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    Programmatic factors associated with the limited impact of community-directed treatment with Ivermectin to control Onchocerciasis in three drainage basins of South West Cameroon.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Nov 20;11(11):e0005966. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon.
    Introduction: The CDTI model is known to have enhanced community participation in planning and resource mobilization toward the control of onchocerciasis. These effects were expected to translate into better individual acceptance of the intervention and hence high Treatment Coverage, leading to a sustainable community-led strategy and reduction in the disease burden. A survey revealed that after 10-12 rounds of treatment, prevalence of onchocerciasis was still high in three drainage basins of South West Cameroon and transmission was going on. Read More

    Are the estrogenic hormonal effects of environmental toxins affecting small intestinal bacterial and microfilaria overgrowth?
    Med Hypotheses 2017 Nov 28;109:90-94. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Wayne State College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, USA. Electronic address:
    The important role of microfilaria (worms) in human and animal disease remains an area of key disagreement between the naturopathic and allopathic physicians. While microfilaria infections are rampart in undeveloped countries, they rarely rise to identification as a cause of disease in Western countries. New research studies in the diagnosis and treatment of SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth) and (IBD) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's Disease and microcytic colitis may make both sides equally correct. Read More

    Nodding syndrome (NS) and Onchocerca Volvulus (OV) in Northern Uganda.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 4;28. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Gulu University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Gulu, Uganda.
    Nodding Syndrome (NS) is a childhood neurological disorder characterized by atonic seizures, cognitive decline, school dropout, muscle weakness, thermal dysfunction, wasting and stunted growth. There are recent published information suggesting associations between Nodding Syndrome (NS) with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) VGKC antibodies and serum leiomidin-1 antibody cross reacting with Onchocerca Volvulus (OV). These findings suggest a neuro-inflammatory cause of NS and they are important findings in the search for the cause of Nodding Syndrome. Read More

    Patent landscape of neglected tropical diseases: an analysis of worldwide patent families.
    Global Health 2017 Nov 14;13(1):82. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.
    Background: "Neglected Tropical Diseases" (NTDs) affect millions of people in Africa, Asia and South America. The two primary ways of strategic interventions are "preventive chemotherapy and transmission control" (PCT), and "innovative and intensified disease management" (IDM). In the last 5 years, phenomenal progress has been achieved. Read More

    A Test-and-Not-Treat Strategy for Onchocerciasis in Loa loa-Endemic Areas.
    N Engl J Med 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    From the Center for Research on Filariasis and other Tropical Diseases (J.K., H.C.N.-D., R.G.-K., G.-R.N., P.N., J.B.T.-M.) and the Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I (J.K.), Yaounde, and the Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Buea, and Research Foundation for Tropical Diseases and Environment (REFOTDE), Buea (S.W.) - all in Cameroon; Institut de Recherche pour le Développement Unité Mixte Internationale 233-INSERM Unité 1175, Montpellier University, Montpellier, France (S.D.P., C.B.C., M.B.); the Department of Bioengineering and the Biophysics Program, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley (M.H.B., M.V.D., D.A.F.); the Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, Michigan State University, East Lansing (C.D.M.); the Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (W.A.S.); the Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, San Francisco (D.A.F.); and the Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (A.D.K., T.B.N.).
    Background Implementation of an ivermectin-based community treatment strategy for the elimination of onchocerciasis or lymphatic filariasis has been delayed in Central Africa because of the occurrence of serious adverse events, including death, in persons with high levels of circulating Loa loa microfilariae. The LoaScope, a field-friendly diagnostic tool to quantify L. loa microfilariae in peripheral blood, enables rapid, point-of-care identification of persons at risk for serious adverse events. Read More

    Ivermectin and its target molecules: shared and unique modulation mechanisms of ion channels and receptors by ivermectin.
    J Physiol 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Division of Biophysics and Neurobiology, Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, 444-8585, Japan.
    Ivermectin (IVM) is an antiparasitic drug that is used worldwide and rescues hundreds of millions of people from onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. It was discovered by Satoshi Ōmura and William C. Campbell, to whom the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded. Read More

