39,853 results match your criteria Opioid Abuse

Preferential Gs protein coupling of the galanin Gal receptor in the µ-opioid-Gal receptor heterotetramer.

Pharmacol Res 2022 Jun 21:106322. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Integrative Neurobiology Section and. Electronic address:

Recent studies have proposed that heteromers of µ-opioid receptors (MORs) and galanin Gal receptors (GalRs) localized in the mesencephalon mediate the dopaminergic effects of opioids. The present study reports converging evidence, using a peptide-interfering approach combined with biophysical and biochemical techniques, including total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, for a predominant homodimeric structure of MOR and GalR when expressed individually, and for their preference to form functional heterotetramers when co-expressed. Results show that a heteromerization-dependent change in the GalR homodimeric interface leads to a switch in G-protein coupling from inhibitory Gi to stimulatory Gs proteins. Read More

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Simulating the experience of searching for LGBTQ-specific opioid use disorder treatment in the United States.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2022 Jun 16;140:108828. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Columbia University Irving Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Division on Substance Use Disorders and New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10030, United States of America. Electronic address:

Introduction: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) populations experience opioid-related disparities compared to heterosexual and cisgender populations. LGBTQ-specific services are needed within opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment settings to minimize treatment barriers; research on the availability and accessibility of such services is limited. The purpose of the current study was to mimic the experience of an LGBTQ-identified individual searching for LGBTQ-specific OUD treatment services, using the SAMHSA National Directory of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Treatment Facilities - 2018 (Treatment Directory). Read More

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Loperamide-induced ventricular tachycardia storm.

Br J Cardiol 2021 13;28(4):46. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Consultant Cardiologist/Electrophysiologist Northern General Hospital, Sheffield, S5 7AU.

Loperamide is an over-the-counter, peripherally-acting, -opioid receptor agonist commonly used in the treatment of diarrhoea. It has increasingly been recognised as a potential drug of misuse, having previously been thought to have low potential for abuse owing to its low bioavailability and poor penetration of the central nervous system. High doses can result in life-threatening cardiac-toxicity. Read More

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October 2021

Vaccines against Drug Abuse-Are We There Yet?

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 May 27;10(6). Epub 2022 May 27.

Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra 2617, Australia.

Background: Drug abuse is a worldwide problem that is detrimental to public health. The potential for drug abuse extends to both legal and illicit drugs. Drawbacks associated with current treatments include limited effectiveness, potential side effects and, in some instances, the absence of or concerns with approved therapy options. Read More

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Pharmacovigilance Signals of the Opioid Epidemic over 10 Years: Data Mining Methods in the Analysis of Pharmacovigilance Datasets Collecting Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) Reported to EudraVigilance (EV) and the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS).

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2022 May 27;15(6). Epub 2022 May 27.

Psychopharmacology, Drug Misuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances Research Unit, School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hertfordshire AL10 9EU, UK.

In the past twenty years, the consumption of opioid medications has reached significant proportions, leading to a rise in drug misuse and abuse and increased opioid dependence and related fatalities. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether there are pharmacovigilance signals of abuse, misuse, and dependence and their nature for the following prescription opioids: codeine, dihydrocodeine, fentanyl, oxycodone, pentazocine, and tramadol. Both the pharmacovigilance datasets EudraVigilance (EV) and the FDA Adverse Events Reporting System (FAERS) were analyzed to identify and describe possible misuse-/abuse-/dependence-related issues. Read More

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Abuse of tropicamide eye drops: review of clinical data.

Braz J Psychiatry 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO, USA.

Over the past 15 years, the increasing nonmedical use of tropicamide ophthalmic drops has been reported in Europe, coinciding with an increase in opioid addiction and drug-related mortality. Although tropicamide is generally known as a cheap alternative to heroin in Eastern Europe, it still appears to be a relatively new phenomenon that has arisen over the last decade. A narrative review was conducted of all the relevant sources published in more than five countries between January 1, 1975 and January 10, 2021. Read More

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Opioid safety initiative associated with decreased emergency department opioid prescribing.

