3,985,593 results match your criteria Oncology

OX40 enhances T cell immune response to PD-1 blockade therapy in non-small cell lung cancer.

Int Immunopharmacol 2022 May 14;108:108813. Epub 2022 May 14.

Guangdong Provincial Engineering Research Center of Molecular Imaging, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging, and Department of Interventional Medicine, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong Province 519000, China; Lead Contact. Electronic address:

Immune-checkpoint blockade is widely studied for cancer therapy. Although the co-inhibitory receptor Programmed death-1(PD-1) blockade benefits some non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, a large portion of NSCLC patients still fail to respond to this immunotherapy, and the underlying mechanism is unclear. Thus, a synergistic therapy to enhance the effect of PD-1 is urgently needed to improve the poor outcome of NSCLC patients. Read More

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Head and neck manifestations of paracoccidioidomycosis: A retrospective study of histopathologically diagnosed cases in two medical centers in southern Brazil.

J Mycol Med 2022 May 3;32(3):101292. Epub 2022 May 3.

Postgraduate Program in Medicine: Medical Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Porto Alegre RS, Brazil; Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Porto Alegre RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Paracoccidoidomycosis (PCM) is a granulomatous systemic mycosis endemic in southern Brazil.

Objectives: Analyze the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cases of PCM with head and neck manifestations in southern Brazil.

Material And Methods: Retrospective study of histopathologically diagnosed cases of PCM with head and neck manifestations referred to two medical centers in the municipality of Santa Cruz do Sul, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during a 10-year period (2011-2020). Read More

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Sino-orbital cutaneous fistula with endoscopy guided technique: A case series.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2022 May 13;95:107196. Epub 2022 May 13.

Oncology Division, Ophthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Introduction And Importance: Sino-orbital cutaneous fistula (SOCF) directly connects the sinus, orbital space, and outer skin. SOCF has been reported mostly as a complication of orbital exenteration, although it may occur from other infrequent etiologies. The patient can be treated using an endoscopy-guided technique which requires a multidisciplinary approach. Read More

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Small intestinal myxoma presented with bowel obstruction, a rare case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2022 May 14;95:107180. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Pathology, Medical School, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: Myxomas are rare benign mesenchymal neoplasms and mostly occur in cardiac atrium and with lower prevalence, appear in sinonasal tract, gnathic bone, skin and joints. Benign primary tumors of the small intestine are quite unusual accounting about 3% of all the gastrointestinal tract neoplasms.

Presentation Of Case: In this report, we present a rare case of small intestinal myxoma in a 43-year-old man complicated by ileoileal intussusception causing bowel obstruction. Read More

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KLF4 suppresses the proliferation and metastasis of NSCLC cells via inhibition of MSI2 and regulation of the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway.

Di-Di Luo Feng Zhao

Transl Oncol 2022 May 14;22:101396. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No.1277, Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430022, Hubei, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains an aggresive tumor with poor survival rates. Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is known to be involved in progression of NSCLC; however, the detailed mechanism by which KLF4 regulates the progression of NSCLC remains unclear.

Methods: In order to investigate the function of KLF4 in NSCLC, cell proliferation was measured by MTT and colony formation assays. Read More

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In uveal melanoma Gα-protein GNA11 mutations convey a shorter disease-specific survival and are more strongly associated with loss of BAP1 and chromosomal alterations than Gα-protein GNAQ mutations.

Eur J Cancer 2022 May 14;170:27-41. Epub 2022 May 14.

IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy.

Background And Aim Of The Study: Mutations in the Gα-genes GNAQ and GNA11 are found in 85-90% of uveal melanomas (UM). Aim of the study is to understand whether the mutations in both genes differentially affect tumor characteristics and outcome and if so, to identify potential mechanisms.

Methods: We analyzed the association between GNAQ and GNA11 mutations with disease-specific survival, gene expression profiles, and cytogenetic alterations in 219 UMs. Read More

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Effectiveness of population-based colorectal cancer screening programme in down-staging.

Cancer Epidemiol 2022 May 14;79:102184. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Health, Hong Kong, China.

Background: This is the first evaluation study to assess the demographic characteristics of the colorectal cancer (CRC) cases detected in the prevalent round of the population-based Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme (CRCSP) in Hong Kong and to explore the effectiveness of the programme on the stage distribution of CRC.