    Evaluation of Community-Directed Operation of Black Fly Traps for Entomological Surveillance of Onchocerca volvulus Transmission in the Madi-Mid North Focus of Onchocerciasis in Northern Uganda.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Oct;97(4):1235-1242
    Global Health Infectious Disease Research, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.
    Entomological measures of transmission are important metrics specified by the World Health Organization to document the suppression and interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of onchocerciasis. These metrics require testing of large numbers of vector black flies. Black fly collection has relied on human landing collections, which are inefficient and potentially hazardous. Read More

    The macrofilaricidal efficacy of repeated doses of ivermectin for the treatment of river blindness.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Jul 19. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    UMI233-TransVIHMI, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), INSERM U1175, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
    Background: Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin is the cornerstone of efforts to eliminate human onchocerciasis by 2020/2025. The feasibility of elimination crucially depends on the effects of multiple ivermectin doses on Onchocerca volvulus. A single ivermectin (standard) dose clears the skin-dwelling microfilarial progeny of adult worms (macrofilariae) and temporarily impedes the release of such progeny by female macrofilariae, but a macrofilaricidal effect has been deemed minimal. Read More

    Feasibility of utilizing the SD BIOLINE Onchocerciasis IgG4 rapid test in onchocerciasis surveillance in Senegal.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 3;11(10):e0005884. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    PATH, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.
    As effective onchocerciasis control efforts in Africa transition to elimination efforts, different diagnostic tools are required to support country programs. Senegal, with its long standing, successful control program, is transitioning to using the SD BIOLINE Onchocerciasis IgG4 (Ov16) rapid test over traditional skin snip microscopy. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating the Ov16 rapid test into onchocerciasis surveillance activities in Senegal, based on the following attributes of acceptability, usability, and cost. Read More

    O-5S quantitative real-time PCR: a new diagnostic tool for laboratory confirmation of human onchocerciasis.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Oct 2;10(1):451. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Medical Center of the University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Background: Onchocerciasis is a parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. In endemic areas, the diagnosis is commonly confirmed by microscopic examination of skin snip samples, though this technique is considered to have low sensitivity. The available melting-curve based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using degenerated primers targeting the O-150 repeat of O. Read More

    Identification and prioritization of novel anti-Wolbachia chemotypes from screening a 10,000-compound diversity library.
    Sci Adv 2017 Sep 27;3(9):eaao1551. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Research Centre for Drugs and Diagnostics, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK.
    Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are two important neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that cause severe disability. Control efforts are hindered by the lack of a safe macrofilaricidal drug. Targeting the Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts in these parasites with doxycycline leads to a macrofilaricidal outcome, but protracted treatment regimens and contraindications restrict its widespread implementation. Read More

    Onchocerca volvulus: The Road from Basic Biology to a Vaccine.
    Trends Parasitol 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Tropical Medicine, National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.
    Human onchocerciasis - commonly known as river blindness - is one of the most devastating yet neglected tropical diseases, leaving many millions in sub-Saharan Africa blind and/or with chronic disabilities. Attempts to eliminate onchocerciasis, primarily through the mass drug administration of ivermectin, remains challenging and has been heightened by the recent news that drug-resistant parasites are developing in some populations after years of drug treatment. Needed, and needed now, in the fight to eliminate onchocerciasis are new tools, such as preventive and therapeutic vaccines. Read More

    International Vision Care: Issues and Approaches.
    Annu Rev Vis Sci 2017 Sep;3:53-68
    Allen Foster Community Eye Health Research Centre, Gullapalli Pratibha Rao International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad 500086, India.
    Globally, 32.4 million individuals are blind and 191 million have moderate or severe visual impairment (MSVI); 80% of cases of blindness and MSVI are avoidable. However, great efforts are needed to tackle blindness and MSVI, as eye care in most places is delivered in isolation from and without significant integration with general health sectors. Read More

