33,107 results match your criteria Opioid Abuse


Mining reported adverse events induced by potential opioid-drug interactions.

JAMIA Open 2020 Apr 26;3(1):104-112. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Institute for Informatics (I2), Washington University School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Objective: Opioid-based analgesia is routinely used in clinical practice for the management of pain and alleviation of suffering at the end of life. It is well-known that opioid-based medications can be highly addictive, promoting not only abuse but also life-threatening overdoses. The scope of opioid-related adverse events (AEs) beyond these well-known effects remains poorly described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jamiaopen/ooz073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309259PMC

Characterizing non-heroin opioid overdoses using electronic health records.

JAMIA Open 2020 Apr 26;3(1):77-86. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.

Introduction: The opioid epidemic is a modern public health emergency. Common interventions to alleviate the opioid epidemic aim to discourage excessive prescription of opioids. However, these methods often take place over large municipal areas ( and may fail to address the diversity that exists within each opioid case (). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jamiaopen/ooz063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309230PMC

Acceptability of smartphone applications for facilitating layperson naloxone administration during opioid overdoses.

JAMIA Open 2020 Apr 4;3(1):44-52. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Graduate School of Business Administration, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel.

Objective: We investigated user requirements for a smartphone application to coordinate layperson administration of naloxone during an opioid overdose.

Materials And Methods: We conducted interviews and focus groups with 19 nonmedical opioid users and other community members in the Kensington neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, which has one of the highest overdose rates in the country. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jamiaopen/ooz068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309252PMC

An Efficient and Smooth Methadone-to-Buprenorphine Transition Protocol Utilizing a Transdermal Fentanyl Bridge and a Pharmacokinetic Inducer: The Stanciu Method.

Cureus 2020 May 27;12(5):e8310. Epub 2020 May 27.

Substance Abuse Counseling, New Hampshire Hospital, Concord, USA.

The traditional method of transitioning from methadone to buprenorphine requires a gradual dose reduction to a low dose of 30 mg daily, followed by cessation, and addressing withdrawal symptoms prior to the initiation of buprenorphine. This process can be time-consuming and is also associated with tremendous patient suffering and adverse outcomes. In recent years, several protocols have emerged based on the notion of blunting the shift from full receptor activation to partial receptor activation via an intermediate "bridge". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320635PMC

A Real-World Study Using Claims Data to Evaluate Possible Failure of Opioid Treatment Regimens Among Patients with Hip and/or Knee Osteoarthritis in the US.

Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 2020 8;12:285-297. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Analgesic Solutions, Wayland, MA, USA.

Background: Although opioids may be used in the management of pain in patients with osteoarthritis (OA), there is a dearth of real-world data characterizing opioid regimen failure in these patients.

Objective: Using claims data, this study explored measures that may be potentially indicative of opioid treatment failure and the association of such potential failure with health care resource utilization (HRU) and costs.

Patients And Methods: Using a national employer-sponsored insurance claims database covering the years 2011-2016, this retrospective longitudinal study identified adults with hip/knee osteoarthritis who filled ≥1 opioid prescription (index event) and had continuous health plan enrollment 6 months pre- and ≥12 months post-index. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CEOR.S244329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7293383PMC

Patients' perception about opioids and addiction in South Korea.

Korean J Pain 2020 Jul;33(3):234-244

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Chronic pain affects approximately 22% of the world's population. Opioids can be useful in chronic pain management. However, some patients have negative perception of opioids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3344/kjp.2020.33.3.234DOI Listing

Uptake and predictors of direct-acting antiviral treatment for hepatitis C among people receiving opioid agonist therapy in Sweden and Norway: a drug utilization study from 2014 to 2017.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2020 Jun 30;15(1):44. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Addiction Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Treatment with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) offers an opportunity to eliminate hepatitis C virus (HCV) endemic among people who inject drugs (PWID) and people enrolled in opioid agonist therapy (OAT) programs. The objective of this study was to estimate and to compare HCV treatment uptake after the introduction of DAAs among patients receiving OAT in Sweden and Norway. We also aimed to evaluate predictors of DAAs treatment among OAT patients in both countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13011-020-00286-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325258PMC

Application of Social Network Analysis of COVID-19 Related Tweets Mentioning Cannabis and Opioids to Gain Insights for Drug Abuse Research.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2020 Jun;272:5-8

School of Social Work, Columbia University, USA.