Am J Manag Care 2022 Jun 1;28(6):e203-e211. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

The Permanente Medical Group, 39400 Paseo Padre Pkwy, Fremont, CA 94538. Email:

Objectives: The opioid abuse epidemic has focused attention on efforts to decrease opioid prescribing. Although education and feedback interventions are potential levers to affect opioid prescribing, their incremental contribution against a background of declining opioid prescriptions is unclear.

Study Design: We retrospectively evaluated opioid prescribing frequencies after an emergency physician-specific education and feedback initiative in an integrated health care system. Read More

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[Opiod prescription in primary care: the case of chronic non cancer pain].

Rev Med Suisse 2022 Jun;18(787):1238-1241

Service de médecine palliative, Hôpitaux universitaires de Genève, 1211 Genève 14.

Pain, including chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP), is a common reason for primary care consultation. CNCP encompasses a heterogeneous group of patients, whose care is often complex. The increase in opioid prescription in Switzerland and worldwide is associated with CNCP, while opioid use for this indication is debated. Read More

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Hospitalisations related to benzodiazepine, Z-drug, and opioid treatment in Italy: a claim on the risks associated with inappropriate use.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Section of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Neurosciences, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health, University of Florence, Viale G. Pieraccini, 6, 50139, Florence, Italy.

Purpose: Benzodiazepines (BZD), Z-drugs (ZD), and opioids share a high risk of abuse. This study assessed and characterised adverse events (AEs) related to BDZ, ZD, and opioids leading to emergency department (ED) visits in the Italian setting.

Methods: ED accesses related to BDZ, ZD, and/or opioids were analysed from the MEREAFaPS database. Read More

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Principlist approach to multiple heart valve replacements for patients with intravenous drug use-induced endocarditis.

Daniel Daly

J Med Ethics 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

School of Theology and Ministry, Boston College, Brighton, Massachusetts, USA

Medical professionals often deny patients who inject opioids a second or third heart valve replacement, even if such a surgery is medically indicated. However, such a position is not well defended. As this paper demonstrates, the ethical literature on the topic too often fails to develop and apply an ethical lens to analyse the issue of multiple valve replacements. Read More

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Suvorexant ameliorated sleep disturbance, opioid withdrawal, and craving during a buprenorphine taper.

Sci Transl Med 2022 Jun 22;14(650):eabn8238. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

Increased orexin/hypocretin signaling is implicated in opioid withdrawal, sleep disturbances, and drug-seeking behaviors. This study examined whether a dual-orexin receptor antagonist would improve sleep and withdrawal outcomes when compared with placebo during a buprenorphine/naloxone taper. Thirty-eight participants with opioid use disorder were recruited to a clinical research unit and maintained on 8/2 to 16/4 mg of buprenorphine/naloxone treatment for 3 days before being randomized to 20 mg of suvorexant ( = 14), 40 mg of suvorexant ( = 12), or placebo ( = 12); 26 individuals completed the study. Read More

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Ethical Issues in Providing and Promoting Contraception to Women with Opioid Use Disorder.

J Clin Ethics 2022 ;33(2):112-123

Division Director of the Division of General Obstetrics and Gynecology and Associate Professor with Tenure at the University of North Carolina¬-Chapel Hill, in Chapel Hill, North Carolina USA.

The ethical obligation to provide a reasonably safe discharge option from the inpatient setting is often confounded by the context of homelessness. Living without the security of stable housing is a known determinant of poor health, often complicating the safety of discharge and causing unnecessary readmission. But clinicians do not have significant control over unjust distributions of resources or inadequate societal investment in social services. Read More

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Analysis of Access to Prescription Data Management Programs Data for Research.