    Insights Into Onchocerca volvulus Population Biology Through Multilocus Immunophenotyping.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Sep;216(6):736-743
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases.
    We have developed a serologically based immunophenotyping approach to study Onchocerca volvulus (Ov) population diversity. Using genomic sequence data and polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping, we identified nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes of 16 major immunogenic Ov proteins: Ov-CHI-1/Ov-CHI-2, Ov16, Ov-FAR-1, Ov-CPI-1, Ov-B20, Ov-ASP-1, Ov-TMY-1, OvSOD1, OvGST1, Ov-CAL-1, M3/M4, Ov-RAL-1, Ov-RAL-2, Ov-ALT-1, Ov-FBA-1, and Ov-B8. We assessed the immunoreactivity of onchocerciasis patient sera (n = 152) from the Americas, West Africa, Central Africa, and East Africa against peptides derived from 10 of these proteins containing SNPs. Read More

    [Ivermectin as an adjunct in the treatment of refractory epilepsy].
    Rev Neurol 2017 Oct;65(7):303-310
    Pritzker School of Medicine. University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, EE.UU.
    Introduction: Ivermectin, a 22'23 dihydro derivative of avermectins beta-1a, is a highly effective veterinary and human anti parasitic, used to treat endoparasites of difficult control such as filariasis and onchocerciasis, with a median plasma life of at least of 16 hours. The recommended therapeutic doses range from 0.05 to 0. Read More

    A case of ocular infection with Onchocerca lupi in a dog from Germany.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2017 Sep 17. Epub 2017 Sep 17.
    Institute of Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Onchocerca lupi is an emerging zoonotic parasite infecting the ocular connective tissue of dogs, cats and humans. The only known case of canine ocular onchocerciasis in Germany was documented in 2002 in a shelter dog. However, the species of Onchocerca causing the infection could not be identified. Read More

    The Sand Fly Salivary Protein Lufaxin Inhibits the Early Steps of the Alternative Pathway of Complement by Direct Binding to the Proconvertase C3b-B.
    Front Immunol 2017 31;8:1065. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Physiology of Hematophagous Insects Laboratory, Department of Parasitology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
    Saliva of the blood feeding sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis was previously shown to inhibit the alternative pathway (AP) of the complement system. Here, we have identified Lufaxin, a protein component in saliva, as the inhibitor of the AP. Lufaxin inhibited the deposition of C3b, Bb, Properdin, C5b, and C9b on agarose-coated plates in a dose-dependent manner. Read More

    Post-ivermectin encephalopathy in Senegal: a case report.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 18;27:202. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Cheikh Anta Diop University, Neurosciences Department, Fann National Teaching Hospital, Dakar, Senegal.
    Ivermectin is an ant parasitic drug used for combating onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. It works by inhibiting the function of neurons and muscles, thus causing paralysis of microfilariae. Side effects of this drug have been reported including post-ivermectin encephalopathy requiring emergency care in hospital. Read More

    A multi-center field study of two point-of-care tests for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia in Africa.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 11;11(9):e0005703. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Infectious Disease Division, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America.
    Background: The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis uses point-of-care tests for circulating filarial antigenemia (CFA) to map endemic areas and for monitoring and evaluating the success of mass drug administration (MDA) programs. We compared the performance of the reference BinaxNOW Filariasis card test (ICT, introduced in 1997) with the Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS, introduced in 2013) in 5 endemic study sites in Africa.

    Methodology: The tests were compared prior to MDA in two study sites (Congo and Côte d'Ivoire) and in three sites that had received MDA (DRC and 2 sites in Liberia). Read More

    Review of Ethiopian Onchocerciasis Elimination Programme.
    Ethiop Med J 2017 ;55(Suppl 1):55-63
    The Carter Center, Ethiopia Office, Addis Ababa.
    Onchocerciasis is a severe parasitic infection which causes disabling skin and subcutaneous tissue changes. The disease is endemic in many African countries including Ethiopia. In 2013, Ethiopia launched Onchocerciasis elimination program with the goal of attaining interruption of onchocerciasis transmission nationwide by 2020. Read More