We applied social network analysis (SNA) to Tweets mentioning cannabis or opioid-related terms to publicly available COVID-19 related Tweets collected from Jan 21st to May 3rd, 2020 (n= 2,558,474 Tweets). We randomly extracted 16,154 Tweets mentioning cannabis and 4,670 Tweets mentioning opioids from the COVID-19 Tweet corpora for our analysis. The cannabis related Tweets created by 6,144 users were disseminated to 280,042,783 users and retweeted 11 times the number of original messages while opioid-related Tweets created by 3,412 users were disseminated to smaller number of users. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/SHTI200479DOI Listing

Fatal accident involving a welder employed by a shipping container company, associated with the use of tramadol and antidepressant agents.

Int Marit Health 2020 ;71(2):109-113

Unit of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Health Sciences of Barcelona, University of Barcelona, C/Casanova, 146, 08036 Barcelona, Spain.

The widespread use of opioids for the treatment of moderate or severe acute and chronic pain has become a public health problem due to the physical and psychological dependence and tolerance they produce. The increasingly higher doses that patients require may reach toxic levels or lead to accidents, including fatalities. We present the case of a welder who, while working for a shipping container company, fell from height without a safety harness and subsequently died as a result of a traumatic brain injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/IMH.2020.0020DOI Listing
January 2020

Prescription psychostimulants for the treatment of stimulant use disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, Brazil.

Rationale: Agonist-based pharmacologic intervention is an accepted approach in treatment of opioid and tobacco use disorders.

Objectives: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate usefulness of an agonist approach as treatment of (psycho)stimulant use disorder (PSUD).

Methods: We reviewed PubMed/Medline, LILACS, and ClinicalTrials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-020-05563-3DOI Listing

The Persistent Challenge of Developing Addiction Pharmacotherapies.

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Psychiatry, Brain Health Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.

There are currently effective Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapies for alcohol, nicotine, and opioid use disorders. This article will review the development of eight compounds used in the treatment of drug addiction with an emphasis on pharmacological mechanisms and the utility of preclinical animal models of addiction in therapeutic development. In contrast to these successes, animal research has identified a number of promising medications for the treatment of psychostimulant use disorder, none of which have proven to be clinically effective. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a040311DOI Listing

Consequences of Parental Opioid Exposure on Neurophysiology, Behavior, and Health in the Next Generations.

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Psychology and Program in Neuroscience, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122, USA.

Substance abuse and the ongoing opioid epidemic represents a large societal burden. This review will consider the long-term impact of opioid exposure on future generations. Prenatal, perinatal, and preconception exposure are reviewed with discussion of both maternal and paternal influences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a040436DOI Listing

Buprenorphine waiver uptake among nurse practitioners and physician assistants: The role of existing waivered prescriber supply.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2020 Aug 13;115:108032. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Health Law, Policy and Management, Boston University School of Public Health, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA, 02118, USA; Department of Infectious Disease, Boston University School of Medicine, 801 Massachusetts Ave Crosstown Center, Boston, MA, 02118, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Buprenorphine is an effective pharmacotherapy for the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD), but recent increases in the rate of OUD in the U.S. have outpaced the supply of clinicians waivered to prescribe buprenorphine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2020.108032DOI Listing

Outpatient care for opioid use disorder among the commercially insured: Use of medication and psychosocial treatment.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2020 Aug 22;115:108040. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Evidence-based outpatient treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) consists of medications that treat OUD (MOUD) and psychosocial treatments (e.g., psychotherapy or counseling, case management). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2020.108040DOI Listing

Health center implementation of telemedicine for opioid use disorders: A qualitative assessment of adopters and nonadopters.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2020 Aug 13;115:108037. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America.

