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    855 results match your criteria Onchocerciasis River Blindness

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    Nodding syndrome may be an autoimmune reaction to the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus.
    Sci Transl Med 2017 Feb;9(377)
    Section of Infections of the Nervous System, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
    Nodding syndrome is an epileptic disorder of unknown etiology that occurs in children in East Africa. There is an epidemiological association with Onchocerca volvulus, the parasitic worm that causes onchocerciasis (river blindness), but there is limited evidence that the parasite itself is neuroinvasive. We hypothesized that nodding syndrome may be an autoimmune-mediated disease. Read More

    Plasma-derived parasitic microRNAs have insufficient concentrations to be used as diagnostic biomarker for detection of Onchocerca volvulus infection or treatment monitoring using LNA-based RT-qPCR.
    Parasitol Res 2017 Mar 22;116(3):1013-1022. Epub 2017 Jan 22.
    Janssen Diagnostics, Janssen R&D, Turnhoutseweg 30, 2340, Beerse, Belgium.
    River blindness, caused by infection with the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, is a neglected tropical disease affecting millions of people. There is a clear need for diagnostic tools capable of identifying infected patients, but that can also be used for monitoring disease progression and treatment efficacy. Plasma-derived parasitic microRNAs have been suggested as potential candidates for such diagnostic tools. Read More

    Using Community-Level Prevalence of Loa loa Infection to Predict the Proportion of Highly-Infected Individuals: Statistical Modelling to Support Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis Elimination Programs.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Dec 1;10(12):e0005157. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    CHICAS, Lancaster Medical School, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
    Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis (river blindness) constitute pressing public health issues in tropical regions. Global elimination programs, involving mass drug administration (MDA), have been launched by the World Health Organisation. Although the drugs used are generally well tolerated, individuals who are highly co-infected with Loa loa are at risk of experiencing serious adverse events. Read More

    An isothermal DNA amplification method for detection of Onchocerca volvulus infection in skin biopsies.
    Parasit Vectors 2016 Dec 1;9(1):624. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Janssen Diagnostics, Janssen R&D, Turnhoutseweg 30, 2340, Beerse, Belgium.
    Background: Diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of infection with the nematode parasite Onchocerca volvulus are currently based on the microscopic detection of microfilariae in skin biopsies. Alternative approaches based on amplification of parasitic DNA in these skin biopsies are currently being explored. Mostly this is based on the detection of the O-150 repeat sequence using PCR based techniques. Read More

    Stage-Specific Transcriptome and Proteome Analyses of the Filarial Parasite Onchocerca volvulus and Its Wolbachia Endosymbiont.
    MBio 2016 Nov 23;7(6). Epub 2016 Nov 23.
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a neglected tropical disease that has been successfully targeted by mass drug treatment programs in the Americas and small parts of Africa. Achieving the long-term goal of elimination of onchocerciasis, however, requires additional tools, including drugs, vaccines, and biomarkers of infection. Here, we describe the transcriptome and proteome profiles of the major vector and the human host stages (L1, L2, L3, molting L3, L4, adult male, and adult female) of Onchocerca volvulus along with the proteome of each parasitic stage and of its Wolbachia endosymbiont (wOv). Read More

    Genomic diversity in Onchocerca volvulus and its Wolbachia endosymbiont.
    Nat Microbiol 2016 Nov 21;2:16207. Epub 2016 Nov 21.
    McDonnell Genome Institute, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.
    Ongoing elimination efforts have altered the global distribution of Onchocerca volvulus, the agent of river blindness, and further population restructuring is expected as efforts continue. Therefore, a better understanding of population genetic processes and their effect on biogeography is needed to support elimination goals. We describe O. Read More

    The genome of Onchocerca volvulus, agent of river blindness.
    Nat Microbiol 2016 Nov 21;2:16216. Epub 2016 Nov 21.
    New York Blood Center, New York, New York 10065, USA.
    Human onchocerciasis is a serious neglected tropical disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus that can lead to blindness and chronic disability. Control of the disease relies largely on mass administration of a single drug, and the development of new drugs and vaccines depends on a better knowledge of parasite biology. Here, we describe the chromosomes of O. Read More

