13,607 results match your criteria Orbit Anatomy


Active airflow of the paranasal sinuses in extinct crocodyliforms: Evidence from a natural cast of the thalattosuchian Dakosaurus andiniensis.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

CONICET, División Paleontología Vertebrados, Museo de La Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina.

The evolution of Thalattosuchia documents the unique shift among Crocodylomorpha from aquatic continental/coastal habitats to a fully pelagic lifestyle. This transition was coupled with deep modification of their skeletons, such as hydrofoil forelimbs, hypocercal tail, and loss of osteoderms. The natural snout casts of the rhacheosaurin Cricosaurus araucanensis showed that it also included changes in the internal anatomy of the snout like the enlargement of nasal glands (probably for salt excretion) and the rearrangement of the paranasal sinus system, including the internalization of the antorbital sinus. Read More

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Extradural anterior clinoidectomy through endoscopic transorbital approach: laboratory investigation for surgical perspective.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Laboratory of Surgical Neuroanatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: The endoscopic transorbital approach (eTOA) is a new mini-invasive procedure used to explore different areas of the skull base. Authors propose an extradural anterior clinoidectomy (AC) through this corridor, defining the anatomical landmarks of the anterior clinoid process (ACP) projection onto the posterior orbit wall and the technical feasibility of this approach. We describe the exposure of the opticocarotid region and the surgical freedom and the angles of attack obtained with this novel approach. Read More

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Gross and Micro-Anatomical Study of the Cavernous Segment of the Abducens Nerve and Its Relationships to Internal Carotid Plexus: Application to Skull Base Surgery.

Brain Sci 2021 May 16;11(5). Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Normal and Clinical Anatomy, Chair of Anatomy and Histology, Medical University of Lodz, ul. Żeligowskiego 7/9, 90-752 Łódź, Poland.

The present study aims to provide detailed observations on the cavernous segment of the abducens nerve (AN), emphasizing anatomical variations and the relationships between the nerve and the internal carotid plexus. A total of 60 sides underwent gross-anatomical study. Five specimens of the AN were stained using Sihler's method. Read More

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Primary disease sites and patterns of spread in cases of neurolymphomatosis in the orbit associated with lymphoma.

Cancer Imaging 2021 May 26;21(1):39. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Neuroradiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1400 Pressler Blvd., Unit 1482, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Background: Neurolymphomatosis involving the cranial nerves (CNs) is rare. We sought a better understanding of the primary disease sites and patterns of spread in neurolymphomatosis of the orbit and retro-orbital cranial nerves.

Methods: Patients with lymphoma and MRI evidence of neurolymphomatosis of CN II, III, IV, V, or V were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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Find the food first: An omnivorous sensory morphotype predates biomechanical specialization for plant based diets in phyllostomid bats.

Evolution 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Life and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Merced, Merced, California.

The role of mechanical morphologies in the exploitation of novel niche space is well characterized; however, the role of sensory structures in unlocking new niches is less clear. Here, we investigate the relationship between the evolution of sensory structures and diet during the radiation of noctilionoid bats. With a broad range of foraging ecologies and a well-supported phylogeny, noctilionoids constitute an ideal group for studying this relationship. Read More

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Investigation of the Orbital Arterial Distribution Using Image Superimposition to Determine Safe Zones for Retrobulbar Injection and to Prevent Filler Complications.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Jun;147(6):1321-1328

From the Departments of Ophthalmology and Anatomy, Research Institute of Medical Science, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine; Department of Ophthalmology, Blanton Eye Institute, Houston Methodist Hospital; and Department of Anatomy, Yonsei University College of Medicine.

Background: Retrobulbar filler injection has recently been considered an ideal method for orbital volume enhancement due to its nontoxic, easily reversible, and noninvasive characteristics. This study determined the arterial distribution in the orbit with the aim of defining a safety zone for retrobulbar filler injections used to enhance the orbital volume.

Methods: Twenty-seven orbits of 24 formalin-embalmed cadavers were dissected. Read More

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Effect of congenital ptosis correction on corneal topography- A prospective study.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2021 06;69(6):1527-1530

Department of Orbit and Oculoplasty, Department of Cornea, Aravind Eye Hospital, Pondicherry, India.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in corneal topography, cycloplegic refraction, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) after ptosis correction surgery in patients with congenital ptosis.

Methods: Our study represents a prospective observational study conducted on 27 eyes of 21 patients with congenital ptosis. All patients underwent complete ophthalmological evaluation, cycloplegic refraction, and baseline Orbscan prior to ptosis surgery. Read More

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Imaging of orbital infectious and inflammatory disease in children.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 Jun 12;51(7):1149-1161. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave., MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH, 45229-3026, USA.