Objective: Although use of telemedicine for the treatment of opioid use disorders (Tele-OUD) is growing, there is limited research on how it is actually being deployed in treatment. We explored how health centers across the U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2020.108037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327134PMC

An assessment of officer attitudes toward the training and use of a pre-booking diversionary program.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2020 Aug 13;115:108036. Epub 2020 May 13.

Bethlehem Health Bureau, 10 E. Church Street, Bethlehem, PA 18018, United States. Electronic address:

The opioid epidemic in the United States has led police departments and other professionals to examine the current approach to drug enforcement. Different law enforcement diversionary programs, centered on public health approaches, have emerged. One such program, the "pre-booking" diversionary program, has been the subject of limited research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2020.108036DOI Listing

Cost-effectiveness analysis of a large jail-based methadone maintenance treatment continuation program in New Mexico.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2020 Aug 28;115:108042. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Health Management and Policy, Miami Herbert Business School, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-2030, USA. Electronic address:

The U.S. has the second-highest incarceration rate in the world and spends more than $80 billion annually to house inmates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2020.108042DOI Listing

Geographic location of buprenorphine-waivered physicians and integration with health systems.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2020 Aug 12;115:108034. Epub 2020 May 12.

O'Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1315 E 10th St, Bloomington, IN 47405, United States of America. Electronic address:

Efforts are underway to expand buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) in hospitals and affiliated health systems, yet we do not know whether physicians who prescribe buprenorphine are likely to be health-system affiliated. Our study draws upon SK&A data covering primary care physicians and psychiatrists in eight states (California, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Ohio, Rhode Island, Wisconsin, and West Virginia), which were linked to a list of waivered buprenorphine prescribers from the U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2020.108034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327133PMC

One year of methadone maintenance treatment in a fentanyl endemic area: Safety, repeated exposure, retention, and remission.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2020 Aug 11;115:108031. Epub 2020 May 11.

The Warren Alpert School of Medicine of Brown University, Rhode Island Hospital, 55 Claverick Street, Providence, RI 02903, USA.

Introduction: Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid that has contributed to increasing overdose deaths in the United States in recent years. Concern over safety and efficacy of agonist treatment for fentanyl use may limit access to treatment. This study sought to address these potential concerns in a naturalistic setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2020.108031DOI Listing

"You've got to care to carry this stuff" Community implications from take-home naloxone use: A qualitative study.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2020 Aug 11;115:108030. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administrative Sciences, University of New Mexico College of Pharmacy, Albuquerque, NM, United States of America.

Background: In New Mexico, drug overdose rates have been among the highest in the nation for the past two decades, with 332 overdose deaths involving opioids in 2017. While interventions aimed at enhancing distribution and uptake of take-home naloxone (THN) have identified people who use opioids as viable candidates, there exists a gap in applying these findings to underserved, ethnic minority women.

Methods: We conducted qualitative interviews with participants recruited from a parent study which recruited 395 women diagnosed with OUD who participated in a two year study (April 2016-May 2018) during which they received opioid overdose education and two free THN kits for their use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2020.108030DOI Listing

Characterizing variability in state-level regulations governing opioid treatment programs.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2020 Aug 24;115:108008. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Indiana University, Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health at Indianapolis, Department of Health Policy and Management, Indianapolis, IN, United States of America.

Introduction: The opioid use crisis has left nearly 1 million people in need of treatment. States have focused primarily on policies aimed at decreasing the prevalence of opioid use disorder. However, opioid treatment programs (OTPs), an evidence-based modality which can prevent and decrease opioid-related mortality and morbidity, remain highly complex with variation in treatment by state. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2020.108008DOI Listing

How do state Medicaid programs determine what substance use disorder treatment medications need prior authorization? An overview for clinicians.

Addict Sci Clin Pract 2020 Jun 29;15(1):20. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Section of Community and Population Medicine, Department of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-New Orleans, 533 Bolivar Street, 5th Floor, New Orleans, LA, 70112, USA.