    Recrudescence of onchocerciasis in the Comoé valley in Southwest Burkina Faso.
    Acta Trop 2017 Feb 11;166:96-105. Epub 2016 Nov 11.
    Ouagadougou, 01 BP 2938, Ouaga 01, Burkina Faso.
    Onchocerciasis control by vector control was instigated in southwest Burkina Faso in January 1969 by ORSTOM/OCCGE, and continued until operations were taken over by the WHO Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) in February 1975, which itself ceased operations in the area in 1989 when onchocerciasis was judged to have been reduced to insignificant levels. Initially (1969-1975) vector immigration maintained unacceptably high levels of transmission, but OCP was much larger than the preceding campaign and in 1975 the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP) dropped below 100 at all sites in the Comoé river valley except Folonzo, which continued to be subject to reinvasion, along with the whole of the Léraba river valley. However, after the southern extension of the OCP in 1979, ATPs dropped below 100 everywhere in the Comoé basin (including the Léraba valley), and further dropped to insignificant levels after the western extension of the OCP in 1985. Read More

    River Blindness: Mathematical Models for Control and Elimination.
    Adv Parasitol 2016 7;94:247-341. Epub 2016 Oct 7.
    University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Human onchocerciasis (river blindness) is one of the few neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) whose control strategies have been informed by mathematical modelling. With the change in focus from elimination of the disease burden to elimination of Onchocerca volvulus, much remains to be done to refine, calibrate and validate existing models. Under the impetus of the NTD Modelling Consortium, the teams that developed EPIONCHO and ONCHOSIM have joined forces to compare and improve these frameworks to better assist ongoing elimination efforts. Read More

    25 Years of the Onchocerca ochengi Model.
    Trends Parasitol 2016 Dec 21;32(12):966-978. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
    Cameroon Academy of Sciences, Yaoundé BP 1457, Cameroon.
    Although of limited veterinary significance, Onchocerca ochengi has become famous as a natural model or 'analogue' of human onchocerciasis (river blindness), which is caused by Onchocerca volvulus. On the basis of both morphological and molecular criteria, O. ochengi is the closest extant relative of O. Read More

    Evaluation of onchocerciasis seroprevalence in Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea) after years of disease control programmes.
    Parasit Vectors 2016 Sep 20;9(1):509. Epub 2016 Sep 20.
    Helminth Unit, Parasitology Department, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Crtra. Majadahonda-Pozuelo, km 2.2, 28220, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.
    Background: Onchocerciasis or "river blindness" is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus, transmitted through infected blackflies (Simulium spp.). Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea) used to show a high endemicity for onchocerciasis. Read More

    Canine ocular onchocerciasis: a retrospective review of the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of 16 cases in New Mexico (2011-2015).
    Vet Ophthalmol 2016 Sep 13. Epub 2016 Sep 13.
    Center for Evolutionary and Theoretical Immunology, University of New Mexico, Castetter Hall Biology MSC03 2020, 87112-0001, Albuquerque, NM, USA.
    Objective: To describe the clinical exam findings, treatment and outcomes of 16 dogs diagnosed with ocular onchocerciasis in New Mexico.

    Materials And Methods: Records of dogs diagnosed by the primary author were reviewed (2011-2015). Records that were accessible and included a diagnosis of Onchocerca lupi by histopathologic or molecular identification of the nematode were included. Read More

    Cross-border collaboration for neglected tropical disease efforts-Lessons learned from onchocerciasis control and elimination in the Mano River Union (West Africa).
    Global Health 2016 Aug 22;12(1):44. Epub 2016 Aug 22.
    Sightsavers, Airport, PO Box 18190, Accra, Ghana.
    Diseases don't respect borders, so efforts to control and eliminate diseases must also be flexible and adaptable enough to effectively reach the populations that live in the areas around national frontiers. Onchocerciasis, commonly known as river blindness is a tropical disease that has historically affected millions of people in 35 countries in Africa and Latin America. In Africa, programs and partnerships to address river blindness through mass drug administration have been active for more than 25 years. Read More

    Doing well while fighting river blindness: the alignment of a corporate drug donation programme with responsibilities to shareholders.
    Trop Med Int Health 2016 Oct 10;21(10):1304-1310. Epub 2016 Aug 10.
    Department of Agriculture and Resource Economics, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Objective: Using the example of Merck's donations of ivermectin, to show how tax incentives and non-profit collaborators can make corporate largesse consistent with obligations to maximise returns to shareholders.