    The National Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis from Ethiopia.
    Ethiop Med J 2017 ;55(Suppl 1):45-54
    Federal Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the most debilitating and disfiguring diseases common in Ethiopia and is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti. Mapping for LF has shown that 70 woredas (districts) are endemic and 5.9 million people are estimated to be at risk. Read More

    Mortality and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years (Dalys) for Common Neglected Tropical Diseases in Ethiopia, 1990-2015: Evidence from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.
    Ethiop Med J 2017 ;55(Suppl 1):3-14
    Wellcome Trust Brighton & Sussex Centre for Global Health Research, Brighton & Sussex Medical School, Falmer, Brighton, UK.
    Introduction: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are important public health problems in Ethiopia. In 2013, the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) has launched a national NTD master plan to eliminate major NTDs of public health importance by 2020. Benchmarking the current status of NTDs in the country is important to monitor and evaluate the progress in the implementation of interventions and their impacts. Read More

    IL-4/5 signalling plays an important role during Litomosoides sigmodontis infection, influencing both immune system regulation and tissue pathology in the thoracic cavity.
    Int J Parasitol 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology (IMMIP), University Hospital of Bonn, Germany; German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site, Bonn-Cologne, Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:
    Approximately 100 million people suffer from filarial diseases including lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis), onchocerciasis (river blindness) and loiasis. These diseases are amongst the most devastating of the neglected tropical diseases in terms of social and economic impact. Moreover, many infection-induced immune mechanisms in the host, their relationship to disease-related symptoms and the development of pathology within the site of infection remain unclear. Read More

    Ivermectin Treatment in Patients With Onchocerciasis-Associated Epilepsy: Protocol of a Randomized Clinical Trial.
    JMIR Res Protoc 2017 Aug 30;6(8):e137. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    University of Antwerp, Global Health Institute, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Background: Many studies have reported an association between epilepsy, nodding syndrome (NS), and onchocerciasis (river blindness). A high prevalence of epilepsy has been noted particularly in onchocerciasis hyperendemic areas where onchocerciasis is not or insufficiently controlled with mass ivermectin distribution. There is evidence that increasing the coverage of ivermectin reduces the incidence of epilepsy, and anecdotal evidence suggests a reduction in seizure frequency in onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE) patients who receive ivermectin. Read More

    Distribution of larval and pupal stages of Simulium (Diptera: Simuliidae) flies in the Nilgiris hills of Tamil Nadu.
    J Parasit Dis 2017 Sep 12;41(3):655-658. Epub 2016 Nov 12.
    University Research Farm, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Madhavaram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600 051 India.
    Endemicity of onchocerciasis (river blindness) in humans is linked to the location of Simulium spp. (black fly). The distribution of immature stages of Simulium in Sholur, Pykara, Gudalur, Coonoor and Kotagiri streams of the Nilgiris hills of Tamil Nadu was investigated during the months of May and July 2012. Read More

    Evaluation of Community-Directed Operation of Black Fly Traps for Entomological Surveillance of Onchocerca volvulus Transmission in the Madi-Mid North Focus of Onchocerciasis in Northern Uganda.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jul 31. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Global Health Infectious Disease Research, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.
    Entomological measures of transmission are important metrics specified by the World Health Organization to document the suppression and interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of onchocerciasis. These metrics require testing of large numbers of vector black flies. Black fly collection has relied on human landing collections, which are inefficient and potentially hazardous. Read More

    Phytochemical analysis and in vitro anthelmintic activity of Lophira lanceolata (Ochnaceae) on the bovine parasite Onchocerca ochengi and on drug resistant strains of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.
    BMC Complement Altern Med 2017 Aug 14;17(1):404. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Department of Molecular Physiology, Institute for Zoophysiology, Schlossplatz 8, 48143, Muenster, Germany.
    Background: Onchocerciasis is one of the tropical neglected diseases (NTDs) caused by the nematode Onchocerca volvulus. Control strategies currently in use rely on mass administration of ivermectin, which has marked activity against microfilariae. Furthermore, the development of resistance to ivermectin was observed. Read More