Methods: This study covered the period between 28 September 2016 and 31 December 2018. Information on CRC diagnosis, age and stage at diagnosis were retrieved and reviewed by the Hong Kong Cancer Registry (HKCaR). Read More

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Re-introduction of T-VEC Monotherapy in Recurrent Melanoma is Effective.

J Immunother 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Departments of Surgical Oncology.

Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is a modified herpes simplex virus type 1, which can be administered intralesionally in patients with stage IIIB/C-IVM1a (American Joint Committee of Cancer; AJCC 7th edition) unresectable melanoma. In the case of disease recurrence, T-VEC can be re-introduced for the same category of patients. Five patients with recurrent disease after a prior achieved complete response (CR) recommenced treatment with T-VEC monotherapy at the Netherlands Cancer Institute. Read More

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Circulating Tumor DNA as a Biomarker in Patients With Stage III and IV Wilms Tumor: Analysis From a Children's Oncology Group Trial, AREN0533.

J Clin Oncol 2022 May 17:JCO2200098. Epub 2022 May 17.

Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, MA.

Purpose: The utility of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analyses has not been established in the risk stratification of Wilms tumor (WT). We evaluated the detection of ctDNA and selected risk markers in the serum and urine of patients with WT and compared findings with those of matched diagnostic tumor samples.

Patients And Methods: Fifty of 395 children with stage III or IV WT enrolled on Children's Oncology Group trial AREN0533 had banked pretreatment serum, urine, and tumor available. Read More

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AENEAS: A Randomized Phase III Trial of Aumolertinib Versus Gefitinib as First-Line Therapy for Locally Advanced or MetastaticNon-Small-Cell Lung Cancer With Exon 19 Deletion or L858R Mutations.

J Clin Oncol 2022 May 17:JCO2102641. Epub 2022 May 17.

Respiratory Medicine, Xiangya Hospital Central South University, Changsha, China.

Purpose: Aumolertinib (formerly almonertinib; HS-10296) is a novel third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved in China. This double-blind phase III trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of aumolertinib compared with gefitinib as a first-line treatment for locally advanced or metastatic -mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03849768). Read More

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Venous Thromboprophylaxis in Surgical Oncology Patients: The Importance of Risk Assessment in the Context of Limited Evidence.

J Clin Oncol 2022 May 17:JCO2102935. Epub 2022 May 17.

Rebecca A. Snyder, MD, MPH, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC; and Eileen M. O'Reilly, MD, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

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Checkpoint Immunotherapy in Pediatrics: Here, Gone, and Back Again.

Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2022 Apr;42:1-14

Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Stem Cell Transplant, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

The role of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in the treatment of pediatric cancers continues to evolve. Such therapies function by augmenting existing antitumor T-cell responses that have been rendered ineffective by inhibitory pathways. Although ICIs have proven highly effective for adult cancers, initial phase I/II clinical trials using single-agent ICIs against unselected pediatric cancers have been overall disappointing. Read More

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HER2 in Colorectal Cancer: The Long and Winding Road From Negative Predictive Factor to Positive Actionable Target.

Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2022 Apr;42:1-14

Medical Oncology Unit 3, Veneto Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Padua, Italy.

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 () is a well-known oncogenic driver in different tumors and an approved therapeutic target in breast and gastroesophageal cancer. In metastatic colorectal cancer, only 3% to 5% of patients present with alterations: somatic mutations and amplifications. was first assessed as a biomarker of resistance to anti- therapy; however, in more recent years, its role as a potential actionable target has emerged. Read More

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A Window of Opportunity to Overcome Therapeutic Failure in Neuro-Oncology.

Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2022 Apr;42:1-8

Department of Neurosurgery, Barrow Neurologic Institute, Phoenix, AZ.

Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain neoplasm and it remains one of the most difficult-to-treat human cancers despite decades of discovery and translational and clinical research. Many advances have been made in our understanding of the genetics and epigenetics of gliomas in general; yet, there remains an urgent need to develop novel agents that will improve the survival of patients with this deadly disease. What sets glioblastoma apart from all other cancers is that it develops and spreads within an organ that renders tumor cells inaccessible to most systemically administered agents because of the presence of the blood-brain barrier. Read More

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Patient Experience in Clinical Trials: Quality of Life, Financial Burden, and Perception of Care in Patients With Multiple Myeloma or Lymphoma Enrolled on Clinical Trials Compared With Standard Care.