Most acute nontraumatic periorbital and intraorbital pathologies in pediatric patients have an underlying infectious or inflammatory etiology, and imaging frequently plays a key role in the workup and management of these children. In this paper we review the clinical presentation and imaging findings in children with some of the most common infectious and inflammatory diseases involving the orbit. Basic relevant anatomy and imaging findings on various imaging modalities are also reviewed. Read More

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Changes in peri-ocular anatomy and physiology in pseudoexfoliation syndrome (Review).

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 19;21(6):650. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Laboratory of Clinical Virology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003, Greece.

Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) is characterized by the deposition of proteinaceous material in the anterior ocular segment (resulting in ophthalmic pathologies such as glaucoma and increased risk of complications in cataract surgery), but also by several systemic manifestations. The involvement of peri-ocular tissues in PEX, including the eyelid skin, lacrimal gland, conjunctiva, orbital fat and vessels, as well as the optic nerve, has been reported by several previous studies. The peri-ocular effects of PEX include the development of eyelid laxity, conjunctival chalasis, tear film abnormalities, pronounced orbital fat atrophy in response to the administration of prostaglandin analogues in pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, deficient orbital vascular supply and biomechanical changes in both the eyeball and the optic nerve. Read More

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Inferior oblique muscle of the eye: its fetal development with special reference to understanding of the frequent variants in adults.

Folia Morphol (Warsz) 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Anatomy and Embryology, School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain.

To provide better understanding of frequent variations of the inferior oblique (IO) of adult extraocular muscles, we observed sagittal and horizontal histological sections of the eye and orbits from 32 fetuses (approximately 7-34 weeks of gestational age; 24-295 mm of crown-rump length). In early fetuses (7-8 weeks), the IO was restricted at an antero-infero-medial angle of the future orbit. In contrast to extraocular recti, the IO appeared to extend along the mediolateral axis and had no definite tendon. Read More

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Macroscopic anatomy, radiography and computed tomography of normal paranasal sinuses of the adult one-humped dromedary (Camelus dromedarius).

Vet Med Sci 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Université de la Manouba, Sidi Thabet, Tunisia.

In order to improve the current knowledge of the topography and the anatomy of the paranasal sinuses of the one-humped dromedary (Camelus dromedarius), we applied both conventional and advanced imaging techniques, namely, radiography and computed tomography (CT). Twelve heads of healthy dromedaries were used; eight heads were dissected to obtain skulls for the fenestration of the sinuses, two heads underwent anatomical sections, and two heads were imaged respectively by radiography and CT. Sinus fenestration allowed observation of sinuses and their communications. Read More

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Diseases of the Eyelids and Orbit.

Med Clin North Am 2021 May 2;105(3):551-562. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Box 359608, 325 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.

The eyelids and orbit encompass intricate bony and soft tissue structures that work harmoniously in concert to protect, support, and nourish the eye in order to facilitate and maintain its function. Insult to periorbital and orbital anatomy can compromise orbital and ocular homeostasis. This article provides a foundational overview of eyelid and orbital anatomy, as well as common and key disorders that may confront internists and medical subspecialists. Read More

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Transcriptome analysis of gravitational effects on mouse skeletal muscles under microgravity and artificial 1 g onboard environment.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 28;11(1):9168. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Mouse Epigenetics Project, ISS/Kibo Experiment, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Ibaraki, 305-8505, Japan.

Spaceflight causes a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and strength. We set two murine experimental groups in orbit for 35 days aboard the International Space Station, under artificial earth-gravity (artificial 1 g; AG) and microgravity (μg; MG), to investigate whether artificial 1 g exposure prevents muscle atrophy at the molecular level. Our main findings indicated that AG onboard environment prevented changes under microgravity in soleus muscle not only in muscle mass and fiber type composition but also in the alteration of gene expression profiles. Read More

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Eyelid and Periorbital Dermal Fillers: Products, Techniques, and Outcomes.

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2021 May 24;29(2):335-348. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, PO BOX 365067, San Juan, PR 00936, USA.

A retrospective observational case study and a literature review were conducted to evaluate how anatomic findings, especially those related to the periorbital zone, serve as a guiding compass for injectable implants. Treatment techniques and product selection will be discussed for patients with negative vector, shallow orbit, and deep set eyes. Versatility of injectables will be demonstrated on patients with peanut face, iatrogenically altered anatomy (after surgery), and trauma. Read More

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Combined Endonasal-Transorbital Approach to Manage the Far Lateral Frontal Sinus: Surgical Technique.

World Neurosurg 2021 Apr 17;151. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, ASST Sette Laghi, Varese, Italy.