    Methods: We obtained information from publicly available data and estimated Merck's tax deductions according to the US Internal Revenue Code. Reviews of Merck-Kitasato contracts and personal interviews provided additional information regarding key lessons from this collaboration. Read More

    Evidence for Suppression of Onchocerciasis Transmission in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Jul 22;10(7):e0004829. Epub 2016 Jul 22.
    National Center for Tropical Medicine, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Onchocerciasis or "river blindness" is a chronic parasitic neglected tropical disease which is endemic both in mainland and insular Equatorial Guinea. We aim to estimate the current epidemiological situation of onchocerciasis in Bioko Island after vector elimination in 2005 and more than sixteen years of Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) by using molecular and serological approaches for onchocerciasis diagnosis. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Bioko Island from mid-January to mid-February 2014. Read More

    Onchocerca lupi Nematodes in Dogs Exported from the United States into Canada.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2016 Aug;22(8):1477-9
    The Onchocerca lupi nematode is an emerging helminth capable of infecting pets and humans. We detected this parasite in 2 dogs that were imported into Canada from the southwestern United States, a region to which this nematode is endemic. We discuss risk for establishment of O. Read More

    A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey Conducted Three Years after Halting Ivermectin Mass Treatment for Onchocerciasis in Guatemala.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Jun 24;10(6):e0004777. Epub 2016 Jun 24.
    Center for Health Studies (CHS), Universidad del Valle de Guatemala (UVG), Guatemala City, Guatemala.
    Background: Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin for onchocerciasis was provided in Guatemala's Central Endemic Zone (CEZ) over a 24 year period (1988-2011). Elimination of Onchocerca volvulus transmission was declared in 2015 after a three year post MDA surveillance period (2012-2014) showed no evidence of recrudescence. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards onchocerciasis and ivermectin among residents in the post endemic CEZ. Read More

    Stage-specific Proteomes from Onchocerca ochengi, Sister Species of the Human River Blindness Parasite, Uncover Adaptations to a Nodular Lifestyle.
    Mol Cell Proteomics 2016 Aug 25;15(8):2554-75. Epub 2016 May 25.
    From the ‡Institute of Infection & Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK;
    Despite 40 years of control efforts, onchocerciasis (river blindness) remains one of the most important neglected tropical diseases, with 17 million people affected. The etiological agent, Onchocerca volvulus, is a filarial nematode with a complex lifecycle involving several distinct stages in the definitive host and blackfly vector. The challenges of obtaining sufficient material have prevented high-throughput studies and the development of novel strategies for disease control and diagnosis. Read More

    Evaluation of the diagnostic potential of urinary N-Acetyltyramine-O,β-glucuronide (NATOG) as diagnostic biomarker for Onchocerca volvulus infection.
    Parasit Vectors 2016 05 23;9(1):302. Epub 2016 May 23.
    Janssen Diagnostics, Janssen R&D, Turnhoutseweg 30, 2340, Beerse, Belgium.
    Background: Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness is one of the neglected tropical diseases affecting millions of people, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa and is caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. Efforts to eliminate this disease are ongoing and are based on mass drug administration programs with the microfilaricide ivermectin. In order to monitor the efficacy of these programs, there is an unmet need for diagnostic tools capable of identifying infected patients. Read More

    First detection of Onchocerca lupi infection in dogs in southern Spain.
    Parasit Vectors 2016 05 18;9(1):290. Epub 2016 May 18.
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.
    Background: Onchocerca lupi causes ocular pathology of varying severity in dogs from south-western United States, western Europe and northern Asia. This filarioid has also been recognized as a zoonotic agent in Tunisia, Turkey, Iran and the USA, though the information about the biology and epidemiology of this infection is largely unknown. In Europe, O. Read More