JCO Oncol Pract 2022 May 17:OP2100789. Epub 2022 May 17.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Purpose: Patients' concerns regarding clinical trial (CT) participation include apprehension about side effects, quality of life (QoL), financial burden, and quality of care.

Methods: We prospectively evaluated the experience of patients with multiple myeloma or lymphoma who were treated on CTs (CT group, n = 35) versus patients treated with standard approaches (non-CT group, n = 88) focusing on QoL, financial burden of care, and patients' perception of quality of care over a 1-year period.

Results: There were no significant differences in any of the patient-reported outcomes in CT versus non-CT groups. Read More

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Targeting IRAK3 for Degradation to Enhance IL-12 Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production.

ACS Chem Biol 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Drug Discovery Science & Technology, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, Illinois 60064, United States.

Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 3 (IRAK3) is a pseudokinase mediator in the human inflammatory pathway, and ablation of its function is associated with enhanced antitumor immunity. Traditionally, pseudokinases have eluded "druggability" and have not been considered tractable targets in the pharmaceutical industry. Herein we disclose a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of IRAK3 in monocyte-derived dendritic cells that results in an increase in IL-12 production upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Read More

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How local partisan context conditions prosocial behaviors: Mask wearing during COVID-19.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 May 17;119(21):e2116311119. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Political Science, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095.

SignificanceDifferences between Democrats and Republicans in rates of wearing a mask to stop the spread of COVID-19 are associated with the partisan balance of a neighborhood. The difference in rates grew larger as the share of Republicans in a neighborhood increased. This finding appears to be driven by decreased rates of mask wearing by Republicans who live among increasing numbers of Republicans (and not by Democrats in the same neighborhood). Read More

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Blood 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Oncology and Hematology, Humanitas Cancer Center, Humanitas Research Hospital - IRCCS, Milano,, Italy.

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogenous subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Relapsed/refractory disease represents remains an unmet medical need, despite the introduction of novel cellular and targeted therapies. Loncastuximab tesirine is a CD19-targeting antibody-drug conjugate approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for relapsed DLBCL after two lines of systemic therapy based on a trial showing a 48. Read More

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Mechanisms of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Light Therapy for Cancer-Related Insomnia: A Randomized Clinical Trial during Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer.

Behav Sleep Med 2022 May 17:1-15. Epub 2022 May 17.

School of Psychological Sciences, Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Study Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of a combined brief cognitive behavioral plus bright light therapy (CBT-I+Light) in women receiving chemotherapy.

Methods: Women (N = 101) were randomly assigned to CBT-I+Light or treatment as usual plus relaxation audios (TAU+). Participants completed sleep diaries and wore an actigraph during the 6-week intervention period. Read More

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Automatic contouring QA method using a deep learning-based autocontouring system.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2022 May 17:e13647. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Radiation Physics, Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Purpose: To determine the most accurate similarity metric when using an independent system to verify automatically generated contours.

Methods: A reference autocontouring system (primary system to create clinical contours) and a verification autocontouring system (secondary system to test the primary contours) were used to generate a pair of 6 female pelvic structures (UteroCervix [uterus + cervix], CTVn [nodal clinical target volume (CTV)], PAN [para-aortic lymph nodes], bladder, rectum, and kidneys) on 49 CT scans from our institution and 38 from other institutions. Additionally, clinically acceptable and unacceptable contours were manually generated using the 49 internal CT scans. Read More

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Cancer driver drug interaction explorer.

Nucleic Acids Res 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Chair of Experimental Bioinformatics, TUM School of Life Sciences, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany.

Cancer is a heterogeneous disease characterized by unregulated cell growth and promoted by mutations in cancer driver genes some of which encode suitable drug targets. Since the distinct set of cancer driver genes can vary between and within cancer types, evidence-based selection of drugs is crucial for targeted therapy following the precision medicine paradigm. However, many putative cancer driver genes can not be targeted directly, suggesting an indirect approach that considers alternative functionally related targets in the gene interaction network. Read More

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DNA-PKcs-dependent phosphorylation of RECQL4 promotes NHEJ by stabilizing the NHEJ machinery at DNA double-strand breaks.

Nucleic Acids Res 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the major pathway that mediates the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated by ionizing radiation (IR). Previously, the DNA helicase RECQL4 was implicated in promoting NHEJ, but its role in the pathway remains unresolved. In this study, we report that RECQL4 stabilizes the NHEJ machinery at DSBs to promote repair. Read More

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IBS 2.0: an upgraded illustrator for the visualization of biological sequences.