In recent decades, the ever-expanding use of endoscopes and development of dedicated instrumentation have reshaped the panorama of surgical approaches to the frontal sinus. Nonetheless, the far lateral portion of the sinus might still represent a concern, especially in cases with unfavorable or distorted anatomy. We report the case of a 52-year-old man, referred to our department for recurrent episodes of left orbital swelling and supraorbital headache, 3 months after Draf III frontal sinusotomy for marsupialization of multiple frontal mucoceles. Read More

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Anatomical and morphometric evaluation of the orbit, eye tunics, eyelids and orbital glands of the captive females of the South African painted dog (Lycaon pictus pictus Temminck, 1820) (Caniformia: Canidae).

PLoS One 2021 19;16(4):e0249368. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Biostructure and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland.

In this study, we present the first data concerning the anatomical, morphometrical, histological and histochemical study of the orbit, eye tunics, eyelids and orbital glands in South African Painted Dogs (Lycaon pictus pictus). The study was performed using eyeball morphometry, analysis of the bony orbit including its morphometry, macroscopic study, morphometry, histological examination of the eye tunics and chosen accessory organs of the eye and histochemical analysis. The orbit was funnel shaped and was open-type. Read More

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Compressive optic neuropathy (CON) in Graves' disease caused by hypertrophy of levator and superior rectus muscles: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25062

Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Osaka, Japan.

Rationale: Enlargemento of the medial rectus is the most predominant factor of compressive optic neuropathy (CON) in Graves' disease. This case report indicates that CON could develop only from the hypertrophic superior levator and superior rectus (SL/SR) muscle in a patient with poorly controlled Graves' disease, and described the possible risk of FT3-thyrotoxicosis with a prominent goiter to develop the current rare case with a review of the literature.

Patient Concerns: A 66-year-old woman undergoing endocrine management of hyperthyroidism with prominent goiter visited the Department of Ophthalmology due to right-eye upper-eyelid retraction. Read More

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A cadaveric study investigating the anatomy of the medial orbital wall.

Anat Cell Biol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Cell Systems and Anatomy, UT Health San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the applicability of the current surgical guideline, known as '24-12-6' surgical guideline, in the Hispanic and European populations. This guideline is used during numerous orbital surgeries and states that the distance between the anterior lacrimal crest (ALC) to the anterior ethmoidal foramen (AEF) (24 mm), the AEF to the posterior ethmoidal foramen (PEF) (12 mm), and the PEF to the optic canal (OC) (6 mm) follows a Rule of Halves. Previous studies suggest this surgical guideline is not applicable for all ethnicities; however, to our knowledge, no data has been published regarding the accuracy of this guideline pertaining to the Hispanic population. Read More

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The Endoscopic Transnasal Approach to Orbital Tumors: A Review.

Semin Ophthalmol 2021 May 31;36(4):232-240. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery Service, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Historically, surgical access to orbital tumors has required a transcutaneous, transconjunctival or transcranial approach. Resection of orbital tumors is notoriously challenging due to the surrounding dense network of critical structures in a confined bony cavity. Advances in endoscopic endonasal surgery, initially used for sinonasal and skull base conditions, have allowed for expansion of its applications beyond the sinorbital interface. Read More

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68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT Imaging of Refractory Pituitary Macroadenoma Invading the Orbit.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 06;46(6):505-506

Department of Radiology, University of Michigan.

Abstract: In addition to gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, a wide variety of tumors express somatostatin receptors. Somatostatin receptor imaging, heavily utilized in neuroendocrine oncology, may also have utility in the diagnosis of other neoplasms and raises the possibility of potential therapeutic options. We describe the case of a 60-year-old man who underwent 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT, demonstrating an avid invasive pituitary macroadenoma. Read More

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[Practice and exploration of orbital anatomy and orbital imaging courses in dental students].

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2020 Dec;29(6):669-672

Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. Shanghai 200011, China.

Purpose: To improve the teaching effect of orbital anatomy course for students majoring in stomatology.

Methods: Based on a retrospective analysis of average score of orbital anatomy course for previous dental and medical students, and the problems existing in teaching effect, orbital anatomy and orbital imaging course were designed and carried out in dental students. The course combined imaging with orbital anatomy, and included clinical examples. Read More

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December 2020

Surgical Approaches to the Orbit: Transpalpebral.

J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2021 Feb 2;82(1):149-153. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Ophthalmology, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Richmond, Virginia, United States.

The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the safe and effective incisional transpalpebral approaches to the orbit. The location of each approach and pertinent anatomy in each respective area, suggested approach techniques, recommended specialties, reconstruction options, intraoperative neurophysiology, complications, and approach limitations are discussed in detail. Read More

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February 2021

Orbital Surgical Guidelines: Pediatric Considerations.

