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    4669 results match your criteria Onchocerciasis River Blindness

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    Elimination of onchocerciasis from Colombia: first proof of concept of river blindness elimination in the world.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Apr 11;11(1):237. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Departamento de Microbiologia, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Campus San Fernando, Calle 4B No. 36-00, CP 760043, Cali, Colombia.
    Background: Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic infection originally endemic in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries of Latin America (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela). In Colombia, this disease was discovered in 1965 in the Pacific Coast of the country. The National Onchocerciasis Elimination Program was established in 1993 with the aim of eliminating disease morbidity and infection transmission. Read More

    Impact of five annual rounds of mass drug administration with ivermectin on onchocerciasis in Sierra Leone.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Apr 6;7(1):30. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP), Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: Onchocerciasis is endemic in 12 of the 14 health districts of Sierra Leone. Good treatment coverage of community-directed treatment with ivermectin was achieved between 2005 and 2009 after the 11-year civil conflict. Sentinel site surveys were conducted in 2010 to evaluate the impact of five annual rounds of ivermectin distribution. Read More

    Comparison of PCR Methods for Detection in Skin Snip Biopsies from the Tshopo Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Apr 2. Epub 2018 Apr 2.
    Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Defining the optimal diagnostic tools for evaluating onchocerciasis elimination efforts in areas co-endemic for other filarial nematodes is imperative. This study compared three published PCR methods: the -specific qPCR-O150, the pan-filarial qPCR melt curve analysis (MCA), and the O150-PCR ELISA currently used for vector surveillance in skin snip biopsies (skin snips) collected from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The pan-filarial qPCR-MCA was compared with species-specific qPCRs for and . Read More

    Evolution of epilepsy prevalence and incidence in a Tanzanian area endemic for onchocerciasis and the potential impact of community-directed treatment with ivermectin: a cross-sectional study and comparison over 28 years.
    BMJ Open 2018 Mar 31;8(3):e017188. Epub 2018 Mar 31.
    Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium.
    Introduction: Worldwide, there are an estimated 50 million people affected by epilepsy. Its aetiology is manifold, and parasitic infections play an important role, specifically onchocerciasis. In onchocerciasis endemic areas, a distinctive form of epilepsy has been described as nodding syndrome, affecting children and causing nodding seizures, mental retardation and debilitating physical development. Read More

    Safety and mosquitocidal efficacy of high-dose ivermectin when co-administered with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in Kenyan adults with uncomplicated malaria (IVERMAL): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Mar 27. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.
    Background: Ivermectin is being considered for mass drug administration for malaria due to its ability to kill mosquitoes feeding on recently treated individuals. However, standard, single doses of 150-200 μg/kg used for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis have a short-lived mosquitocidal effect (<7 days). Because ivermectin is well tolerated up to 2000 μg/kg, we aimed to establish the safety, tolerability, and mosquitocidal efficacy of 3 day courses of high-dose ivermectin, co-administered with a standard malaria treatment. Read More

    Onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy: From recent epidemiological and clinical findings to policy implications.
    Epilepsia Open 2017 Jun 26;2(2):145-152. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    College of Health SciencesMakerere UniversityKampalaUganda.
    A high prevalence of epilepsy is reported in many onchocerciasis-endemic regions. In this paper we discuss recent epidemiological and clinical aspects as well as public health implications of onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE) and propose a strategy to reduce the burden of disease. OAE probably presents in a variety of clinical manifestations, including the nodding syndrome and the Nakalanga syndrome. Read More

    From river blindness control to elimination: bridge over troubled water.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Mar 28;7(1):21. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Neglected and Disabling diseases of Poverty Consultant, Gravesend, Kent, UK.
    Background: An estimated 25 million people are currently infected with onchocerciasis (a parasitic infection caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by Simulium vectors), and 99% of these are in sub-Saharan Africa. The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control closed in December 2015 and the World Health Organization has established a new structure, the Expanded Special Project for the Elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases for the coordination of technical support for activities focused on five neglected tropical diseases in Africa, including onchocerciasis elimination.

    Aims: In this paper we argue that despite the delineation of a reasonably well-defined elimination strategy, its implementation will present particular difficulties in practice. Read More

    Report of the first international workshop on onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Mar 22;7(1):23. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda.
    Background: Recently, several epidemiological studies performed in Onchocerca volvulus-endemic regions have suggested that onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE) may constitute an important but neglected public health problem in many countries where onchocerciasis is still endemic.

