J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2021 Feb 2;82(1):2-6. Epub 2021 Feb 2.
Department of Ophthalmology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, Michigan; Consultants in Ophthalmic and Facial Plastic Surgery, P.C., Southfield, Michigan, United States.
The orbit houses and protects the ocular globe and the supporting structures, and occupies a strategic position below the anterior skull base and adjacent to the paranasal sinuses. Its embryologic origins are inextricably intertwined with those of the central nervous system, skull base, and face. Although the orbit contains important contributions from four germ cell layers (surface ectoderm, neuroectoderm, neural crest, and mesoderm), a significant majority originate from the neural crest cells. Read More