661,130 results match your criteria Optic Neuropathy Compressive


Protective effects of REM sleep without atonia against obstructive sleep apnea in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder.

Sleep Med 2018 Nov 19;54:116-120. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: This study investigated the protective effect of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia against obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD).

Methods: In this case-control study, patients with idiopathic RBD and OSA (RBD-OSA) were consecutively enrolled and OSA controls without RBD were matched for age, sex, and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Clinical and polysomnographic characteristics were compared between RBD-OSA patients and OSA controls. Read More

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November 2018

Perceptual size discrimination requires awareness and late visual areas: A continuous flash suppression and interocular transfer study.

Conscious Cogn 2018 Dec 11;67:77-85. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Psychology and Counselling, School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

We applied continuous flash suppression (CFS) during an interocular transfer paradigm to evaluate the importance of awareness and the contribution of early versus late visual structures in size recognition. Specifically, we tested if size judgements of a visible target could be influenced by a congruent or incongruent prime presented to the same or different eye. Without CFS, participants categorised a target as "small" or "large" more quickly when it was preceded by a congruent prime - regardless of whether the prime and target were presented to the same or different eye. Read More

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December 2018

The therapeutic potential of curcumin: A review of clinical trials.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Dec 7;163:527-545. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Phytochemistry Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 11369, Iran; Department of Chemistry, Richardson College for the Environmental Science Complex, The University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, MB, R3B 2G3, Canada. Electronic address:

Curcuma longa L., its derived extracts and even its major compound curcumin has a long history of use and doubtless effectiveness, reported through increasingly detailed in vitro, ex vivo, in vivo and even clinical trials. Regarding its biological effects, multiple health-promoting, disease-preventing and even treatment attributes has been remarkably highlighted. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Dual 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate - 0.1% disodium EDTA loaded thermosensitive ocular gel for Acanthamoeba keratitis treatment.

Int J Pharm 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Service Pharmaceutique, Plateforme Fripharm, Groupe Hospitalier Centre Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 5, Place d'Arsonval, F-69437 Lyon cedex 03, France; Université de Lyon, Laboratoire de Pharmacie Galénique Industrielle, UMR-CNRS 5305, Plateforme Fripharm, ISPB-Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 8, avenue Rockefeller, F-69373 Lyon Cedex 08, France. Electronic address: http://fripharm.com.

Poor bioavailability and low residence time limit the efficiency of conventional biguanide-based eye drops against Acanthamoeba keratitis. The aim of this work was to formulate an original anti-amoebic thermoreversible ocular gel combining biguanide and metalloproteases inhibitor - chelating agent. Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (NaEDTA) were compounded in poloxamer 407 saline solution. Read More

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December 2018

Clinical signs of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) are associated with changes in meibum sphingolipid composition.

Ocul Surf 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Hamilton Eye Institute, 930 Madison Avenue, Memphis, TN, 38163, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: Sphingolipids (SPL) play roles in cell signaling, inflammation, and apoptosis. Changes in SPL composition have been reported in individuals with MGD, but associations between clinical signs of MGD and compositional changes in meibum SPLs have not been examined.

Methods: Forty-three individuals underwent a tear film assessment. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Human meibum chain branching variability with age, gender and meibomian gland dysfunction.

Ocul Surf 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, 40202, USA.

NMR spectroscopy was used to measure hydrocarbon chain branching variability in meibum with age, gender and Meibomian gland dysfuction (MGD). A cohort of 65 meibum donors without dry eye and 31 donors with MGD was studied. Heteronuclear 2D NMR was used to confirm CH resonance assignments allowing us to positively identify 23 of the 27 proton resonances of cholesteryl ester and H resonances due to straight chain, iso-branched and anteiso-branched hydrocarbons. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of a novel mutation in FBN1 in a Chinese family with inherited ectopia lentis by targeted NGS.

Gene 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Aier School of Ophthalmology, Central South University, Tianxin District, Changsha, Hunan Province 410015, China; WuhanAier Eye Hospital, Aier Eye Hospital Group, Wuchuan District, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430063, China. Electronic address:

Aims: To diagnose a Chinese family with inherited ectopia lentis in a genetic method and analyze the genotype-phenotype correlation.