    Adherence to ivermectin is more associated with perceptions of community directed treatment with ivermectin organization than with onchocerciasis beliefs.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 14;11(8):e0005849. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
    Background: The fight against onchocerciasis in Africa has boomed thanks to the Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) program. However, in Cameroon, after more than 15 years of mass treatment, onchocerciasis prevalence is still above the non-transmission threshold. This study aimed to explore a possible association between people's beliefs/perceptions of onchocerciasis and of CDTI program, and their adherence to ivermectin in three regions of Cameroon. Read More

    Important progress towards elimination of onchocerciasis in the West Region of Cameroon.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Aug 3;10(1):373. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique, Faculté de santé publique, Université catholique de Louvain, Clos Chapelle-aux-champs 30 bte B1.30.13, BE-1200, Brussels, Belgium.
    Background: After more than a decade of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in the West Region of Cameroon, epidemiological evaluation conducted in 2011 showed that onchocerciasis endemicity was still high in some communities. The conceptual framework for onchocerciasis elimination recommends in such case, to conduct additional phase 1A surveys at intervals of three to four years. Therefore, to assess the progress made towards the elimination of onchocerciasis in the West CDTI projects, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in May 2015 in 15 unevaluated communities where the highest baseline endemicity level were found in 1996. Read More

    The Current Status of Molecular Xenomonitoring for Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis.
    Trends Parasitol 2017 Oct 27;33(10):788-798. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Smith College, Northampton, MA, USA; Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA. Electronic address:
    The capacity of vector insect surveillance to provide estimates of pathogen prevalence and transmission potential has long been recognized within the global communities tasked with eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF), the underlying cause of elephantiasis and hydrocele, and onchocerciasis (river blindness). Initially restricted to the practice of dissection, the potential of vector monitoring has grown due to the advent of molecular methods capable of increasing the sensitivity and throughput of testing. However, despite such advancement, operational research gaps remain. Read More

    A novel rapid test for detecting antibody responses to Loa loa infections.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 27;11(7):e0005741. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Drugs & Diagnostics for Tropical Diseases, San Diego, California, United States of America.
    Ivermectin-based mass drug administration (MDA) programs have achieved remarkable success towards the elimination of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. However, their full implementation has been hindered in Central Africa by the occurrence of ivermectin-related severe adverse events (SAEs) in a subset of individuals with high circulating levels of Loa loa microfilariae. Extending MDA to areas with coincident L. Read More

    Genome-wide analysis of ivermectin response by Onchocerca volvulus reveals that genetic drift and soft selective sweeps contribute to loss of drug sensitivity.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 26;11(7):e0005816. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Animal, Plant and Soil Sciences, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia.
    Background: Treatment of onchocerciasis using mass ivermectin administration has reduced morbidity and transmission throughout Africa and Central/South America. Mass drug administration is likely to exert selection pressure on parasites, and phenotypic and genetic changes in several Onchocerca volvulus populations from Cameroon and Ghana-exposed to more than a decade of regular ivermectin treatment-have raised concern that sub-optimal responses to ivermectin's anti-fecundity effect are becoming more frequent and may spread.

    Methodology/principal Findings: Pooled next generation sequencing (Pool-seq) was used to characterise genetic diversity within and between 108 adult female worms differing in ivermectin treatment history and response. Read More

    Lipid profiling of the filarial nematodes Onchocerca volvulus, Onchocerca ochengi and Litomosoides sigmodontis reveals the accumulation of nematode-specific ether phospholipids in the host.
    Int J Parasitol 2017 Jul 23. Epub 2017 Jul 23.
    Institute of Molecular Physiology and Biotechnology of Plants, University of Bonn, Karlrobert-Kreiten-Str. 13, 53115 Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:
    Onchocerciasis, a neglected tropical disease prevalent in western and central Africa, is a major health problem and has been targeted for elimination. The causative agent for this disease is the human parasite Onchocerca volvulus. Onchocerca ochengi and Litomosoides sigmodontis, infectious agents of cattle and rodents, respectively, serve as model organisms to study filarial nematode infections. Read More