    Main Text: On October 12-14 2017, the first international workshop on onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE) was held in Antwerp, Belgium. The workshop was attended by 79 participants from 20 different countries. Read More

    Proof-of-Concept Rapid Diagnostic Test for Onchocerciasis: Exploring Peptide Biomarkers and the Use of Gold Nanoshells as Reporter Nanoparticles.
    ACS Infect Dis 2018 Mar 21. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Drugs & Diagnostics for Tropical Diseases , 4898 Ronson Ct., Suite C , San Diego , California 92111 , United States.
    Three O. volvulus immunogenic peptide sequences recently discovered by peptide microarray were adapted to a lateral flow assay (LFA). The LFA employs gold nanoshells as novel high-contrast reporter nanoparticles and detects a serological response against the 3 peptides, found in OvOC9384, OvOC198, and OvOC5528, respectively. Read More

    Onchocerca volvulus infection in Tihama region - west of Yemen: Continuing transmission in ivermectin-targeted endemic foci and unveiled endemicity in districts with previously unknown status.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Mar 5;12(3):e0006329. Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha, KSA.
    Background: Onchocerciasis in Yemen is one of the most neglected diseases, where baseline estimates of onchocerciasis and monitoring of the impact of ivermectin regularly administered to the affected individuals on its transmission are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the anti-Ov16 IgG4 seroprevalence among local communities of Hodeidah and Al-Mahwit governorates of Tihama region. The factors possibly associated with previous exposure to infection were also studied. Read More

    Behavioural and clinical predictors for Loiasis.
    J Glob Health 2018 Jun;8(1):010413
    Department of Medicine I, Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Background: Loiasis is a vector-borne disease in Central and West Africa. While there is still uncertainty to what extent loiasis is responsible for population morbidity, individuals having both loiasis and onchocerciasis have a high risk of fatal encephalopathy when treatment (ie, ivermectin) for onchocerciasis is given. Therefore it is current policy that communities of high loiasis-burden are excluded from mass drug administration programmes of ivermectin. Read More

    Onchocerca volvulus infection and serological prevalence, ocular onchocerciasis and parasite transmission in northern and central Togo after decades of Simulium damnosum s.l. vector control and mass drug administration of ivermectin.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Mar 1;12(3):e0006312. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Onchocerciasis Reference Laboratory, National Institute of Hygiene, Sokodé, Togo.
    Background: Mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin has become the main intervention to control onchocerciasis or "river blindness". In Togo, after many years of MDA, Onchocerca volvulus infection has declined dramatically, and elimination appears achievable, but in certain river basins the current situation remains unknown. We have conducted parasitological, serological, ophthalmological, and entomological assessments in northern and central Togo within the river basins of Ôti, Kéran and Mô. Read More

    Refocusing vector assessment towards the elimination of onchocerciasis from Africa: a review of the current status in selected countries.
    Int Health 2018 Mar;10(suppl_1):i27-i32
    The Taskforce for Global Health, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Measures to control onchocerciasis have been in place for well over 30 years. Recently, programs have turned from disease control towards transmission elimination. The absence of infective larvae in the black fly Simulium sp. Read More

    Establishing quality assured (QA) laboratory support for onchocerciasis elimination in Africa.
    Int Health 2018 Mar;10(suppl_1):i33-i39
    Task Force for Global Health, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    An essential component in achieving accepted successful elimination of a disease or a pathogen involves the acquisition of quality-assured (QA) data that ultimately define the absence of infection or transmission in previously endemic areas. The acquisition of these essential data, in the case of onchocerciasis elimination, requires strong laboratory support for both testing and continuing evaluation/validation of the tools used for the required diagnostic and epidemiology procedures. There is also a need for standardization of the laboratory-based and field-based assays used across the onchocerciasis-endemic countries as well as continuing technical, fiscal and logistical support for laboratory activities. Read More

    Cross-border issues: an important component of onchocerciasis elimination programmes.
    Int Health 2018 Mar;10(suppl_1):i54-i59
    Mectizan Donation Programme, 325 Swanton Way, Decatur, GA 30030, USA.
    Endemic areas that involve national or local borders present an important challenge to the success of elimination of onchocerciasis; such cross-border endemic foci require special attention to ensure that programme activities are unified. It is vital that national programmes and the committees responsible for the oversight of progress towards elimination are aware and address such issues in their current planning and programmatic activities. Although international borders that intersect endemic zones present the biggest challenge, intracountry borders (such as between administrative districts or loiasis endemic and non-loiasis areas) can also pose problems. Read More