Methods: The phenotype of each family member was identified by detailed clinical examination. We used targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) to identify mutations in FBN1 in an efficient and accurate way. Read More

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December 2018

Immune cells in the retina and choroid: Two different tissue environments that require different defenses and surveillance.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

In the eye immune defenses must take place in a plethora of differing microenvironments ranging from the corneal and conjunctival epithelia facing the external environment to the pigmented connective tissue of the uveal tract containing smooth muscle, blood vessels and peripheral nerves to the innermost and highly protected neural retina. The extravascular environment of the neural retina, like the brain parenchyma, is stringently controlled to maintain conditions required for neural transmission. The unique physiological nature of the neural retina can be attributed to the blood retinal barriers (BRB) of the retinal vasculature and the retinal pigment epithelium, which both tightly regulate the transport of small molecules and restrict passage of cells and macromolecules from the circulation into the retina in a similar fashion to the blood brain barrier (BBB). Read More

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December 2018

Protocol for evaluation of topical ophthalmic drug products in different compartments of fresh eye tissues in a rabbit model.

J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Office of Translational Science, Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Division of Applied Regulatory Science, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, White Oak Federal Research Center, 10903 New Hampshire Ave, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA. Electronic address:

Topical ophthalmic drugs are the most commonly used dosage form to treat diseases of the anterior segment of the eye. Although this dosage form has the advantages of ease of application, small volume dose, and rapid action and is largely devoid of systemic adverse effects, the bioavailability is low due to pre-corneal anatomical barriers and the nature of the drug formulation itself. Some complex generic formulations (suspensions, ointments, gels) for topical ophthalmic products face impediments to rapid regulatory approval because of the complex nature of the formulations and difficulties in determining bioequivalence with the innovator product. Read More

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December 2018

Binocular Visual Function with Staged Implantation of Diffractive Multifocal Intraocular Lenses with Three Add Powers.

Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Dental Collage Suidobashi Hospital.

Purpose: To evaluate the binocular visual function and depth of focus after staged implantation of diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses (MIOLs) with three different add powers following cataract removal.

Design: Prospective comparative case series.

Methods: Setting: Institutional. Read More

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December 2018

Choroidal microvascular dropout in primary angle closure glaucoma.

Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

University Eye Clinic Maastricht, University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Purpose: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with the presence of choroidal microvascular dropout (CMvD) in primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) eyes compared to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes.

Design: Cross-sectional study METHODS: Thirty-six POAG eyes (36 patients) and 28 PACG eyes (28 patients) underwent optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Presence of CMvD was evaluated on choroidal OCTA slabs. Read More

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December 2018

Tear Inflammatory Cytokines Analysis and Clinical Correlations in Diabetes and Non-diabetes with Dry Eye.

Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Restoration of Damaged Ocular Nerve, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, 100191, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To enhance the understanding of dry eye (DE) in diabetes by evaluating the ocular surface characteristics and the levels of tear inflammatory cytokines.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Methods: Subjects were divided into four groups: 32 patients in diabetes with DE group; 24 patients in diabetes without DE group; 28 patients in non-diabetes with DE group and 29 volunteers in normal group. Read More

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December 2018

The Impact of Prefilled Syringes on Endophthalmitis following Intravitreal Injection of Ranibizumab.

Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Mid Atlantic Retina, Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address:

Purpose: To compare the rates of infectious endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of ranibizumab using prefilled syringes vs. conventional preparation.

Design: Multicenter, retrospective, cohort study METHODS: All eyes receiving intravitreal injection of 0. Read More

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December 2018

The structure and stability of the disulfide-linked γS-crystallin dimer provide insight into oxidation products associated with lens cataract formation.

J Mol Biol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Research School of Chemistry, The Australian National University, Acton, ACT, 2601, Australia. Electronic address:

The reducing environment in the eye lens diminishes with age, leading to significant oxidative stress. Oxidation of lens crystallin proteins is the major contributor to their destabilization and deleterious aggregation that scatters visible light, obscures vision and ultimately leads to cataracts. However, the molecular basis for oxidation-induced aggregation is unknown. Read More

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December 2018
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The structure of mammalian β-mannosidase provides insight into β-mannosidosis and Nystagmus.

FEBS J 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Groupe de Recherche Axé sur la Structure des Protéines, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3G 0B1, Canada.

β-mannosidase is a lysosomal enzyme from the glycosyl hydrolase family 2 that cleaves the single β(1-4)-linked mannose at the non-reducing end of N-glycosylated proteins, and plays an important role in the polysaccharide degradation pathway. Mutations in the MANBA gene, which encodes the β-mannosidase, can lead to the lysosomal storage disease β-mannosidosis, as well as nystagmus, an eye condition characterized by involuntary eye movements. Here, we present the first structures of a mammalian β-mannosidase in both the apo and mannose-bound forms. Read More

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December 2018
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Case series of hypotony maculopathy after CyPass insertion treated with intra-luminal suture occlusion.

Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Glaucoma Service, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London EC1V 2PD, United Kingdom. UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, United Kingdom.

The CyPass Micro-Stent (Alcon, Fort Worth, USA) is a minimally invasive glaucoma surgical (MIGS) device, implanted into the supra-choroidal space. The CyPass was FDA approved in July 2016 and CE marked in Europe. It was withdrawn voluntarily by the manufacturer in August 2018. Read More

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December 2018

Progression of retinitis pigmentosa on multimodal imaging: the PREP-1 study.

Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

The Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, USA.

Importance: It is important to establish reliable outcome measures to detect progression in retinitis pigmentosa (RP).

Background: To evaluate progression of RP using multimodal imaging, including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and microperimetry (MP).

Design: Retrospective longitudinal study at a tertiary teaching hospital. Read More

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December 2018
1.953 Impact Factor

Unravelling the functional organization of lobula complex in the mantis brain by identification of visual interneurons.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

The praying mantis shows broad repertories of visually guided behaviours such as prey recognition and defence against collision. It is likely that neurons in the lobula complex (LOX), the third visual neuropil in the optic lobe, play significant roles in these behaviours. The LOX in the mantis brain consists of five neuropils: outer lobes 1 and 2 (OLO1 and OLO2); anterior lobe (ALO); dorsal lobe, (DLO); and stalk lobe (SLO), and ALO comprise ventral and dorsal subunits, ALO-V and ALO-D. Read More

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December 2018

What Is Behind Cerebellar Vertigo and Dizziness?

Cerebellum 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377, Munich, Germany.

The differential diagnosis of vertigo or dizziness as a result of cerebellar disorders can be difficult as many patients with a cerebellar pathology do not present with the full spectrum of cerebellar signs. The main goal of this study was to describe the typical clinical features of these patients with vertigo or dizziness of a cerebellar origin. We reviewed the medical records of 5400 patients with vertigo and dizziness from our tertiary outpatient clinic for vertigo and balance disorders. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of botulinum toxin type A on the treatment of dry eye disease and tear cytokines.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Purpose: To determine the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection on dry eye signs, symptoms, and tear cytokine levels in patients with intractable dry eye disease (DED).

Methods: In this prospective study, patients with intractable DED were randomized to a BTX-A (group A) or control group (group B). Patients were injected with BTX-A or normal saline in the medial part of the upper and lower eyelids. Read More

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December 2018

[Glaucoma and nanophthalmos].

Ophthalmologe 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Zentrum für Augenheilkunde, Uniklinik Köln, Joseph-Stelzmann Str. 9, 50931, Köln, Deutschland.

The term nanophthalmos refers to a clinically small eye that appears morphologically normal. A nanophthalmos is characterized by hyperopia but can also be associated with various secondary pathologies, such as angle-closure glaucoma. In particular, the perioperative risks associated with a nanophthalmic eye necessitate examination of the anatomical characteristics, which can result from the disproportional size of intraocular tissues despite structural normality. Read More

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December 2018

1-year outcomes of the Xen45 glaucoma implant.

Eye (Lond) 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Ophthalmology Department, Yeovil Hospital, Yeovil, UK.

Objectives: To describe the 12-month outcomes of the Xen45 glaucoma stent.

Methods: Non-comparative retrospective study of all cases who underwent Xen glaucoma surgery in April 2017 or earlier and completed 12 months of follow-up. The primary outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction and number of glaucoma medications at 12 months postoperatively. Read More

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December 2018

Comment on: Eponymous women in ophthalmology: syndromes with prominent eye manifestations named after female physicians.

Eye (Lond) 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, West Suffolk Hospital, Bury St Edmunds, UK.

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December 2018

On the role of eye contact in gaze cueing.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17842. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Social Cognition in Human-Robot Interaction, via Enrico Melen 83, 16152, Genova, Italy.

