nucleotide sequencing and neutralization tests indicated that the virus belongs to a novel serotype of EHDV that had not been reported previously. Read More

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December 2020

Novel putative bluetongue virus serotype 29 isolated from inapparently infected goat in Xinjiang of China.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Nov 15. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

Yunnan Tropical and Subtropical Animal Virus Diseases Laboratory, Yunnan Animal Science and Veterinary Institute, Kunming, Yunnan Province, China.

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the 'type' species of the genus Orbivirus causing bluetongue (BT) in sheep, bovine and other ruminants. Twenty-four serotypes and several atypical serotypes of BTV were identified worldwide. In present study, a novel strain of BTV (V196/XJ/2014) was isolated from an asymptomatic sentinel goat in Yuli County, Xinjiang of China. Read More

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November 2020

Re-emergence of BTV serotype 4 in North Macedonia, July 2020.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Mar 17;68(2):220-223. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, UK.

Bluetongue virus serotype 4 (BTV-4) was confirmed in sheep in North Macedonia in July 2020. The full genome of this BTV-4 strain (MKD2020/06) was shown to be most closely related (99.74% nt identity) to the Greek GRE2014/08 and the Hungarian HUN1014 strains, indicating the re-emergence of this BTV serotype in the Balkan region since it was last reported in 2017. Read More

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