29,386 results match your criteria Opioid Abuse


Evaluating the utility of the modified cigarette evaluation questionnaire and cigarette purchase task for predicting acute relative reinforcing efficacy of cigarettes varying in nicotine content.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2019 Feb 13;197:56-64. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Departments of Psychiatry and Psychological Science, Vermont Center on Behavior and Health, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA.

Background: Nicotine is the addictive component in cigarettes that maintain cigarette smoking that subsequently leads to morbidity and mortality. Methods for assessing the abuse liability of cigarettes are essential to inform new tobacco product standards. This secondary analysis evaluated the utility of one subjective effects measure, the modified Cigarette Evaluation Questionnaire (mCEQ), and one behavioral economic task, the Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT), for predicting acute relative reinforcing efficacy measured by concurrent choice Self-Administration (SA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.01.004DOI Listing
February 2019

New synthetic opioid cyclopropylfentanyl together with other novel synthetic opioids in respiratory insufficient comatose patients detected by toxicological analysis.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2019 Feb 18:1-7. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

e Forensic Toxicological Laboratory , University Medical Center Göttingen, Georg-August-University , Göttingen , Germany.

Introduction: Fentanyl derivatives like cyclopropylfentanyl have recently appeared on the recreational drug market. Cyclopropylfentanyl is probably a highly potent opioid, but human toxicological data are not available so far. Similar to other fentanyl derivatives the most serious acute health risk due to the use of cyclopropylfentanyl is likely to be respiratory depression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2018.1554187DOI Listing
February 2019

Assessing the 2004-2018 Fentanyl Misusing Issues Reported to an International Range of Adverse Reporting Systems.

Front Pharmacol 2019 1;10:46. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Psychopharmacology, Drug Misuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances Research Unit, School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, United Kingdom.

A recent, global, increase in the use of opioids including the prescribing, highly potent, fentanyl has been recorded. Due its current popularity and the potential lethal consequences of its intake, we aimed here at analyzing the fentanyl misuse, abuse, dependence and withdrawal-related adverse drug reactions (ADRs) identified within the European Medicines Agency (EMA), the United Kingdom Yellow Card Scheme (YCS), and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) databases. Descriptive analysis of both ADRs and related cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367955PMC
February 2019

Nonmedical prescription psychiatric drug use and the darknet: A cryptomarket analysis.

Int J Drug Policy 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, United Kingdom.

Background: Nonmedical prescription psychiatric drug use (NMPDU) is an increasing global health problem, with recent concern focusing on darknet cryptomarkets as sources of procurement. There is a shortage of evidence regarding comparative worldwide NMPDU trends, due in part to data collection difficulties. This problem is particularly marked for non-opioid drugs, particularly those psychiatric drugs which act on the central nervous system (CNS) and have high misuse potential and are associated with high levels of dependency and fatal overdose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.01.016DOI Listing
February 2019

Paternal exposure to morphine during adolescence induces reward-resistance phenotype to morphine in male offspring.

Brain Res Bull 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Neuroscience Research Center, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The developing brain is extremely sensitive to drugs during adolescence. The devastating impacts of opioid abuse in this critical period not only do involve individuals but also are witnessed in the subsequent generations. Therefore, what is recognized as the population susceptible to the effects of opioid abuse could be much greater in number. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2019.02.004DOI Listing
February 2019

Probability discounting of monetary gains and losses in opioid-dependent adults.

Behav Brain Res 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Western Sydney University, Building 24, Bankstown Campus Office: 24.1.6 Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW, 2751, Australia. Electronic address:

While the link between delay discounting and drug addiction has been well established, much less is known about probability discounting (PD) in the context of substance abuse. This study is the first to investigate how opioid-dependent individuals make risky decisions about gains and losses using the PD paradigm. Fifty-six opioid-dependent adults receiving opioid maintenance therapy and 55 controls performed two tasks that assessed PD of hypothetical monetary gains and losses, and completed the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2019.02.017DOI Listing
February 2019

A Population Health Approach to America's Opioid Epidemic.