    Does Increasing Treatment Frequency Address Suboptimal Responses to Ivermectin for the Control and Elimination of River Blindness?
    Clin Infect Dis 2016 Jun 21;62(11):1338-47. Epub 2016 Mar 21.
    London Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease Research, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London.
    Background: Several African countries have adopted a biannual ivermectin distribution strategy in some foci to control and eliminate onchocerciasis. In 2010, the Ghana Health Service started biannual distribution to combat transmission hotspots and suboptimal responses to treatment. We assessed the epidemiological impact of the first 3 years of this strategy and quantified responses to ivermectin over 2 consecutive rounds of treatment in 10 sentinel communities. Read More

    DISTRIBUTION AND UTILISATION OF IVERMECTIN (MECTIZAN): A CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC APPROACH TO THE CONTROL OF ONCHOCERCIASIS IN OLD OHAOZARA LGA, EBONYI STATE, EASTERN NIGERIA.
    J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2015 Dec;45(3):663-70
    Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a devastating, debilitating Stigmatising and incapacitating parasitic disease that is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including Nigeria. Mass distribution of ivermectin (Mectizan) to the endemic parts of the world was initiated by the Onchocerciasis Control Programmes (OCPs). Absolute compliance to the regimen for up to 15 years has been reported to be effective in the control of the disease. Read More

    THE ARTHROPOD-BORNE ONCHOCERCIASIS: IS IT DESERVED TO BE NEGLECTED?.
    J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2015 Dec;45(3):639-54
    Onchocerciasis a filarial parasitic nematode, also known as river blindness and Robles disease, is a neglected tropical disease infecting more than 18 million people mainly in sub-Saharan of Africa, the Middle East, South and Central America and many other countries. Disease infectivity initiates from Onchocerca volvulus (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae) transmitted by the blackfly, Simulium sp. which introduces the infective stage larva with its saliva into the skin. Read More

    Ongoing Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus after 25 Years of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatments in the Vina du Nord River Valley, in North Cameroon.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Feb 29;10(2):e0004392. Epub 2016 Feb 29.
    Institute of Evolution and Ecology, Department of Comparative Zoology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
    Background: Recent reports of transmission interruption of Onchocerca volvulus, the causing agent of river blindness, in former endemic foci in the Americas, and more recently in West and East Africa, raise the question whether elimination of this debilitating disease is underway after long-term treatment of the population at risk with ivermectin. The situation in Central Africa has not yet been clearly assessed.

    Methods And Findings: Entomologic data from two former endemic river basins in North Cameroon were generated over a period of 43 and 48 months to follow-up transmission levels in areas under prolonged ivermectin control. Read More

    Evidence of suppression of onchocerciasis transmission in the Venezuelan Amazonian focus.
    Parasit Vectors 2016 Jan 27;9:40. Epub 2016 Jan 27.
    Laboratorio de Biología de Vectores y Parásitos, Instituto de Zoología y Ecología Tropical, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado Postal 47072, Caracas, 1041-A, Venezuela.
    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) has set goals for onchocerciasis elimination in Latin America by 2015. Most of the six previously endemic countries are attaining this goal by implementing twice a year (and in some foci, quarterly) mass ivermectin (Mectizan®) distribution. Elimination of transmission has been verified in Colombia, Ecuador and Mexico. Read More

    Doxycycline plus ivermectin versus ivermectin alone for treatment of patients with onchocerciasis.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 Jan 15(1):CD011146. Epub 2016 Jan 15.
    Division of Internal Medicine, John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, 1900 W. Polk Street, Chicago, IL, USA, 60612.
    Background: Onchocerciasis, also known as "river blindness," is a parasitic disease that is caused by infection from the filarial nematode (roundworm), Onchocerca volvulus. Nematodes are transmitted from person to person by blackflies of the Simulium genus, which usually breed in fast flowing streams and rivers. The disease is the second leading infectious cause of blindness in endemic areas. Read More