    Onchocerciasis in Yemen: moving forward towards an elimination program.
    Int Health 2018 Mar;10(suppl_1):i89-i96
    Mectizan Donation Program, Task Force for Global Health, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    The onchocerciasis focus in Yemen has been known for many years as an endemic area with unique characteristics, notably the atypical and most severe form of onchodermatitis, known as sowda or reactive onchodermatitis (ROD). The national effort to control the disease began in 1992 as an individual case treatment program by administering ivermectin to those presenting with ROD. The challenging geography of the endemic area and the current political and military unrest both underscore a need for special approaches when attempting to eliminate onchocerciasis from this country. Read More

    Alternative treatment strategies to accelerate the elimination of onchocerciasis.
    Int Health 2018 Mar;10(suppl_1):i40-i48
    UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, Geneva, Switzerland.
    The use of alternative (or complementary) treatment strategies (ATSs) i.e. differing from annual community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) is required in some African foci to eliminate onchocerciasis by 2025. Read More

    Onchocerciasis: shifting the target from control to elimination requires a new first-step-elimination mapping.
    Int Health 2018 Mar;10(suppl_1):i14-i19
    World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
    The meaning of 'mapping' in relation to onchocerciasis has changed at least three times over the past 50 years as the programmatic goals and the assessment tools have changed. With the current goal being global elimination of Onchocerca volvulus (OV), all areas where OV might currently be transmitted and where mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin treatment has not been delivered previously must now be identified by careful, detailed 'elimination mapping' as either OV endemic or not, so that appropriate programmatic targets can be established. New tools and strategies for such elimination mapping have become available, though ongoing studies must still be completed to define agreed upon optimal diagnostic evaluation units, sampling strategies and serologic tools. Read More

    Operationalization of the test and not treat strategy to accelerate the elimination of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in Central Africa.
    Int Health 2018 Mar;10(suppl_1):i49-i53
    IRD UMI 233-INSERM U1175-Montpellier University, Montpellier, France.
    After 30 years of treatment with Mectizan (ivermectin), cutaneous and ocular complications of Onchocerca volvulus infection are now scarce in endemic communities. Indeed, transmission has been interrupted and the O. volvulus- associated disease has disappeared in some African foci. Read More

    The role of the NGDO Coordination Group for the Elimination of Onchocerciasis.
    Int Health 2018 Mar;10(suppl_1):i97-i101
    The Carter Center, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    The NGDO Coordination Group for the Control of Onchocerciasis was launched in 1992, and with the paradigm shift from control of disease to elimination of onchocerciasis transmission, the Group shifted its orientation to that new paradigm in 2013. It also changed its name, replacing 'control' with 'elimination.' In doing so, the Group has repositioned itself to build on the successes of the past to finish the job it began over 25 years ago. Read More

    Transitioning from river blindness control to elimination: steps toward stopping treatment.
    Int Health 2018 Mar;10(suppl_1):i7-i13
    Mectizan Donation Program, Atlanta, GA 30030, USA.
    The transition from onchocerciasis control to elimination requires country programmes to rethink their approach to a variety of activities as they move from addressing morbidity to addressing transmission of the parasite. Although the 2016 WHO guidelines provide extensive recommendations, it was beyond the scope of the document to provide guidance on all aspects of the transition. This paper will discuss some of the important issues that programmes are grappling with as they transition to elimination and provide some potential approaches that programmes can use to address them. Read More

    The role of national committees in eliminating onchocerciasis.
    Int Health 2018 Mar;10(suppl_1):i60-i70
    The Carter Center, One Copenhill, 453 Freedom Parkway, Atlanta, GA30307.
    National onchocerciasis elimination committees (NOECs) serve to help ministries of health complete the pathway to successful verification of elimination of onchocerciasis (river blindness), as outlined in the 2016 World Health Organization guidelines. These guidelines, however, only take effect when the country believes it has reached a point that elimination can be demonstrated, and do not address the preceding milestones. Therefore, NOECs can be of great help with guiding and tailoring earlier planning, programming and assessments to empower national programs to aggressively move toward their countries' elimination goals. Read More

    Diagnostics for onchocerciasis in the era of elimination.
    Int Health 2018 Mar;10(suppl_1):i20-i26
    Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
    In the past few years, efforts to eliminate onchocerciasis from Africa have intensified. These efforts are primarily based on the mass distribution of the anti-helminthic drug Mectizan™ (ivermectin). This program has led to the development of new guidelines by the World Health Organization for the verification that transmission has been suppressed and eventually eliminated. Read More