Orthop Nurs 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Susan Salmond, EdD, RN, ANEF, FAAN, Executive Vice Dean and Professor, School of Nursing, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, and Research Editor for Orthopaedic Nursing. Virginia Allread, MPH, Executive Assistant, School of Nursing, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ.

The United States is in the midst of a nationwide public health emergency: an epidemic of opioid misuse and abuse that has been called the deadliest drug crisis in American history. This article reviews the current status of the opioid epidemic, the trends over the last 30-40 years that may have contributed to the epidemic, and a population health approach to addressing the epidemic. The epidemic is conceptualized from a population health perspective-an upstream and midstream perspective focusing on prevention and a downstream perspective targeting access to evidence-based interventions and maximizing health whether using or abstaining. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NOR.0000000000000521DOI Listing
February 2019

Effectiveness and framing of pharmaceutical opioid abuse-deterrent formulations.

Addiction 2019 Mar;114(3):404-405

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales Sydney, NSW, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.14556DOI Listing

Analysis of Acetyl Fentanyl in Postmortem Specimens by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS): Method Validation and Case Report.

J Anal Toxicol 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

UF Health Pathology Laboratories-Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, 4800 SW 35th Drive, Gainesville FL, USA.

In 2013, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released a warning regarding a new recreational drug, acetyl fentanyl. Acetyl fentanyl is a μ-opioid receptor agonist, and its pharmacological effects include euphoria, altered mood, miosis and central nervous system depression. The objective of this report was to develop a sensitive and specific method for the quantitation of acetyl fentanyl by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in postmortem casework. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/bky108DOI Listing
February 2019

Unusual Route of Buprenorphine Administration: An Alternative Approach for Bypassing Adverse Drug Reactions.

Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 2019 18;90:17-19. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Research Methodology and Data Analysis Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Tramadol abuse is a critical and growing health concern in Asia. In Iran, tramadol abuse arises most commonly as a result of self-medicating that leads to tramadol dependence. Buprenorphine, a partial agonist of mu opioid receptors approved for the treatment of tramadol dependence, is administered sublingually due to its extensive first-pass metabolism and resulting low oral bioavailability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.curtheres.2019.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360512PMC
January 2019

Latest Opioid Abuse Bill Contains Over 100 Provisions But No Far-Reaching Pharmacy Mandates.

Authors:
Stephen Barlas

P T 2019 Jan;44(2):29-63

Will the new opioid abuse bill prove more effective than its predecessor? A plethora of provisions will have little impact on pharmacists and pharmaceuticals. Read More

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January 2019

Analysis of whole genome-transcriptomic organization in brain to identify genes associated with alcoholism.

Transl Psychiatry 2019 Feb 14;9(1):89. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Neuroscience, Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai, 1425 Madison Ave, New York, NY, USA.

Alcohol exposure triggers changes in gene expression and biological pathways in human brain. We explored alterations in gene expression in the Pre-Frontal Cortex (PFC) of 65 alcoholics and 73 controls of European descent, and identified 129 genes that showed altered expression (FDR < 0.05) in subjects with alcohol dependence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-019-0384-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Days' Supply of Initial Opioid Analgesic Prescriptions and Additional Fills for Acute Pain Conditions Treated in the Primary Care Setting - United States, 2014.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019 Feb 15;68(6):140-143. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

During 2017, opioids were associated with 47,600 deaths in the United States, approximately one third of which involved a prescription opioid (1). Amid concerns that overprescribing to patients with acute pain remains an essential factor underlying misuse, abuse, diversion, and unintentional overdose, several states have restricted opioid analgesic prescribing (2,3). To characterize patterns of opioid analgesic use for acute pain in primary care settings before the widespread implementation of limits on opioid prescribing (2,3), patients filling an opioid analgesic prescription for acute pain were identified from a 2014 database of commercial claims. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6806a3DOI Listing
February 2019
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Increased Methamphetamine, Injection Drug, and Heroin Use Among Women and Heterosexual Men with Primary and Secondary Syphilis - United States, 2013-2017.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019 Feb 15;68(6):144-148. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Division of STD Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC.