    Exploring Consumer Perceptions and Economic Burden of Onchocerciasis on Households in Enugu State, South-East Nigeria.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 Nov 30;9(11):e0004231. Epub 2015 Nov 30.
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu, Nigeria.
    Introduction: Onchocerciasis or river blindness constitutes a major burden to households especially in resource-poor settings, causing a significant reduction in household productivity. There has been renewed interest from policy makers to reduce the burden of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) such as onchocerciasis on individuals and households. This paper provides new information on the patient's perceptions of onchocerciasis and its economic burden on households in South-eastern Nigeria. Read More

    Zoonotic ocular onchocercosis caused by Onchocerca lupi in dogs in Romania.
    Parasitol Res 2016 Feb 12;115(2):859-62. Epub 2015 Nov 12.
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Str. prov. per Casamassima km 3 Valenzano, 70010, Bari, Italy.
    Onchocerca lupi is a filarial nematode, which infects the scleral conjunctival tissue of dogs, wolves and cats. Whilst adult nematodes localize in the conjunctive tissue of sclera or in the retrobulbar, microfilariae are found in the skin, and they are rarely diagnosed in asymptomatic animals. Since the first report of human ocular infection 5 years ago, up to 10 zoonotic cases have been identified in patients worldwide. Read More

    One Hundred Years After Its Discovery in Guatemala by Rodolfo Robles, Onchocerca volvulus Transmission Has Been Eliminated from the Central Endemic Zone.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2015 Dec 26;93(6):1295-304. Epub 2015 Oct 26.
    River Blindness Elimination Program, The Carter Center, Atlanta, Georgia; Centro de Estudios en Salud of the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala (UVG), Guatemala City, Guatemala; Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social, Guatemala City, Guatemala; Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas (OEPA), The Carter Center, Guatemala City, Guatemala; Global Health Infectious Disease Program, Department of Global Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida; Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama.
    We report the elimination of Onchocerca volvulus transmission from the Central Endemic Zone (CEZ) of onchocerciasis in Guatemala, the largest focus of this disease in the Americas and the first to be discovered in this hemisphere by Rodolfo Robles Valverde in 1915. Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin was launched in 1988, with semiannual MDA coverage reaching at least 85% of the eligible population in > 95% of treatment rounds during the 12-year period, 2000-2011. Serial parasitological testing to monitor MDA impact in sentinel villages showed a decrease in microfilaria skin prevalence from 70% to 0%, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based entomological assessments of the principal vector Simulium ochraceum s. Read More

    An Integrated Multiomics Approach to Identify Candidate Antigens for Serodiagnosis of Human Onchocerciasis.
    Mol Cell Proteomics 2015 Dec 15;14(12):3224-33. Epub 2015 Oct 15.
    From the ‡McDonnell Genome Institute, Washington University in St Louis, Missouri 63108; §Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110;
    Improved diagnostic methods are needed to support ongoing efforts to eliminate onchocerciasis (river blindness). This study used an integrated approach to identify adult female Onchocerca volvulus antigens that can be explored for developing serodiagnostic tests. The first step was to develop a detailed multi-omics database of all O. Read More

    Diagnostic Tools for Onchocerciasis Elimination Programs.
    Trends Parasitol 2015 Nov 11;31(11):571-82. Epub 2015 Oct 11.
    Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Parkway, St. Louis, MO 63108, USA. Electronic address:
    Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Major disease-control programs have greatly reduced both disease and infection prevalence by mass distribution of donated ivermectin. Recent studies have shown that local elimination was achieved in some areas following many years of ivermectin. Read More

    Immune recognition of excretory and secretory products of the filarial nematode Onchocerca ochengi in cattle and human sera.
    J Helminthol 2015 Sep 11:1-9. Epub 2015 Sep 11.
    Department of Molecular Physiology,Institute for Zoophysiology,Schlossplatz 8,48143Muenster,Germany.
    Excretory-secretory (ES) products of nematodes and other helminths are the first molecules to interact with cell surfaces and soluble proteins within the host. In the present study, ES products of the filarial nematode Onchocerca ochengi were investigated as a model for Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of river blindness. These products were collected from adult and larval stages in vitro over a period of 7 days, to compare their immunological recognition in cattle and human sera, infected with species of Onchocerca. Read More