    After 70 years of fighting an age-old scourge, onchocerciasis in Uganda, the end is in sight.
    Int Health 2018 Mar;10(suppl_1):i79-i88
    Carter Center, One Copenhill Avenue, 453 Freedom Parkway, Atlanta, GA 30307, USA.
    Onchocerciasis causes severe itching, serious skin disease and ocular damage leading to visual impairment or permanent blindness. It is associated with hanging groin, epilepsy, Nakalanga dwarfism and, most recently, nodding disease. This disease affected communities in 17 transmission foci in 37 districts of Uganda, where about 6. Read More

    Progress toward elimination of onchocerciasis in the Americas.
    Int Health 2018 Mar;10(suppl_1):i71-i78
    Carter Center, One Copenhill, 453 Freedom Parkway, Atlanta, GA 30307, USA.
    The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas (OEPA) is a regional initiative and international partnership that has made considerable progress toward its goal since it was launched in 1993. Its strategy is based on mass drug administration of ivermectin (Mectizan, donated by MSD, also known as Merck & Co., Inc. Read More

    The blackfly vectors and transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in Mahenge, south eastern Tanzania.
    Acta Trop 2018 May 2;181:50-59. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    National Institute for Medical Research, Tukuyu Research Centre, Tukuyu, Tanzania.
    The Mahenge Mountains onchocerciasis focus in south eastern Tanzania was historically one of the most heavily infected areas in the country. The vectors of Onchocerca volvulus are mainly Simulium damnosum complex blackflies, but a species of the Simulium neavei group may also contribute to transmission in some areas. The only detailed studies of parasite transmission in Mahenge were conducted in the late 1960s. Read More

    "Cross-border collaboration in onchocerciasis elimination in Uganda: progress, challenges and opportunities from 2008 to 2013".
    Global Health 2018 Feb 6;14(1):16. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Pan-African Community Initiative on Education and Health (PACIEH) and University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria.
    Background: Until recently onchocerciasis was prevalent in 37 out of 112 districts of Uganda with at least 3.8 million people at risk of contracting the disease, but following the launching of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in 1996 and the adoption of an onchocerciasis elimination policy in 2007, the country has made significant progress in combating the disease. By 2015, interruption of transmission had been achieved in ten of the 17 onchocerciasis foci, but cross-border foci remained particularly problematic, and therefore within the onchocerciasis elimination framework, Uganda embarked upon addressing these issues with its neighbouring countries, namely the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and South Sudan. Read More

    Full mitochondrial and nuclear genome comparison confirms that Onchocerca sp. "Siisa" is Onchocerca ochengi.
    Parasitol Res 2018 Apr 5;117(4):1069-1077. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department for Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Max-Planck-Ring 9, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.
    Onchocerca ochengi is a nodule-forming filarial nematode parasite of cattle. It is the closest known relative of the human parasite Onchocerca volvulus, with which it shares the black fly vector Simulium damnosum. Onchocerca sp. Read More

    Elimination of lymphatic filariasis in west African urban areas: is implementation of mass drug administration necessary?
    Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.
    Lymphatic filariasis in Africa is caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and remains a major cause of morbidity and disability in 74 countries globally. A key strategy of the Global Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis, which has a target elimination date of 2020, is the treatment of entire endemic communities through mass drug administration of albendazole in combination with either ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine. Although the strategy of mass drug administration in combination with other interventions, such as vector control, has led to elimination of the infection and its transmission in many rural communities, urban areas in west Africa present specific challenges to achieving the 2020 targets. Read More

    Economic evaluations of lymphatic filariasis interventions: a systematic review and research needs.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Feb 1;11(1):75. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    In 2000, the World Health Organization established the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF), with the goal of eliminating the disease as a public health problem by 2020. Since the start of the programme, a cumulative total of 6.2 billion treatments have been delivered to affected populations - with more than 556 million people treated in 2015 alone. Read More

    Identifying co-endemic areas for major filarial infections in sub-Saharan Africa: seeking synergies and preventing severe adverse events during mass drug administration campaigns.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Jan 31;11(1):70. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Disease Control, Faculty of Infectious & Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Background: Onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) are major filarial infections targeted for elimination in most endemic sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries by 2020/2025. The current control strategies are built upon community-directed mass administration of ivermectin (CDTI) for onchocerciasis, and ivermectin plus albendazole for LF, with evidence pointing towards the potential for novel drug regimens. When distributing microfilaricides however, considerable care is needed to minimise the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs) in areas that are co-endemic for onchocerciasis or LF and loiasis. Read More

    Current epidemiological evidence for predisposition to high or low intensity human helminth infection: a systematic review.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Jan 31;11(1):65. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St. Mary's Campus, London, W2 1PG, UK.
    Background: The human helminth infections include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infections, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis. It is estimated that almost 2 billion people worldwide are infected with helminths. Whilst the WHO treatment guidelines for helminth infections are mostly aimed at controlling morbidity, there has been a recent shift with some countries moving towards goals of disease elimination through mass drug administration, especially for LF and onchocerciasis. Read More