During 2013-2017, the national annual rate of reported primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis cases in the United States increased 72.7%, from 5.5 to 9. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6806a4DOI Listing
February 2019

Bilateral Compartment Syndrome in Intravenous Drug Abuse.

Cureus 2018 Dec 4;10(12):e3683. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Internal Medicine, Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, USA.

Compartment syndrome is an orthopedic emergency in which the neurovasculature of the extremity is compromised. Typically, it presents unilaterally and is the consequence of major trauma to the extremity in the form of fracture. However, more uncommon etiologies of compartment syndrome have been reported, which includes reperfusion injury, burns, and congenital or acquired bleeding disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.3683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367106PMC
December 2018

Role of regional anesthesia and analgesia in the opioid epidemic.

Reg Anesth Pain Med 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York City, New York, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/rapm-2018-100102DOI Listing
February 2019

Understanding and treating opioid use disorders in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer populations.

Subst Abus 2019 Feb 13:1-5. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

a Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School , Massachusetts , USA.

Although little is known about the specific burden of the opioid epidemic on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) populations, there is evidence to suggest that opioid use disorders are disproportionately prevalent in the LGBTQ community. In this commentary, we present an overview of the current state of evidence on opioid use and misuse among LGBTQ-identified people in the United States and suggest ways to adapt behavioral health interventions to the specific needs of this population. Programs that integrate behavioral health with primary care, address minority stress, and use a trauma-informed approach have the most potential to produce effective, long-term benefits for LGBTQ-identified people with opioid use disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08897077.2018.1544963DOI Listing
February 2019

Nociceptin/orphanin FQ modulates energy homeostasis through inhibition of neurotransmission at VMN SF-1/ARC POMC synapses in a sex- and diet-dependent manner.

Biol Sex Differ 2019 Feb 12;10(1). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA.

Background: Orphanin FQ (aka nociceptin; N/OFQ) binds to its nociceptin opioid peptide (NOP) receptor expressed in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons within the arcuate nucleus (ARC), a critical anorexigenic component of the hypothalamic energy balance circuitry. It inhibits POMC neurons by modifying neuronal excitability both pre- and postsynaptically. We tested the hypothesis that N/OFQ inhibits neurotransmission at synapses involving steroidogenic factor (SF)-1 neurons in the ventromedial nucleus (VMN) and ARC POMC neurons in a sex- and diet-dependent fashion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0220-3DOI Listing
February 2019

Oral Opioid Use during Vaginal Delivery Hospitalizations.

Am J Perinatol 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York.

Objective:  To determine the receipt of short-acting opioid medications during vaginal delivery hospitalizations.

Study Design:  The Perspective database was analyzed to evaluate patterns of short-acting oral opioid use during vaginal delivery hospitalizations from January 2006 to March 2015. Unadjusted and adjusted models evaluating the role of demographic and hospital factors were created evaluating use of opioids. Read More

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http://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0039-1678566
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1678566DOI Listing
February 2019
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Summit-07: A randomized trial of NKTR-181, a new molecular entity, full mu-opioid receptor agonist for chronic low-back pain.

Pain 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Gold Coast Research, LLC, Plantation, FL.

NKTR-181, a new molecular entity, full mu-opioid receptor agonist with an inherently slow rate of CNS entry, was designed to provide analgesia while reducing abuse potential. The objective of this phase 3, enriched-enrollment, randomized-withdrawal trial was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy, safety, and tolerability of NKTR-181 in patients with chronic low-back pain (CLBP). Adults with moderate-to-severe CLBP refractory to non-opioid analgesics achieving an analgesic NKTR-181 dosage (100-400 mg twice daily) during the open-label titration period were randomized to continued NKTR-181 treatment, double-blind, or switched to placebo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001517DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Effects of intravenous oxycodone alone or in combination with naltrexone on measures of respiratory depression: a randomized placebo-controlled study.