The process by which state Medicaid programs develop their preferred drug lists, and determine which medications require prior authorization, is opaque to many clinicians. This process is a synthesis of cost and clinical information. For cost, the federal Medicaid Drug Rebate Program establishes mandatory rebates that pharmaceutical manufacturers must pay state Medicaid programs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13722-020-00194-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325260PMC

Geographic proximity to buprenorphine treatment providers in the U.S.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2020 Jun 24;213:108131. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

School of Biomedical Informatics, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 7000 Fannin, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To combat the growing opioid epidemic, people who use drugs need access to medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) as part of comprehensive treatment. Despite progress, treatment gaps remain. Our objective was to use a geospatial buffering model to estimate treatment access for buprenorphine providers nationally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108131DOI Listing

Effect of Opioid Prescribing Education for Obstetrics and Gynecology Residents in a Safety-Net Hospital.

J Am Osteopath Assoc 2020 Jul;120(7):456-461

Context: The number of deaths due to opioid overdose has steadily increased in the United States since the early 2000s. The US opioid epidemic calls for an urgent need to evaluate physician prescribing habits.

Objective: To educate obstetrics and gynecology residents about opioid abuse, the quantity typically prescribed postoperatively, and strategies to decrease adverse outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7556/jaoa.2020.073DOI Listing

Online Conversation Monitoring to Understand the Opioid Epidemic: Epidemiological Surveillance Study.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2020 Jun 29;6(2):e17073. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Safety, Denver, CO, United States.

Background: Between 2016 and 2017, the national mortality rate involving opioids continued its escalation; opioid deaths rose from 42,249 to 47,600, bringing the public health crisis to a new height. Considering that 69% of adults in the United States use online social media sites, a resource that builds a more complete understanding of prescription drug misuse and abuse could supplement traditional surveillance instruments. The Food and Drug Administration has identified 5 key risks and consequences of opioid drugs-misuse, abuse, addiction, overdose, and death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/17073DOI Listing

Diseases of Despair and Social Capital: Findings from a Population-Based Survey on Opioid Misuse among Adolescents.

Subst Use Misuse 2020 Jun 29:1-9. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Counseling and Human Services, University of North Texas at Dallas, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Deaths related to opioid overdose have increased substantially in the past few years, raising concerns about how to combat this public health emergency. We investigated the association of family, school, and community social capital with opioid misuse in the adolescent population. In addition, we examined if adolescents' depressive symptoms have any mediating effects on opioid misuse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2020.1784949DOI Listing

Pragmatic Opioid Use in Painful Diabetic Neuropathy.

Eur Endocrinol 2020 Apr 4;16(1):21-24. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Bharti Hospital, Karnal, India.

The management of painful diabetic neuropathy poses a tough clinical challenge. Although opioid analgesics are considered as second- or third-line agents in the management of moderate-to-severe neuropathic pain, prescription of opioids for this indication is higher than expected. This narrative review is a recommendation on how to ensure pragmatic use of opioids for those with painful diabetic neuropathy while avoiding complications such as opioid overdose, opioid diversion and the development of opioid-use disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17925/EE.2020.16.1.21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308105PMC

Perioperative Prescribing Practices of Extended-Release Opioids in Noncancer Surgical Patients, 2015-2018.

Anesth Analg 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Chapman University, Irvine, California.

Background: Extended-release (ER) opioids are indicated for the management of persistent moderate to severe pain in patients requiring around-the-clock opioid analgesics for an extended period of time. Concerns have been raised regarding safety of ER opioids due to its potential for abuse and dependence. However, little is known about perioperative prescribing practices of ER opioids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000004952DOI Listing

UC Davis Train-the-Trainer Primary Care Pain Management Fellowship: Addressing the Pain Management Education Gap.

Acad Med 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

S.M. Fishman is Fullerton Endowed Chair in Pain Medicine and professor, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, and director, Center for Advancing Pain Relief, Betty Irene Moore School of Nursing and School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, California; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8717-8300. D. Copenhaver is associate professor and chief, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Division of Pain Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, and associate director, Center for Advancing Pain Relief, Betty Irene Moore School of Nursing and School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, California. K. Lorenzen is associate director, Center for Advancing Pain Relief, Betty Irene Moore School of Nursing and School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, California. E. Schlingman is research associate, Center for Advancing Pain Relief, Betty Irene Moore School of Nursing and School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, California. C. Chung is education program specialist, Center for Advancing Pain Relief, Betty Irene Moore School of Nursing and School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, California.