JAMA Netw Open 2022 Jun 1;5(6):e2218094. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

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Contraception and Healthcare Utilization by Reproductive-Age Women Who Use Drugs in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Survey.

J Gen Intern Med 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Division of General Internal Medicine & Geriatrics, Addiction Medicine Section, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

Background: Women who use drugs (WWUD) have low rates of contraceptive use and high rates of unintended pregnancy. Drug use is common among women in rural U.S. Read More

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Urgent need to expand syringe services programs in South Carolina and beyond.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2022 Jun 21;17(1):47. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Prisma Health Upstate, 876 West Faris Road, Greenville, SC, 29605, USA.

Opioid related overdose deaths in the United States claimed over 100,000 thousand lives during the 12-month period ending in April 2021, an increase of 28.5% from the previous period. Syringe services programs (SSPs) are an evidence-based harm reduction strategy that have been shown to be effective in reducing opioid overdose deaths and infectious complications and increasing rates of entry into recovery programs. Read More

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eNeuro 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Neurobiology of Addiction Section, Integrative Neuroscience Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD, USA

Opioid withdrawal involves the manifestation of motivational and somatic symptoms. However, the brain structures that are involved in the expression of different opioid withdrawal signs remain unclear. We induced opioid dependence by repeatedly injecting escalating heroin doses in male and female C57BL/6J mice. Read More

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On Narratives, Nudges, and Opioid Use for Pain Management.

Am J Public Health 2022 Jul;112(7):e3

Esha Senchaudhuri is with Cytel Inc, Waltham, MA, and Strauburn Belberry LLC, Cambridge, MA. She is a laws student at the University of London, London, UK.

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Automatically identifying opioid use disorder in non-cancer patients on chronic opioid therapy.

Health Informatics J 2022 Apr-Jun;28(2):14604582221107808

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, College of Medicine, 2345Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes alone to record opioid use disorder (OUD) may not completely document OUD in the electronic health record (EHR). We developed and evaluated natural language processing (NLP) approaches to identify OUD from the clinal note. We explored the concordance between ICD-coded and NLP-identified OUD. Read More

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Expanding access to medications for opioid use disorder through locally-initiated implementation.

Addict Sci Clin Pract 2022 Jun 20;17(1):32. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Center to Improve Veteran Involvement in Care, VA Portland Health Care System, 3710 SW U.S. Veterans Hospital Rd., Portland, OR, 97239, USA.

Background: Despite demonstrated efficacy, medication treatment for opioid use disorder (MOUD) remain inaccessible to many patients, with barriers identified at the individual, clinic and system level. A wide array of implementation strategies have guided efforts to expand access to MOUD, with most centered around externally-facilitated approaches to practice change. While effective, such approaches may be inaccessible to those clinics and systems that lack the resources necessary to partner with an external team, suggesting a need to identify and describe change-processes that are internally developed and promoted. Read More

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Sex Specific Sleep Parameters Among People With Substance Use Disorder.

Front Psychiatry 2022 26;13:905332. Epub 2022 May 26.

Division of Therapeutics and Medical Consequences, Institute for Drug and Alcohol Studies, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States.

Introduction: Sleep can have substantial impacts in substance use disorder (SUD) pathogenesis, treatment, and recovery. Sex differences exist in both sleep and SUD, but how sleep is uniquely associated with SUD by sex is not known. The study objective was to compare, within sex, sleep parameters between individuals with SUD and non-substance misusing controls. Read More

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Novel Association between Opioid Use and Increased Risk of Retinal Vein Occlusion Using the National Institutes of Health Research Program.

Ophthalmol Sci 2022 Mar 20;2(1). Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Viterbi Family Department of Ophthalmology and Shiley Eye Institute, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Purpose: To assess for risk factors for retinal vein occlusion (RVO) among participants in the National Institutes of Health database, particularly social risk factors that have not been well studied, including substance use.

Design: Retrospective, case-control study.