    River-specific macrogenomic diversity in Simulium guianense s. l. (Diptera: Simuliidae), a complex of tropical American vectors associated with human onchocerciasis.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(7):e0181679. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Laboratorio de Biología de Vectores y Parásitos, Instituto de Zoología y Ecología Tropical, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.
    Simulium guianense Wise is a Latin American vector complex of black flies associated with transmission of the causal agent of human onchocerciasis (river blindness). An analysis of the chromosomal banding patterns of 607 larvae of S. guianense s. Read More

    A new methodology for sampling blackflies for the entomological surveillance of onchocerciasis in Brazil.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(7):e0179754. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Laboratório de Simulídeos e Oncocercose, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    The effectiveness of the MosqTent® trap was evaluated in endemic area to onchocerciasis in Brazil. This study seeks to provide subsidies for the monitoring of the onchocerciasis transmission in the country. The study was carried out at the Homoxi and Thirei villages, located in the Yanomami Indigenous Land, in the state of Roraima. Read More

    Evaluation of Onchocerciasis Transmission in Tanzania: Preliminary Rapid Field Results in the Tukuyu Focus, 2015.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Sep 19;97(3):673-676. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    To compare diagnostic tests for onchocerciasis in a setting that has suppressed transmission, a randomized, age-stratified study was implemented in an area in Tanzania that had received 15 rounds of annual mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin. Study participants (N = 948) from 11 villages underwent a questionnaire, skin examination, skin snips, and blood draw. The burden of symptomatic disease was low. Read More

    Characterizing Reactivity to Onchocerca volvulus Antigens in Multiplex Bead Assays.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Sep 19;97(3):666-672. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Multiplex bead assays (MBAs) may provide a powerful integrated tool for monitoring, evaluation, and post-elimination surveillance of onchocerciasis and co-endemic diseases; however, the specificity and sensitivity of Onchocerca volvulus antigens have not been characterized within this context. An MBA was developed to evaluate three antigens (OV-16, OV-17, and OV-33) for onchocerciasis. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses were used to characterize antigen performance using a panel of 610 specimens: 109 O. Read More

    Bedside diagnostics in dermatology: Parasitic and noninfectious diseases.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Aug;77(2):221-230
    Department of Dermatology, Pathology, and Infectious Diseases, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.
    In addition to aiding the diagnosis of viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases, mineral oil preparation, Tzanck smear, and other techniques can be used to diagnose parasitic infections, neonatal pustular dermatoses, blistering diseases, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and a plethora of other benign and malignant conditions, including granulomatous diseases and tumors. In many cases, these techniques are specific, reliable, and easy to perform and interpret. In others, a certain amount of training and expertise are required. Read More

    High prevalence of epilepsy in onchocerciasis endemic regions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 14;11(7):e0005732. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Background: An increased prevalence of epilepsy has been reported in many onchocerciasis endemic areas. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of epilepsy in onchocerciasis endemic areas in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and investigate whether a higher annual intake of Ivermectin was associated with a lower prevalence of epilepsy.

    Methodology/principle Findings: Between July 2014 and February 2016, house-to-house epilepsy prevalence surveys were carried out in areas with a high level of onchocerciasis endemicity: 3 localities in the Bas-Uele, 24 in the Tshopo and 21 in the Ituri province. Read More

    The esperanza window trap reduces the human biting rate of Simulium ochraceum s.l. in formerly onchocerciasis endemic foci in Southern Mexico.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 7;11(7):e0005686. Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    Global Health Infectious Disease Research Program, Department of Global Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, United States of America.
    Background: The Esperanza Window Trap (EWT) baited with CO2 and human sweat compounds is attractive to Simulium ochraceum s.l., the primary vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the historically largest endemic foci in México and Guatemala. Read More