Problem: Primary care providers are responsible for the majority of pain care and opioid prescribing, but they are often inadequately trained. Training current providers to address the crisis of excessive opioid prescribing and inadequate pain management is a substantial workforce problem that requires urgent action. This educational need is vast and requires a staged solution to amplify its effect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000003554DOI Listing

Presence of a social peer enhances acquisition of remifentanil self-administration in male rats.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2020 Jun 18;213:108125. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

University of Kentucky, Department of Psychology, Lexington, KY, USA.

Background: Social peers influence human drug use at every stage of addiction. Using a dual-compartment apparatus that allows for limited social contact, recent work has shown that cocaine self-administration is enhanced when two rats are trained to self-administer at the same time compared to rats trained alone or trained in the presence of a saline self-administration control peer. The current study measured social influence on self-administration of the short-acting opioid remifentanil using a dual-compartment operant conditioning chamber. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108125DOI Listing

Kratom Use in the United States: Response to Grundmann et al.

Addiction 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Safety, Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver, CO, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.15170DOI Listing

Combining a candidate vaccine for opioid use disorders with extended-release naltrexone increases protection against oxycodone-induced behavioral effects and toxicity.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Pharmacology, University of Minnesota Medical School, United States

Opioid use disorders (OUD) and opioid-related fatal overdoses are a significant public health concern in the United States and worldwide. To offer more effective medical interventions to treat or prevent OUD, anti-opioid vaccines are in development that reduce the distribution of the targeted opioids to brain and subsequently reduce the associated behavioral and toxic effects. Of critical importance is that anti-opioid vaccines should not interfere with medications to treat OUD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.120.000014DOI Listing

Technology-Based Educational Approaches to Address Opioid Use Management by Advanced Practice Registered Nurses.

Issues Ment Health Nurs 2020 Jun 25:1-6. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Health and Community Systems, University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Opioid overdose remains the leading cause of accidental death, with 64,000 deaths attributable to opioid-related overdoses in 2016 and a 20% increase in mortality since 2015. Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) are now eligible to prescribe buprenorphine. The purpose of this project was to develop educational training materials regarding opioid use management; widely disseminate these materials; monitor reach and intervention efficacy in precipitating practice change; and to evaluate barriers and facilitators of buprenorphine prescribing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01612840.2020.1749917DOI Listing

Perioperative Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels as a Predictor of Postoperative Opioid Use and Opioid Use Disorder: a Cohort Study.

J Gen Intern Med 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School, , 401 Park Drive #401, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Importance: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with chronic pain syndromes and higher opioid use among cancer patients, but its association with opioid use among opioid-naïve subjects following a major surgical procedure with acute pain has not been explored.

Objective: To determine the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, opioid use, and opioid use disorder.

Methods: We identified commercially insured subjects aged 18-64 years with available perioperative serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) levels who underwent one of nine major surgical procedures in 2000-2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-020-06001-yDOI Listing

Barriers to Medications for Opioid Use Disorder Among Veterans Involved in the Legal System: a Qualitative Study.

J Gen Intern Med 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Institute for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Colorado, Denver, USA.

Background: Veterans involved in the legal system are at high risk for overdose but have lower receipt of medications for opioid use disorder than other veterans.

Objective: The study aimed to understand barriers to medication access from the perspective of legally involved veterans with opioid use disorder and people who work with these veterans in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and the legal system.

Design: This national qualitative study interviewed veterans and stakeholders from 14 geographically diverse VHA facilities to explore perceptions of barriers to medications for opioid use disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-020-05944-6DOI Listing

Effects of Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT) for Opioid Use Disorder on Functional Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

Rand Health Q 2020 Jun 15;8(4). Epub 2020 Jun 15.