Most experimental protocols examining joint attention with the gaze cueing paradigm are "observational" and "offline", thereby not involving social interaction. We examined whether within a naturalistic online interaction, real-time eye contact influences the gaze cueing effect (GCE). We embedded gaze cueing in an interactive protocol with the iCub humanoid robot. Read More

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December 2018
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Repeatability and Reproducibility of Quantification of Superficial Peri-papillary Capillaries by four Different Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Devices.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17866. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Doheny Image Reading Center, Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

This study was performed to test the repeatability and reproducibility of measurements of peri-papillary capillaries from four optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) devices. 109 healthy eyes were imaged with four OCTA devices (Spectralis, Optovue, Triton and Cirrus). A 3 × 3 mm scan pattern centered on the disc was repeated twice by each device. Read More

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December 2018

Sleep selectively stabilizes contextual aspects of negative memories.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17861. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychiatry, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Sleep and emotion are both powerful modulators of the long-term stability of episodic memories, but precisely how these factors interact remains unresolved. We assessed changes in item recognition, contextual memory, and affective tone for negative and neutral memories across a 12 h interval containing sleep or wakefulness in 71 human volunteers. Our data indicate a sleep-dependent stabilization of negative contextual memories, in a way not seen for neutral memories, item recognition, or across wakefulness. Read More

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December 2018
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Drug and disease signature integration identifies synergistic combinations in glioblastoma.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 14;9(1):5315. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Center for Therapeutic Innovation, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1120 NW 14th St, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary adult brain tumor. Despite extensive efforts, the median survival for GBM patients is approximately 14 months. GBM therapy could benefit greatly from patient-specific targeted therapies that maximize treatment efficacy. Read More

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December 2018

Comprehensive Evaluation of User Interface for Ventilators Based on Respiratory Therapists' Performance, Workload, and User Experience.

Med Sci Monit 2018 Dec 15;24:9090-9101. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Medical Engineering, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Poor ergonomic design of ventilators can result in human errors. In this study, we evaluated the ergonomics of ventilators through respiratory therapists' performance, workload, and user experience. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixteen respiratory therapists were recruited to this usability study of 3 ventilators. Read More

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December 2018

Transcription factor TFAP2B up-regulates human corneal endothelial cell-specific genes during corneal development and maintenance.

J Biol Chem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

The corneal endothelium, which originates from the neural crest via the periocular mesenchyme (PM), is crucial for maintaining corneal transparency. The development of corneal endothelial cells (CECs) from the neural crest is accompanied by the expression of several transcription factors, but the contribution of some of these transcriptional regulators to CEC development is incompletely understood. Here, we focused on activating enhancer-binding protein 2 (TFAP2, AP-2), a neural crest-expressed transcription factor. Read More

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December 2018

Benzoxazinone-thiosemicarbazones as antidiabetic leads via aldose reductase inhibition: Synthesis, biological screening and molecular docking study.

Bioorg Chem 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Centre for Advanced Drug Research, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Aldose reductase is an important enzyme in the polyol pathway, where glucose is converted to fructose, and sorbitol is released. Aldose reductase activity increases in diabetes as the glucose levels increase, resulting in increased sorbitol production. Sorbitol, being less cell permeable tends to accumulate in tissues such as eye lenses, peripheral nerves and glomerulus that are not insulin sensitive. Read More

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December 2018

Lymphatic Vascular Structures: A New Aspect in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 13;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Research Programs Unit, Genome-Scale Biology, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common diabetic microvascular complication and major cause of blindness in working-age adults. According to the level of microvascular degeneration and ischemic damage, DR is classified into non-proliferative DR (NPDR), and end-stage, proliferative DR (PDR). Despite advances in the disease etiology and pathogenesis, molecular understanding of end-stage PDR, characterized by ischemia- and inflammation-associated neovascularization and fibrosis, remains incomplete due to the limited availability of ideal clinical samples and experimental research models. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Astragaloside protects oxygen and glucose deprivation induced injury by regulation of microRNA-21 in retinal ganglion cell line RGC-5.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 26;109:1826-1833. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Optometry, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang, China.

Objective: Astragaloside (AST) is a kind of effective components of Astragalus membranaceus, which has been reported to exert extensive pharmacological actions in various diseases. However, the effect of AST on optic nerve injury remains unclear. The study aimed to uncover the effect of AST on oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced RGC-5 cells injury and the underlying mechanism. Read More

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January 2019

Abolishment of fear memory-disruptive effects REM sleep deprivation by harmane.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 14;109:1563-1568. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Institute for Cognitive Science Studies (ICSS), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Harmane, as a neuromodulator, implicates in the learning and memory processes. However, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation negatively affects these processes. Here, we investigated the effects of harmane (2. Read More

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January 2019

Safety, pharmacokinetics, and prevention effect of intraocular crocetin in proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 7;109:1211-1220. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Hospital of HeBei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 050000, China.