Ther Adv Drug Saf 2019 1;10:2042098618821274. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Pfizer Inc., Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Abuse of prescription opioids, particularly by intravenous (IV) administration, can cause respiratory depression and death. ALO-02, an abuse-deterrent opioid formulation, is designed to release sequestered naltrexone upon manipulation by crushing, thereby antagonizing the pharmacologic effects of oxycodone. This exploratory analysis examined the effects of IV administration of simulated crushed ALO-02 on end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO), a surrogate marker of respiratory depression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2042098618821274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360639PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Evidence-based and guideline-concurrent responses to narratives deferring HCV treatment among people who inject drugs.

Harm Reduct J 2019 Feb 11;16(1):14. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Community Health Sciences, Boston University School of Public Health, 801 Massachusetts Ave, 442e, Boston, MA, 02118, USA.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasingly prevalent among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the context of the current US opioid crisis. Although curative therapy is available and recommended as a public health strategy, few PWID have been treated. We explore PWID narratives that explain why they have not sought HCV treatment or decided against starting it. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0286-6DOI Listing
February 2019
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A further assessment of a role for Toll-like receptor 4 in the reinforcing and reinstating effects of opioids.

Behav Pharmacol 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Psychobiology Section, Department of Health and Human Services, Molecular Neuropsychiatry Research Branch, Intramural Research Program.

The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonists, (+)-naloxone and (+)-naltrexone, have been reported to decrease self-administration of opioids in rats and to reduce other preclinical indicators of abuse potential. However, under the self-administration conditions studied, the effects of TLR4 antagonists were not reinforcer selective, questioning the involvement of those receptors and their mediated inflammatory response specifically in opioid abuse. The objectives of the current study were to further characterize the reinforcer specificity of TLR4 antagonism in opioid self-administration and to explore its effects in a preclinical model of craving/relapse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FBP.0000000000000474DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Testing the 10 most wanted: a preclinical algorithm to screen candidate opioid use disorder medications.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2019 Feb 9. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, 23298, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-019-0336-5DOI Listing
February 2019
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Respiratory depression and brain hypoxia induced by opioid drugs: Morphine, oxycodone, heroin, and fentanyl.

Neuropharmacology 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse - Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Health, DHHS, 333 Cassell Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA. Electronic address:

Opioid drugs are important tools to alleviate pain of different origins, but they have strong addictive potential and their abuse at higher doses often results in serious health complications. Respiratory depression that leads to brain hypoxia is perhaps the most dangerous symptom of acute intoxication with opioids, and it could result in lethality. The development of substrate-specific sensors coupled with amperometry made it possible to directly evaluate physiological and drug-induced fluctuations in brain oxygen levels in awake, freely-moving rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.02.008DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Oxycodone-Like Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Fentanyl-Related Emerging Drugs of Abuse in Mice.

Neuropharmacology 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1217 E. Marshall Street, Richmond, VA, 23298-0613, USA; Institute for Drug and Alcohol Studies & Center for Biomarker Research and Personalized Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, 410 N. 12th Street, PO Box 980613, Richmond, VA, 23298-0613, USA.

Background: Fentanyl and its structurally related compounds have emerged as the most significant contributors to opioid overdose fatalities in recent years. While there is abundant information about the pharmacological effects of fentanyl, far less is known of its more recently abused analogs. The objective of this study was to determine whether fentanyl and several fentanyl-related substances would engender oxycodone-like responding in a mouse model of oxycodone discrimination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.02.007DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Risk of Prolonged Opioid Use Among Opioid-Naïve Patients After Common Shoulder Arthroscopy Procedures.

Am J Sports Med 2019 Feb 8:363546518819780. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Background:: Opioid-related morbidity and mortality are major public health concerns, and the risk of long-term opioid use after shoulder arthroscopy is not well defined.

Hypothesis:: Substance abuse disorders, pain disorders, and psychiatric conditions increase the risk for prolonged opioid use.

Study Design:: Case-control study, Level of evidence, 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546518819780DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Differentially expressed gene networks, biomarkers, long noncoding RNAs, and shared responses with cocaine identified in the midbrains of human opioid abusers.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 7;9(1):1534. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA.