This systematic review addresses the question: What are the effects of medication-assisted treatment (MAT) that use buprenorphine, buprenorphine combined with naloxone, methadone, or naltrexone for opioid use disorder (OUD) on functional outcomes compared with wait-list, placebo, treatment without medication, any other comparator, or each other (e.g., buprenorphine versus naltrexone)? Functional outcomes investigated included cognitive (e. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302321PMC

Consequences of Opioid Abuse and their Treatments in Persian Medicine: A Review Study.

Addict Health 2020 Jan;12(1):46-57

Neurosciences Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology AND Department of Persian Medicine, School of Persian Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Drug addiction is a major health problem for modern human communities. The earliest historical evidence of opium use can be found in the writings of Theophrastus in the 3 century BC. Since then, opium use and abuse has spread to all corners of the world, specifically the Eastern countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22122/ahj.v12i1.250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291898PMC
January 2020

Cerebrospinal Fluid and Spinal Anesthesia Parameters in Healthy Individuals versus Opium-addict Patients during Lower Limb Surgery.

Addict Health 2020 Jan;12(1):11-17

Pain Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Studies have reported lower pain threshold, spinal anesthesia duration, and level of sensory block in addicts compared to non-addict patients undergoing spinal anesthesia for surgery. Moreover, blood gas and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were likely to be affected as well. The aim in the present study is to evaluate CSF and spinal parameters in addict versus non-addict patients during lower limb surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22122/ahj.v12i1.257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291896PMC
January 2020

Point-of-Care Drug of Abuse Testing in the Opioid Epidemic.

Authors:
Zhao Li Ping Wang

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

From the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Context.—: The United States is experiencing an opioid overdose epidemic. Point-of-care (POC) drug of abuse testing is a useful tool to combat the intensified opioid epidemic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5858/arpa.2020-0055-RADOI Listing

Endogenous Opiates and Behavior: 2018.

Authors:
Richard J Bodnar

Peptides 2020 Jun 20:170348. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Psychology and Neuropsychology Doctoral Sub-Program, Queens College, City University of New York, Flushing, NY, 11367, United States. Electronic address:

This paper is the forty-first consecutive installment of the annual anthological review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system, summarizing articles published during 2018 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides and receptors as well as effects of opioid/opiate agonists and antagonists. The review is subdivided into the following specific topics: molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors (2), the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia in animals (3) and humans (4), opioid-sensitive and opioid-insensitive effects of nonopioid analgesics (5), opioid peptide and receptor involvement in tolerance and dependence (6), stress and social status (7), learning and memory (8), eating and drinking (9), drug abuse and alcohol (10), sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (11), mental illness and mood (12), seizures and neurologic disorders (13), electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (14), general activity and locomotion (15), gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (16), cardiovascular responses (17), respiration and thermoregulation (18), and immunological responses (19). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2020.170348DOI Listing

The role of opioid analgesics in rheumatic disorders: a position paper from the Portuguese Rheumatology Society.

Acta Reumatol Port 2020 Jan-Mar;45(1):7-19

Pain is a common feature of most rheumatic diseases and it is often the main reason for the patient to seek for a clinical appointment. Chronic pain has a major impact on patient's quality of life, being frequently associated with functional incapacity, sleep and mood disorders. This leads to absenteeism and heavy consumption of health resources, both representing huge burdens on national economy. Read More

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Recognition and stigma of prescription drug abuse disorder: personal and community determinants.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jun 22;20(1):977. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Western Rural Development Center, Utah State University, 4880 Old Main Hill, Logan, UT, 84322, USA.

Background: Prescription drug abuse (PDA) disorders continue to contribute to the current American opioid crisis. Within this context, our study seeks to improve understanding about stigma associated with, and symptom recognition of, prescription drug abuse.

Aims: Model the stigma and symptom recognition of PDA in the general population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09063-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310116PMC

The antagonistic activity profile of naloxone in μ-opioid receptor agonist-induced psychological dependence.