    Esperanza Window Traps for the collection of anthropophilic blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Uganda and Tanzania.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jun 19;11(6):e0005688. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Faculty of Science, Gulu University, Gulu, Uganda.
    There is an increasing need to evaluate the impact of chemotherapeutic and vector-based interventions as onchocerciasis affected countries work towards eliminating the disease. The Esperanza Window Trap (EWT) provides a possible alternative to human landing collections (HLCs) for the collection of anthropophilic blackflies, yet it is not known whether current designs will prove effective for onchocerciasis vectors throughout sub-Saharan Africa. EWTs were deployed for 41 days in northern Uganda and south eastern Tanzania where different Simulium damnosum sibling species are responsible for disease transmission. Read More

    Biodiversity of Simulium metallicum sensu lato (Diptera: Simuliidae), a complex of Neotropical vectors associated with human onchocerciasis.
    Acta Trop 2017 Sep 15;173:171-179. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Biology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL, 36688, USA. Electronic address:
    The polytene chromosomes of 130 larvae of the Neotropical Simulium metallicum complex from Brazil, Costa Rica, and Ecuador revealed five cytoforms, including three ('M', 'N', and 'O') that are new and two ('B' and 'J') that represent range extensions of up to 850km. The discovery of three new cytoforms brings the total number in the complex to 17. Cytoforms 'B', 'J', and 'N' are reproductively isolated from one another, and their species status is corroborated by morphological evidence. Read More

    The Genomic Architecture of Novel Simulium damnosum Wolbachia Prophage Sequence Elements and Implications for Onchocerciasis Epidemiology.
    Front Microbiol 2017 29;8:852. Epub 2017 May 29.
    School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpool, UK.
    Research interest in Wolbachia is growing as new discoveries and technical advancements reveal the public health importance of both naturally occurring and artificial infections. Improved understanding of the Wolbachia bacteriophages (WOs) WOcauB2 and WOcauB3 [belonging to a sub-group of four WOs encoding serine recombinases group 1 (sr1WOs)], has enhanced the prospect of novel tools for the genetic manipulation of Wolbachia. The basic biology of sr1WOs, including host range and mode of genomic integration is, however, still poorly understood. Read More

    Central and Peripheral Nervous System Disorders Following Ivermectin Mass Administration: A Descriptive Study Based on the Democratic Republic of Congo Pharmacovigilance System.
    Drugs Real World Outcomes 2017 Jun 9. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Unit of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacovigilance, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.
    Introduction: The mainstay of onchocerciasis control currently is mass administration of ivermectin; however, this may be associated with serious adverse events, including deaths, when administered in areas where onchocerciasis and loiasis are co-endemic.

    Objectives: The objective of the current study was to describe the central and peripheral nervous system disorders that occurred after mass administration of ivermectin in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

    Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study involving a review of data on adverse events related to mass administration of ivermectin. Read More

    Validation of onchocerciasis biomarker N-acetyltyramine-O-glucuronide (NATOG).
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2017 Aug 29;27(15):3436-3440. Epub 2017 May 29.
    Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, United States; Department of Immunology, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Worm Institute of Research and Medicine (WIRM), The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey, La Jolla, CA 92037, United States.
    The Neglected Tropical Disease onchocerciasis is a parasitic disease. Despite many control programmes by the World Health Organization (WHO), large communities in West and Central Africa are still affected. Besides logistic challenges during biannual mass drug administration, the lack of a robust, point-of-care diagnostic is limiting successful eradication of onchocerciasis. Read More

    Nodding Syndrome in the Spotlight - Placing Recent Findings in Perspective.
    Trends Parasitol 2017 Jul 6;33(7):490-492. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    Centre for Global Health, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Centre for Global Health, Department of Neurology, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Nodding syndrome (NS) is a debated scientific topic. A recently published study suggests that NS is an autoimmune disorder based on findings of cross-reacting antibodies between neuronal structures and a protein present in Onchocerca volvulus (OV). In our opinion, the proposed causal relationship between OV infection and NS has yet to be demonstrated and, instead, OV infection in NS may be opportunistic. Read More

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