Participants: Data were extracted for 380 adult participants with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), 311 adult participants with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), and 1520 controls sampled among 311 640 adult participants in the database. Read More

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The Acute Effects of Different doses of Tramadol on Neuronal Activity of Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Rats.

Adv Biomed Res 2022 30;11:24. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Tramadol is an opioid analgesic with monoamine reuptake inhibitory effects. Although tramadol has been widely used to control pain, there is controversy about the risk of abuse. Therefore, in the present study, the acute effects of tramadol on neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which is one of the important centers of the reward system, were investigated electrophysiologically. Read More

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Factors Associated With Safe Prescription Opioid Disposal After Surgery in Adolescents.

J Surg Res 2022 Jun 16;279:42-51. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; Department of Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California; Department of Population and Public Health Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

Introduction: Unused prescription opioids contribute to diversion, unintended exposure, and poisonings in adolescents. Factors associated with safe prescription opioid disposal for adolescents undergoing surgery are unknown.

Methods: Parents of adolescents (13-20 y) undergoing surgery associated with an opioid prescription were enrolled preoperatively. Read More

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"Can we get a Black rehabilitation center"? Factors impacting the treatment experiences of Black people who use opioids.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2022 May 21:108805. Epub 2022 May 21.

University of Kentucky; 251 Scott St, Lexington, KY 40508, United States of America. Electronic address:

Introduction: With opioid overdose rates doubling in the state of Kentucky over the last year, the opioid crisis is having a deadly impact on the state. Among Black individuals in particular, overdose rates have increased by nearly a third. As such, we must examine ways to effectively intervene to reduce deaths among this underrepresented population. Read More

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Who is using take-home naloxone? An examination of supersavers.

Harm Reduct J 2022 Jun 18;19(1):65. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: As the opioid overdose crisis persists and take-home naloxone (THN) programmes expand, it is important that the intervention is targeted towards those most likely to use it. We examined THN program participants to 1) describe those that return for refills, specifically those that reported multiple use (supersavers), and 2) to examine what rescuer characteristics were associated with higher rates of THN use.

Methods: This study included a cohort of consenting THN recipients from June 2014-June 2021 who completed initial and refill questionnaires from a widespread program in Norway. Read More

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Investigation of Fentanyl Usage in the Seattle Area.

J Appl Lab Med 2022 Jun 18. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Fentanyl was developed in the 1960s as an alternative to morphine, but quickly became a drug of abuse due to its potency, inexpensiveness, and ease of synthesis. One source of exposure is mixing fentanyl into other drugs of abuse (e.g. Read More

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Improving pharmacy students' empathy and attitudes regarding opioid overdose and substance use disorder in a skills-based learning environment.

Curr Pharm Teach Learn 2022 May 9;14(5):604-611. Epub 2022 May 9.

University of Houston College of Pharmacy, 4349 Martin Luther King Blvd, Houston, TX 77204, United States. Electronic address:

Introduction: Using a skills-based learning environment as a launch pad for developing empathy for patients with substance use disorder or at high risk for opioid overdose allows for learning continuity and early intervention. Empathy for this patient population may reduce bias and stigma associated with negative health outcomes. Previous studies have assessed empathy in pharmacy students, but not in the context of substance use disorder and opioid overdose harm reduction among first professional year pharmacy students in skills-based education. Read More

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Research priorities for the surgical care of patients taking opioids preoperatively.

Reg Anesth Pain Med 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

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Incident Functional Limitations Among Community-Dwelling Adults Using Opioids: A Retrospective Cohort Study Using a Propensity Analysis with the Health and Retirement Study.

Drugs Aging 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Population Health, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

Background: Opioid analgesics are commonly used to manage pain; however, it is unclear how they affect patient function. This study examines the association between opioid analgesics and incident limitations in activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and cognitive functioning among community-dwelling older adults.

Methods: Data included 10,003 participants of the 2016 and 2018 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, which sampled US adults aged 51-98 years. Read More

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