Neurosci Lett 2020 Jun 20;735:135177. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Laboratory for Drug Discovery and Disease Research, Shionogi & Co., Ltd., 1-1, 3-chome, Futaba-cho, Toyonaka, 561-0825, Osaka, Japan. Electronic address:

Naloxone is a μ-opioid receptor antagonist that has been used to prevent overdose-related respiratory depression and deaths by the illicit use of opioids. Naloxone can also deter the abuse potential of opioids, but little has been reported regarding its antagonistic activity profile against opioid-induced psychological dependence. This study aimed to confirm the antagonistic activity profile of naloxone against several μ-opioid receptor agonists and investigate whether naloxone could affect the psychological dependence induced by widely used μ-opioid receptor agonist, oxycodone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135177DOI Listing

Is Chronic Opioid Abuse Associated with Cerebral Atrophy? An Observational Study.

Indian J Crit Care Med 2020 Apr;24(4):276-280

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Adesh Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Bathinda, Punjab, India.

Background: Recreational drug abuse is a serious health problem that poses detrimental effects on central nervous system. Neuroimaging plays a pivotal role in the detection of these abnormal changes in the brain associated with the drug abuse. This study focuses on the grading of cerebral atrophy in the opioid-addicted patients and their association with the age and duration of opioid abuse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297238PMC

Fatal poisoning in drug addicts in the Nordic countries in 2017.

Forensic Sci Int 2020 May 20;313:110343. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 40, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland; Forensic Toxicology Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, FI-00271, Helsinki, Finland.

This study is the seventh report on fatal poisonings among drug addicts in the Nordic countries. In this report, we analyse data from the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Data on gender, number of deaths, places of deaths, age, main intoxicants and substances detected in blood were recorded to obtain national and comparable Nordic data, and to allow comparison with earlier studies conducted in 1984, 1991, 1997, 2002, 2007 and 2012. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2020.110343DOI Listing

The atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3/CXCR7 is a broad-spectrum scavenger for opioid peptides.

Nat Commun 2020 Jun 19;11(1):3033. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Infection and Immunity, Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH), rue Henri Koch 29, L-4354, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.

Endogenous opioid peptides and prescription opioid drugs modulate pain, anxiety and stress by activating opioid receptors, currently classified into four subtypes. Here we demonstrate that ACKR3/CXCR7, hitherto known as an atypical scavenger receptor for chemokines, is a broad-spectrum scavenger of opioid peptides. Phylogenetically, ACKR3 is intermediate between chemokine and opioid receptors and is present in various brain regions together with classical opioid receptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16664-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305236PMC

Differential sensitivity of human neurons carrying μ opioid receptor (MOR) N40D variants in response to ethanol.

Alcohol 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Child Health Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA; Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA. Electronic address:

The acute and chronic effects of alcohol on the brain and behavior are linked to alterations in inhibitory synaptic transmission. Alcohol's most consistent effect at the synaptic level is probably a facilitation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release, as seen from several rodent studies. The impact of alcohol on GABAergic neurotransmission in human neurons is unknown due to a lack of a suitable experimental model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2020.05.004DOI Listing

Importance of adherence to treatment with direct-acting antivirals in hepatitis C.

Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Sep 16;42 Suppl 1:14-19. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Servicio de Farmacia Hospitalaria, Hospital Universitari Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca, España.

The introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) and the implementation of the National Strategic Plan has extended the spectrum of patients suitable for treatment to include practically all affected individuals. There has been a change in patient profile. Most patients are previously untreated, with lesser awareness of the disease, and taking polymedication, and are often under treatment with opioid replacement therapy, are active drug users or have psychiatric comorbidities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0210-5705(20)30183-7DOI Listing
September 2019

Problem opioid use and HIV primary care engagement among hospitalized people who use drugs and/or alcohol.

Addict Sci Clin Pract 2020 Jun 19;15(1):19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, 1120 NW 14th Street, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.

Background: There is growing public health concern around the potential impact of the opioid crisis on efforts to eradicate HIV. This secondary analysis seeks to determine if those who report opioids as their primary problem drug compared to those who report other drugs and/or alcohol differ in engagement in HIV primary care among a sample of hospitalized people with HIV (PWH) who use drugs and/or alcohol, a traditionally marginalized and difficult to engage population key to ending the HIV epidemic.

Setting And Participants: A total of 801 participants (67% male; 75% Black, non-Hispanic; mean age 44. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13722-020-00192-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305612PMC