Opioid abuse is now the most common cause of accidental death in the US. Although opioids and most other drugs of abuse acutely increase signaling mediated by midbrain dopamine (DA)-synthesizing neurons, little is known about long-lasting changes in DA cells that may contribute to continued opioid abuse, craving, and relapse. A better understanding of the molecular and cellular bases of opioid abuse could lead to advancements in therapeutics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-38209-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367337PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Clinical Outcomes of Infective Endocarditis in Injection Drug Users.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2019 Feb;73(5):559-570

Cardiovascular Outcomes Research Laboratories, Division of Cardiac Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

Background: Rising rates of hospitalization for infective endocarditis (IE) have been increasingly tied to rising injection drug use (IDU) associated with the opioid epidemic.

Objectives: This study analyzed recent trends in IDU-IE hospitalization and characterized outcomes and readmissions for IDU-IE patients.

Methods: The authors evaluated the National Readmissions Database (NRD) for IE cases between January 2010 and September 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.10.082DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Barriers to Buprenorphine Expansion in Ohio: A Time-Elapsed Qualitative Study.

J Psychoactive Drugs 2019 Feb 7:1-8. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

e School of Medicine and Public Health/Tobacco Research and Intervention , University of Wisconsin-Madison , Madison , WI, USA.

Buprenorphine partial opioid agonist pharmacotherapy, a key treatment for opioid use disorders (OUDs), is underutilized in the United States. Qualitative interviews, conducted in 2012/2013 and repeated in 2015, identified systemic barriers to providing buprenorphine treatment in Ohio. A representative sample of Ohio's Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Services (ADAMHS) county boards (n = 18) was selected based on percentage of OUD admissions, density of buprenorphine prescribers, and county board area population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2019.1566583DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Function of complement factor H and imaging of small molecules by MALDI-MSI in a methamphetamine behavioral sensitization model.

Behav Brain Res 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China; Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China. Electronic address:

Background: At present, the harm of new-type drug, methamphetamine (METH), has gradually exceeded that of the traditional opioid drugs, and METH abuse has become a serious public health and social problem. In our previous study, complement factor H (CFH) was found to be upregulated in the sera of METH-addicted patients and rats and in certain brain regions in the rats.

Methods: We used ELISA and immunofluorescence to confirm the changes in CFH in the serum and hippocampus of a METH behavioral sensitization mouse model, and C1q expression was also detected by immunofluorescence in the hippocampus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2019.02.002DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Novel kappa opioid receptor agonist as improved PET radiotracer: Development and in vivo evaluation.

Mol Pharm 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

The kappa opioid receptor (KOR) is involved in depression, alcoholism and drug abuse. The current agonist radiotracer C-GR103545 is not ideal for imaging KOR due to its slow tissue kinetics in human. The aim of our project was to develop novel KOR agonist radiotracers with improved imaging properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.8b01209DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Hospitals and substance use disorder services in the time of the opioid epidemic.

Health Serv Res 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Social Medicine, Ohio University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Dublin, Ohio.

Objective: To test whether the opioid epidemic increased hospitals' offerings of substance use services.

Data Sources/study Setting: This study employs data from the 2010 and 2015 American Hospital Association Annual Survey.

Study Design: A multilevel, cross-sectional design was utilized to examine associations between county-level overdose rates and hospital substance use services. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.13116DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Binge-Like Exposure to Ethanol Enhances Morphine's Anti-nociception in B6 Mice.

Front Psychiatry 2018 22;9:756. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Neuroscience, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Elevation of the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) to > 80 mg/dL (17.4 mM) after binge drinking enhances inflammation in brain and neuroimmune signaling pathways. Morphine abuse is frequently linked to excessive drinking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349749PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Potential strategies to combat the opioid crisis.

Expert Opin Drug Saf 2019 Feb 5:1-7. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

a Main regional center for pain relief and supportive/palliative care , La Maddalena Cancer Center , Palermo , Italy.