The study was designed to determine the safety and pharmacokinetics of intraocular crocetin and examine whether crocetin inhibits the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) in a rabbit model. In the toxicity study, the right eyes of rabbits were injected with 0.2 μmol or 0. Read More

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January 2019

Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) ameliorates corneal neovascularization via regulating cell infiltration into cornea after alkali burn.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 6;109:1041-1051. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP)-medicated inhibition of corneal neovascularization (CNV). Our data showed that TMP could effectively downregulate the expression levels of CXCR4 mRNA and protein, as well as inhibit HUVECs, endothelial cells, tubule formation in vitro. In vivo, alkali burn (1 M NaOH) could remarkably upregulate CXCR4 expression and increase the migration of TNF-α-positive cells to corneal stroma. Read More

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January 2019

Filter paper grafted with epoxide-based copolymer brushes for activation-free peptide nucleic acid conjugation and its application for colorimetric DNA detection.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2019 Jan 27;173:851-859. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand; Center of Excellence in Materials and Bio-interfaces, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Electronic address:

Epoxide-bearing filter paper was first prepared by surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and poly(ethylene glycol)methacrylate (PEGMA). Without the need for activation step, the capture peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes carrying a C-terminal lysine modification can be directly immobilized on the surface-grafted poly[glycidyl methacrylate-ran-poly(ethylene glycol)methacrylate] (P(GMA-ran-PEGMA)) through ring-opening of epoxide groups in the GMA repeating units by amino groups in the PNA's structure. The success of P(GMA-ran-PEGMA) grafting on the filter paper and subsequent PNA immobilization was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Read More

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January 2019

Mitochondrial Respiration in Outer Retina Contributes to Light-Evoked Increase in Hydration In Vivo.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5957-5964

Department of Ophthalmology, Visual and Anatomical Sciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, United States.

Purpose: To test the hypothesis that mitochondrial respiration contributes to local changes in hydration involved in phototransduction-driven expansion of outer retina, as measured by structural responses on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: Oxygen consumption rate and mitochondrial reserve capacity of freshly isolated C57BL/6 and 129S6/SvEvTac mouse retina were measured using a Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Light-stimulated outer retina layer water content was determined by proton density MRI, structure and thickness by ultrahigh-resolution OCT, and water mobility by diffusion MRI. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Prospective Evaluation of Patients With X-Linked Retinoschisis During 18 Months.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5941-5956

Applied Genetic Technologies Corporation, Alachua, Florida, United States.

Purpose: Prospective evaluation of patients with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS).

Methods: Fifty-six males XLRS patients, age ≥7 years, had retinal structure and function tests performed every 6 months during an 18-month period.

Results: Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was abnormal (mean ± SD logMAR 0. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The Effect of Prostaglandin Analogue Bimatoprost on Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5912-5923

Dr. Nasser Al-Rashid Orbital Vision Research Center, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, McKnight Vision Research Center, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States.

Purpose: We characterize the effect of bimatoprost on orbital adipose tissue in thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) with clinicopathologic correlation.

Methods: Orbital adipose-derived stem cells (OASCs) from types 1 and 2 TAO and control patients with and without exposure to 1 μm bimatoprost were examined via immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and Western blot for cell viability, migration capacity, lipid content, adipocyte morphology, mitochondrial content, and levels of adipogenic markers. A retrospective chart review was performed for clinicopathologic correlation. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Vestibular dysfunction as cortical damage with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

J Neurol Sci 2018 Dec 5;397:4-8. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Neurology, Division of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Background: Cortical damage in areas such as the frontal lobe is reported in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, aside from executive dysfunction, the pathological significance of this cortical damage has yet to be clarified. The present study investigated the effects of cortical damage on vestibular function in ALS. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Biotinidase deficiency should be considered in individuals thought to have multiple sclerosis and related disorders.

Authors:
Barry Wolf

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Nov 28;28:26-30. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Division of Genetics, Birth Defects and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago and Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Multiple sclerosis is a disorder of the central and peripheral nervous system of young and old adults that is characterized by muscle, coordination and vision abnormalities. Multiple sclerosis is likely due to numerous causes.

Methods: Recently, adolescents and adults with ophthalmological and or neurological findings have been diagnosed with biotinidase deficiency. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis.