    Financial and Economic Costs of the Elimination and Eradication of Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) in Africa.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 11;9(9):e0004056. Epub 2015 Sep 11.
    Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Background: Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a parasitic disease transmitted by blackflies. Symptoms include severe itching, skin lesions, and vision impairment including blindness. More than 99% of all cases are concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

    DNA vaccine encoding the moonlighting protein Onchocerca volvulus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Ov-GAPDH) leads to partial protection in a mouse model of human filariasis.
    Vaccine 2015 Oct 29;33(43):5861-7. Epub 2015 Aug 29.
    Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard-Nocht-Str. 74, D-20359 Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:
    River blindness, caused by the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus, is a major socio-economic and public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. In January 2015, The Onchocerciasis Vaccine for Africa (TOVA) Initiative has been launched with the aim of providing new tools to complement mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin, thereby promoting elimination of onchocerciasis in Africa. In this context we here present Onchocerca volvulus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Ov-GAPDH) as a possible DNA vaccine candidate. Read More

    Hypo-endemic onchocerciasis hotspots: defining areas of high risk through micro-mapping and environmental delineation.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2015 16;4:36. Epub 2015 Aug 16.
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA UK.
    Background: Onchocerciasis (river blindness) caused by the parasite Onchocercavolvulus and transmitted by riverine Simulium spp. (Black flies) is targeted for elimination in Africa. This is a significant change in strategy from the 'control' of meso- and hyper-endemic areas through mass drug administration (MDA) with Mectizan® (ivermectin), to the 'elimination' in all endemic areas where a range of interventions may be required. Read More

    Elimination of Onchocerciasis from Mexico.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 10;9(7):e0003922. Epub 2015 Jul 10.
    Global Health Infectious Disease Research Program, Department of Global Health,University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, United States of America.
    Background: Mexico is one of the six countries formerly endemic for onchocerciasis in Latin America. Transmission has been interrupted in the three endemic foci of that country and mass drug distribution has ceased. Three years after mass drug distribution ended, post-treatment surveillance (PTS) surveys were undertaken which employed entomological indicators to check for transmission recrudescence. Read More

    Immunotherapy with mutated onchocystatin fails to enhance the efficacy of a sub-lethal oxytetracycline regimen against Onchocerca ochengi.
    Vet Parasitol 2015 Aug 12;212(1-2):25-34. Epub 2015 Jun 12.
    Institute of Infection & Global Health, University of Liverpool, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool Science Park IC2, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK. Electronic address:
    Human onchocerciasis (river blindness), caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, has been successfully controlled by a single drug, ivermectin, for over 25 years. Ivermectin prevents the disease symptoms of severe itching and visual impairment by killing the microfilarial stage, but does not eliminate the adult parasites, necessitating repeated annual treatments. Mass drug administration with ivermectin does not always break transmission in forest zones and is contraindicated in individuals heavily co-infected with Loa loa, while reports of reduced drug efficacy in Ghana and Cameroon may signal the development of resistance. Read More

    The case for vaccine development in the strategy to eradicate river blindness (onchocerciasis) from Africa.
    Expert Rev Vaccines 2015 19;14(9):1163-5. Epub 2015 Jun 19.
    Institute of Infection & Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool Science Park IC2, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK.
    Onchocerciasis or river blindness is a neglected parasitic disease causing severe dermatitis and visual impairment, predominantly in Africa. Historically, onchocerciasis control targeted vector breeding sites, but the current strategy relies on mass administration of a single drug, ivermectin. As programmatic goals shift from reducing public health impact to active elimination, sole reliance on ivermectin is threatened by contraindications in areas coendemic for loiasis, an inability to break transmission in some foci, and the emergence of drug resistance. Read More