Introduction: In the last few decades, the consumption of opioid analgesics in many countries, particularly the US, has dramatically increased. This rise has been paralleled by a proportional number of opioid-related deaths. Areas covered: The development of opioid guidelines was a response to this health crisis with the intention of reducing the risk of harm related to opioid prescribing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14740338.2019.1579796DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Palliative Care for Patients With Opioid Misuse-Reply.

JAMA 2019 02;321(5):512

Palliative Care Division, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.18668DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Palliative Care for Patients With Opioid Misuse.

JAMA 2019 02;321(5):511

Department of Palliative Care, Rehabilitation, and Integrative Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.18640DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

A Transitioning Epidemic: How The Opioid Crisis Is Driving The Rise In Hepatitis C.

Health Aff (Millwood) 2019 Feb;38(2):287-294

Rosalie L. Pacula is a senior economist at the RAND Corporation in Santa Monica, California.

The hepatitis C virus is responsible for more deaths in the United States than any other infectious disease, and hepatitis C infections have been rising at an alarming rate since 2010. We evaluated the role of the opioid epidemic and, in particular, the 2010 introduction of an abuse-deterrent version of OxyContin. The OxyContin reformulation led some users of the drug to switch to heroin, which could have exposed them to the hepatitis C virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2018.05232DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Causal inference for evaluating prescription opioid abuse using trend-in-trend design.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2019 Feb 3. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, Denver Health, Denver, CO, USA.

Purpose: One response to the opioid crisis in the United States has been the development of opioid analgesics with properties intended to reduce non-oral use. Previous evaluations of abuse in the community have relied on population averaged interrupted time series Poisson models with utilization offsets. However, competing interventions and secular trends complicate interpretation of time-series analyses. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/pds.4736
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pds.4736DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Asymmetric synthesis of (-)-naltrexone.

Chem Sci 2019 Jan 23;10(2):535-541. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Chemistry , Yale University , Connecticut 06520 , USA . Email: ; Tel: +1-203-432-2647.

(-)-Naltrexone, an opioid antagonist used extensively for the management of drug abuse, is derived from naturally occurring opioids. Herein, we report the first asymmetric synthesis of (-)-naltrexone that does not proceed through thebaine. The synthesis starts with simple, achiral precursors with catalytic enantioselective Sharpless dihydroxylation employed to introduce the stereogenic centers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8sc03748eDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326069PMC
January 2019
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Comorbidity of opioid-related and anxiety-related symptoms and disorders.

Curr Opin Psychol 2019 Jan 4;30:17-23. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, United States; Division of General Internal Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital, United States; Department of Medicine, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, United States.

Opioid use disorder and anxiety disorders co-occur at strikingly high rates, and this comorbidity is marked by a more severe clinical presentation and poorer prognosis for treatment. Given the substantial morbidity and mortality associated with these two disorders, it is imperative to understand factors related to the high rates of co-occurrence in order to inform the development of specialized treatments for this population. Several lines of study suggest that simultaneously addressing opioid-related and anxiety-related symptoms and processes, particularly intolerance of distress and pain-related anxiety, may yield improved outcomes for this high risk, vulnerable population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2018.12.020DOI Listing
January 2019
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Pain Management in Trauma in the Age of the Opioid Crisis.

Anesthesiol Clin 2019 Mar 19;37(1):79-91. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Dulles 6, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

It is imperative to find the balance between pain control and addressing the opioid epidemic. Opioids, although effective in the acute pain management, have multiple side effects and can lead to dependence, abuse, overdose, or death. Physicians should identify patients who abuse opioids, using their states' prescription drug-monitoring programs and use screening tools to identify patients at increased risk of developing opioid dependence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anclin.2018.09.010DOI Listing
March 2019
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Opioid neurobiology, neurogenetics and neuropharmacology in zebrafish.