Nucleic Acids Res 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

School of Life Sciences, Precision Medicine Institute, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China.

The visualization of biological sequences with various functional elements is fundamental for the publication of scientific achievements in the field of molecular and cellular biology. However, due to the limitations of the currently used applications, there are still considerable challenges in the preparation of biological schematic diagrams. Here, we present a professional tool called IBS 2. Read More

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Special issue "The advance of solid tumor research in China": Multi-omics analysis based on 1311 clear cell renal cell carcinoma samples identify a glycolysis signature associated with prognosis and treatment response.

Int J Cancer 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Urology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, P.R. China.

In clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), glycolysis is enhanced mainly because of the increased expression of key enzymes in glycolysis. Hence, the discovery of new molecular biomarkers for glycolysis may help guide and establish a precise system of diagnosis and treatment for ccRCC. Expression profiles of 1079 tumor samples of ccRCC patients (including 311 patients treated with Everolimus or Nivolumab) were downloaded from public databases. Read More

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A Single Dose of BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine Induces Airway Immunity in SARS-CoV-2 Naive and recovered COVID-19 subjects.

Clin Infect Dis 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Université Côte d'Azur, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Thoracic Oncology, FHU OncoAge, Nice, France.

Background: Mucosal antibodies can prevent virus entry and replication in mucosal epithelial cells and hence virus shedding. Parenteral booster injection of a vaccine against a mucosal pathogen promotes stronger mucosal immune responses following prior mucosal infection compared to injections of a parenteral vaccine in a mucosally naive subject. We investigated whether this was also the case for the BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. Read More

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Special issue "The advance of solid tumor research in China": Real-world clinical outcomes of alectinib for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with ALK fusion in China.

Int J Cancer 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Global phase 3 trials have demonstrated the priority of several next-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK-TKIs). However, clinical studies are conducted with specific populations that differ from the real world. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of alectinib in real-world settings. Read More

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Dll4 Inhibition Promotes Graft Retention in Fat Grafting Enriched with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

Autologous fat grafting is among the safest and most effective treatments for soft-tissue restoration and augmentation, and many efforts have been made to improve its efficiency, including adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) supplementation. Here, we investigated the role of Notch ligand Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) in angiogenesis within grafted fat and its effect on graft retention, as well as the effect of Dll4 inhibition on ASC supplementation. Using a murine fat graft model, we investigated the expression of Dll4 in fat grafts and assessed the graft volume, vascularity, and perfusion within the graft, and ASC differentiation patterns depending on the blockade of Dll4. Read More

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Circulating free testosterone and risk of aggressive prostate cancer: prospective and Mendelian randomization analyses in international consortia.

Int J Cancer 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Public Health and Health Policy, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan.

Previous studies had limited power to assess the associations of testosterone with aggressive disease as a primary endpoint. Further, the association of genetically predicted testosterone with aggressive disease is not known. We investigated the associations of calculated free and measured total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with aggressive, overall and early-onset prostate cancer. Read More

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Stromal Notch ligands foster lymphopenia-driven functional plasticity and homeostatic proliferation of naïve B cells.

J Clin Invest 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, United States of America.

In lymphopenic environments, secondary lymphoid organs regulate the size of B and T-cell compartments by supporting homeostatic proliferation of mature lymphocytes. The molecular mechanisms underlying these responses and their functional consequences remain incompletely understood. To evaluate homeostasis of the mature B-cell pool during lymphopenia, we turned to an adoptive transfer model of purified follicular B-cells into Rag2-/- mouse recipients. Read More

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Targeting CAR-Nrf2 improves cyclophosphamide bioactivation while reducing doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in triple-negative breast cancer treatment.

JCI Insight 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland, Baltimore, United States of America.

Cyclophosphamide (CPA) and doxorubicin (DOX) are key components of chemotherapy for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) although suboptimal outcomes are commonly associated with drug resistance and/or intolerable side-effects. Through an approach combining high-throughput screening and chemical modification, we developed CN06 as a dual activator of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). CN06 enhances CAR-induced bioactivation of CPA (a prodrug) by provoking hepatic expression of CYP2B6, while repressing DOX-induced cytotoxicity in cardiomyocytes in vitro via stimulating Nrf2-antioxidant signaling. Read More

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