    The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 May 21;9(5):e0003703. Epub 2015 May 21.
    Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the "big three" diseases--namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria--has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Read More

    Human case of Onchocerca lupi infection, Germany, August 2014.
    Euro Surveill 2015 Apr 23;20(16). Epub 2015 Apr 23.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Eye Clinic, Friedrich Alexander Universitat Erlangen-Nurnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany.
    Onchocerca lupi, a nematode parasite infecting dogs and cats with a hitherto unknown arthropod vector, is also being recognised as a parasite also responsible for human eye infections. Here we describe a case of human eye infection diagnosed molecularly by nematode 12S rDNA PCR in a German patient who had travelled to Tunisia and Turkey. The patient recovered after treatment with antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy. Read More

    Isolation of Onchocerca lupi in Dogs and Black Flies, California, USA.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2015 May;21(5):789-96
    In southern California, ocular infections caused by Onchocerca lupi were diagnosed in 3 dogs (1 in 2006, 2 in 2012). The infectious agent was confirmed through morphologic analysis of fixed parasites in tissues and by PCR and sequencing of amplicons derived from 2 mitochondrially encoded genes and 1 nuclear-encoded gene. A nested PCR based on the sequence of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene of the parasite was developed and used to screen Simulium black flies collected from southern California for O. Read More

    Canine Infections with Onchocerca lupi Nematodes, United States, 2011-2014.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2015 May;21(5):868-71
    Infections with Onchocerca lupi nematodes are diagnosed sporadically in the United States. We report 8 cases of canine onchocercosis in Minnesota, New Mexico, Colorado, and Florida. Identification of 1 cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene haplotype identical to 1 of 5 from Europe suggests recent introduction of this nematode into the United States. Read More

    Clinical case presentation and a review of the literature of canine onchocercosis by Onchocerca lupi in the United States.
    Parasit Vectors 2015 Feb 8;8:89. Epub 2015 Feb 8.
    Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
    Background: Onchocerca lupi, a filarioid of zoonotic concern, infects dogs and cats causing ocular lesions of different degrees, from minor to severe. However, infected animals do not always display overt clinical signs, rendering the diagnosis of the infection obscure to the majority of veterinarians. Canine onchocercosis has been reported in the Old World and the information on its occurrence in the United States, as well as its pathogenesis and clinical management is still meagre. Read More

    Control, elimination, and eradication of river blindness: scenarios, timelines, and ivermectin treatment needs in Africa.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 Apr 10;9(4):e0003664. Epub 2015 Apr 10.
    Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    River blindness (onchocerciasis) causes severe itching, skin lesions, and vision impairment including blindness. More than 99% of all current cases are found in sub-Saharan Africa. Fortunately, vector control and community-directed treatment with ivermectin have significantly reduced morbidity. Read More

    Identification of communal oviposition pheromones from the black fly Simulium vittatum.
    PLoS One 2015 18;10(3):e0118904. Epub 2015 Mar 18.
    Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.
    The suite of pheromones that promote communal oviposition by Simulium vittatum, a North American black fly species, was identified and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electrophysiological, and behavioral bioassays. Behavioral assays demonstrated that communal oviposition was induced by egg-derived compounds that were active at short range and whose effect was enhanced through direct contact. Three compounds (cis-9-tetradecen-1-ol, 1-pentadecene, and 1-tridecene) were identified in a non-polar solvent extract of freshly deposited S. Read More

    Repurposing auranofin as a lead candidate for treatment of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 Feb 20;9(2):e0003534. Epub 2015 Feb 20.
    Center for Discovery and Innovation in Parasitic Diseases, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.
    Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae) can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infection to persist in a population. Read More

    Identification of human semiochemicals attractive to the major vectors of onchocerciasis.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 Jan 8;9(1):e3450. Epub 2015 Jan 8.
    Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, United States of America.
    Background: Entomological indicators are considered key metrics to document the interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus, the etiological agent of human onchocerciasis. Human landing collection is the standard employed for collection of the vectors for this parasite. Recent studies reported the development of traps that have the potential for replacing humans for surveillance of O. Read More

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