Neuroscience 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

School of Pharmacy and School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, China; Institute of Experimental Medicine, Almazov National Medical Research Centre, Ministry of Healthcare of Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Russia; Institute of Translational Biomedicine, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia; Granov Russian Research Center of Radiology and Surgical Technologies, Ministry of Healthcare of Russian Federation, Pesochny, Russia; Scientific Research Institute of Physiology and Basic Medicine, Novosibirsk, Russia; ZENEREI Research Center, Slidell, LA, USA; The International Zebrafish Neuroscience Research Consortium, New Orleans, LA, USA. Electronic address:

Despite the high prevalence of medicinal use and abuse of opioids, their neurobiology and mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Experimental (animal) models are critical for improving our understanding of opioid effects in vivo. As zebrafish (Danio rerio) are increasingly utilized as a powerful model organism in neuroscience research, mounting evidence suggests these fish as a useful tool to study opioid neurobiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.01.045DOI Listing
January 2019
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Design and Synthesis of a Novel and Selective Kappa Opioid Receptor (KOR) Antagonist (BTRX-335140).

J Med Chem 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

κ opioid receptor (KOR) antagonists are potential pharmacotherapies for the treatment of migraine and stress-related mood disorders including depression, anxiety and drug abuse, thus the development of novel KOR antagonists with an improved potency/selectivity profile and medication-like duration of action has attracted the interest of the medicinal chemistry community. In this paper, we describe the discovery of 1-(6-ethyl-8-fluoro-4-methyl-3-(3-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)quinolin-2-yl)-N-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)piperidin-4 amine (CYM-53093, BTRX-335140) as a potent and selective KOR antagonist, endowed with favorable in vitro ADMET and in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles and medication-like duration of action in rat pharmacodynamic experiments. Orally administered CYM-53093 showed robust efficacy in antagonizing KOR agonist-induced prolactin secretion and in tail-flick analgesia in mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b01679DOI Listing
February 2019
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Impact of ondansetron on withdrawal signs, fentanyl requirement and pain relief in opioid addicted patients under general anesthesia.

Curr Clin Pharmacol 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman. Iran.

Background: Serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists such as ondansetron have been investigated to attenuate opioid withdrawal signs in studies.

Objective: Therefore, we designed a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial to evaluate this effect in opioid-addicted patients who were admitted to orthopedic department for surgery due to bone fractures.

Method: Male adults who were addicted to opioids, aged 18 to 79 years were enrolled (n=96) and randomized into two oral doses (4 & 8 mg) of ondansetron (n=32) and placebo (n=32). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574884714666190131122846DOI Listing
January 2019
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Natural Language Processing-Identified Problem Opioid Use and Its Associated Health Care Costs.

J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother 2019 Jan 31:1-10. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Use of prescription opioids and problems of abuse and addiction have increased over the past decade. Claims-based studies have documented substantial economic burden of opioid abuse. This study utilized electronic health record (EHR) data to identify chronic opioid therapy (COT) patients with problem opioid use (POU) and compared costs with those for COT patients without POU. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15360288.2018.1488794DOI Listing
January 2019
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Extended-release naltrexone versus standard oral naltrexone versus placebo for opioid use disorder: the NEAT three-arm RCT.

Health Technol Assess 2019 Jan;23(3):1-72

National Addiction Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: People recovering from heroin addiction need better treatments than are currently offered. The chronic relapsing nature of drug dependence means that helping a patient to achieve abstinence is often difficult. Naltrexone blocks the effects of ingested heroin; however, evidence is conflicting regarding the best delivery method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3310/hta23030DOI Listing
January 2019
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5.027 Impact Factor

National Trends in Hospitalizations for Stroke Associated With Infective Endocarditis and Opioid Use Between 1993 and 2015.

Stroke 2019 Jan 30:STROKEAHA118024436. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

From the Clinical and Translational Neuroscience Unit, Department of Neurology, Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY (S.S.O., A.C., M.L.C., M.P.L., A.E.M., H.K.).

Background and Purpose- There has been a recent sharp rise in opioid-related deaths in the United States. Intravenous opioid use can lead to infective endocarditis (IE) which can result in stroke. There are scant data on recent trends in this neurological complication of opioid abuse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.024436DOI Listing
January 2019
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