J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2021 Feb 1;82(1):142-148. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Oculoplastic and Orbital Surgery, Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York, United States.

Pediatric orbital and skull base surgery comprises a wide array of tumors. An understanding of the location of the lesion, nature of the disease, and surrounding anatomy is paramount to surgical planning in these small spaces. The goals of pediatric skull base surgery are to avoid injury to the surrounding structures, minimize cosmetic deformities, and remove some or all of the tumors based on anticipated pathology and biologic cost of removal. Read More

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February 2021

Embryology of the Orbit.

J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2021 Feb 2;82(1):2-6. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Ophthalmology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, Michigan; Consultants in Ophthalmic and Facial Plastic Surgery, P.C., Southfield, Michigan, United States.

The orbit houses and protects the ocular globe and the supporting structures, and occupies a strategic position below the anterior skull base and adjacent to the paranasal sinuses. Its embryologic origins are inextricably intertwined with those of the central nervous system, skull base, and face. Although the orbit contains important contributions from four germ cell layers (surface ectoderm, neuroectoderm, neural crest, and mesoderm), a significant majority originate from the neural crest cells. Read More

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February 2021

MR-Eye: High-Resolution Microscopy Coil MRI for the Assessment of the Orbit and Periorbital Structures, Part 2: Clinical Applications.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Clinical Radiology (I.A.Z.), Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, UK.

In the first part of this 2-part series, we described how to implement microscopy coil MR imaging of the orbits. Beyond being a useful anatomic educational tool, microscopy coil MR imaging has valuable applications in clinical practice. By depicting deep tissue tumor extension, which cannot be evaluated clinically, ophthalmic surgeons can minimize the surgical field, preserve normal anatomy when possible, and maximize the accuracy of resection margins. Read More

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Renal cell carcinoma choroidal metastasis recorded by smartphone with interface eyepiece adapter mounted on slit lamp: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(10):e24910

Department of Ophthalmology, Zhejiang Medicine and Western Medicine Integrated Hospital, Hangzhou Red-Cross Hospital.

Rationale: Ocular metastasis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rare, and mainly located on the choroid. We report a choroidal metastasis from RCC, which was recorded by a smartphone with an interface eyepiece adapter mounted on a slit lamp.

Patient Concerns: A 45-year-old female presented with 1-month history of painless occlusion of the vision field on the left eye, who had undergone right nephrectomy for RCC 19 months ago. Read More

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Orbital Floor Fractures Comparing Different Kinds of Reconstruction: A Proposal for Restoration of Physiological Anatomy.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Mar-Apr 01;32(2):e128-e134

Maxillofacial Surgery Unit.

Abstract: The most effective treatment for orbital fractures is still under debate and different strategies are proposed in the literature. All such strategies focus on reconstruction of the orbital structure, neglecting the main function of the medial and inferior walls, these latter being constructed so as to break during high energy trauma. The aim of the authors is to highlight the difference between different reconstructive techniques in an orbital fracture restoration, being inclined to favor repair over reconstruction of the orbital floor, assuming that a second trauma could happen and reconstructive material left in the orbit may damage the visual apparatus in such a scenario. Read More

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Age- and Sex-Related Morphometric Changes and Asymmetry in the Orbito-Zygomatic Region.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Mar-Apr 01;32(2):768-770

Department of Radiology, Celal Bayar University Faculty of Medicine, Manisa, Turkey.

Abstract: The aims of this study were to obtain cephalometric data of orbito-zygomatic skeleton using CT axial images and to determine the presence of sexual dimorphism, normal range of facial asymmetry, and the age-related changes.This study used data from 315 CT scan series of skeletally normal subjects (159 males and 156 females) between the ages of 18 to 90. Two different levels of axial sections were used. Read More

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Primary yolk sac tumor of pterygopalatine fossa with loss of vision: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Feb;100(8):e24916

Department of Emergency Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Research Institute of Emergency Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Introduction: Primary yolk sac tumor (YST) is an infrequently-diagnosed malignant extragonadal germ cell tumors. It is likely to recur locally and may present with widespread metastases once diagnosed. Primary YST of the head is uncommon but can cause severe complications, such as loss of vision once the tumor mass invades the optic nerve. Read More

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February 2021

Integrative Analysis of Proteomics and DNA Methylation in Orbital Fibroblasts From Graves' Ophthalmopathy.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 15;11:619989. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Immunology, Laboratory Medical Immunology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Background: Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is a frequent extrathyroidal complication of Graves' hyperthyroidism. Orbital fibroblasts contribute to both orbital tissue inflammation and remodeling in GO, and as such are crucial cellular elements in active GO and inactive GO. However, so far it is largely unknown whether GO disease progression is associated with functional reprogramming of the orbital fibroblast effector function. Read More

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