    Single dose moxidectin versus ivermectin for Onchocerca volvulus infection in Ghana, Liberia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a randomised, controlled, double-blind phase 3 trial.
    Lancet 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Background: The morbidity and socioeconomic effects of onchocerciasis, a parasitic disease that is primarily endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, have motivated large morbidity and transmission control programmes. Annual community-directed ivermectin treatment has substantially reduced prevalence. Elimination requires intensified efforts, including more efficacious treatments. Read More

    Safety and pharmacokinetic profile of fixed-dose ivermectin with an innovative 18mg tablet in healthy adult volunteers.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 01 18;12(1):e0006020. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Instituto de Investigaciones en Enfermedades Tropicales, Universidad Nacional de Salta/CONICET, Oran, Argentina.
    Ivermectin is a pivotal drug for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, which is increasingly identified as a useful drug for the control of other Neglected Tropical Diseases. Its role in the treatment of soil transmitted helminthiasis through improved efficacy against Trichuris trichiura in combination with other anthelmintics might accelerate the progress towards breaking transmission. Ivermectin is a derivative of Avermectin B1, and consists of an 80:20 mixture of the equipotent homologous 22,23 dehydro B1a and B1b. Read More

    The Population Biology and Transmission Dynamics of Loa loa.
    Trends Parasitol 2018 Apr 10;34(4):335-350. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease Research and MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Faculty of Medicine (St Mary's Campus), Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK; Joint last authors. Electronic address:
    Endemic to Central Africa, loiasis - or African eye worm (caused by the filarial nematode Loa loa) - affects more than 10 million people. Despite causing ocular and systemic symptoms, it has typically been considered a benign condition, only of public health relevance because it impedes mass drug administration-based interventions against onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in co-endemic areas. Recent research has challenged this conception, demonstrating excess mortality associated with high levels of infection, implying that loiasis warrants attention as an intrinsic public health problem. Read More

    Retinoid Expression in Onchocercal Skin Disease: Pilot Study.
    Infect Dis (Auckl) 2017 20;10:1178633617731741. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Tukuyu Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, Tanzania, Tukuyu, Tanzania.
    Based on the observation that the parasite selectively absorbs vitamin A from the host, and the known toxicity of vitamin A in higher concentration, it was hypothesized that dying microfilariae (mf) release their stores of vitamin A (retinoids) into the host circulation in toxic concentrations, inducing the signs and symptoms of onchocerciasis. We conducted a pilot study to test the hypothesis in Songea communities in Southern Tanzania, where mass drug administration with ivermectin had not been implemented by the time of the survey. The specific aim was to evaluate the correlation between the diagnosis of onchocerciasis and increased levels of retinoic acid at infection sites. Read More

    Repurposing and Reformulation of the Antiparasitic Agent Flubendazole for Treatment of Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis, a Neglected Fungal Disease.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Apr 27;62(4). Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Antimicrobial Pharmacodynamics and Therapeutics, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Current therapeutic options for cryptococcal meningitis are limited by toxicity, global supply, and emergence of resistance. There is an urgent need to develop additional antifungal agents that are fungicidal within the central nervous system and preferably orally bioavailable. The benzimidazoles have broad-spectrum antiparasitic activity but also have antifungal activity that includes Flubendazole (a benzimidazole) has been reformulated by Janssen Pharmaceutica as an amorphous solid drug nanodispersion to develop an orally bioavailable medicine for the treatment of neglected tropical diseases such as onchocerciasis. Read More

    Combinations of registered drugs reduce treatment times required to deplete Wolbachia in the Litomosoides sigmodontis mouse model.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Jan 4;12(1):e0006116. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Filarial parasites can be targeted by antibiotic treatment due to their unique endosymbiotic relationship with Wolbachia bacteria. This finding has led to successful treatment strategies in both, human onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. A 4-6 week treatment course using doxycycline results in long-term sterility and safe macrofilaricidal activity in humans. Read More

    Geographical distribution and species identification of human filariasis and onchocerciasis in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.
    Acta Trop 2018 Apr 28;180:12-17. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Malaria & Emerging Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, National Microbiology Center, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:
    Human filariae are vector-borne parasites and the causative agents of various diseases, including human onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Onchocerciasis causes a spectrum of cutaneous and ophthalmologic manifestations (including blindness) and has long been a major public health problem in Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea). Bioko Island has been included in the WHO's Onchocerciasis Control Program since 1987. Read More

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