Surv Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Ophthalmology, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Vernal keratoconjunctivitis, a chronic, bilateral, seasonal allergic inflammatory disease of the eye, is an important cause of visual debilitation and impairment of quality of life in children and young adults in certain parts of the world such as the Mediterranean areas, Central and West Africa, the Middle East, Japan, the Indian subcontinent, and South America. It usually has a self-limiting course; however, in a few cases the disease is recurrent and leads to long-term visual disabling complications like keratoconus and limbal stem cell deficiency. The main pathogenic mechanism is IgE mediated; however, there may be non-IgE and certain non-specific hypersensitivity mechanisms. Read More

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December 2018

Risk Factors for Severe Dry Eye Disease: Crowdsourced Research Using DryEyeRhythm.

Ophthalmology 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Japan.

This large-scale crowdsourced study using the iPhone application DryEyeRhythm identified the risk factors for severe dry eye disease-type symptoms, which included female sex, collagen disease, hay fever, depression, current contact-lens use, extended screen time, and smoking. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Insufficient compensation for self-motion during perception of object speed: The vestibular Aubert-Fleischl phenomenon.

J Vis 2018 Dec;18(13)

German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders (DSGZ), University Hospital of Munich, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany.

To estimate object speed with respect to the self, retinal signals must be summed with extraretinal signals that encode the speed of eye and head movement. Prior work has shown that differences in perceptual estimates of object speed based on retinal and oculomotor signals lead to biased percepts such as the Aubert-Fleischl phenomenon (AF), in which moving targets appear slower when pursued. During whole-body movement, additional extraretinal signals, such as those from the vestibular system, may be used to transform object speed estimates from a head-centered to a world-centered reference frame. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Diabetic Nonperfused Areas in Macular and Extramacular Regions on Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5893-5903

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Purpose: To investigate the nonperfused areas (NPAs) in each subfield segmented by large arterioles on wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) images in diabetic retinopathy.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 101 consecutive eyes of 67 patients with severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), for whom 12 × 12-mm SS-OCTA images centered on the optic disc were acquired. Both eyes were included in 34 patients. Read More

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December 2018

In Vivo Photovoltaic Performance of a Silicon Nanowire Photodiode-Based Retinal Prosthesis.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5885-5892

Jacobs Retina Center at Shiley Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Diego, California, United States.

Purpose: For more than 20 years, there has been an international, multidisciplinary effort to develop retinal prostheses to restore functional vision to patients blinded by retinal degeneration. We developed a novel subretinal prosthesis with 1512 optically addressed silicon nanowire photodiodes, which transduce incident light into an electrical stimulation of the remaining retinal circuitry. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of optically driving the subretinal prosthesis to produce visual cortex activation via electrical stimulation of the retina. Read More

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December 2018
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Serological and PCR-based markers of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis transmission in northern Ghana after elimination of trachoma as a public health problem.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 14;12(12):e0007027. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Clinical Research Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Validation of elimination of trachoma as a public health problem is based on clinical indicators, using the WHO simplified grading system. Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection and anti-Ct antibody responses (anti-Pgp3) have both been evaluated as alternative indicators in settings with varying levels of trachoma. There is a need to evaluate the feasibility of using tests for Ct infection and anti-Pgp3 antibodies at scale in a trachoma-endemic country and to establish the added value of the data generated for understanding transmission dynamics in the peri-elimination setting. Read More

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December 2018

SEQUENTIAL CHANGES IN HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE RETINOPATHY UP TO 20 YEARS AFTER STOPPING THE DRUG: Implications for Mild Versus Severe Toxicity.

Retina 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Byers Eye Institute at Stanford, Palo Alto, California.

Purpose: To characterize the stability or progression of different stages of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy up to 20 years after stopping the drug.

Methods: We reviewed findings from 13 patients with initial HCQ retinopathy classified as early (patchy photoreceptor damage), moderate (ring of photoreceptor thinning or scotoma), or severe (retinal pigment epithelial [RPE] damage). Patients had been off HCQ for as many as 14 years at initial examination and were subsequently followed for 5 years to 8 years with repeated fundus autofluorescence and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Read More

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December 2018

DRUSEN SUBTYPES AND CHOROIDAL CHARACTERISTICS IN ASIAN EYES WITH TYPICAL NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

Retina 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Eye and ENT Hospital, Severance Hospital, Institute of Vision Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of pachydrusen, soft drusen, and subretinal drusenoid deposits in eyes with different neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) subtypes, determine the relationship between each drusen type and the choroidal thickness, and analyze the distinct features of each nAMD subtype according to the drusen type.

Methods: Medical records involving 454 eyes from 454 patients with nAMD were retrospectively reviewed. The prevalence of each drusen type and the choroidal thickness and choroidal characteristics were evaluated according to the nAMD subtype. Read More

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December 2018
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