5,210 results match your criteria Onchocerciasis River Blindness


Co-Administration of Adjuvanted Recombinant -103 and -RAL-2 Vaccines Confer Protection against Natural Challenge in A Bovine Infection Model of Human Onchocerciasis.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 May 27;10(6). Epub 2022 May 27.

Institute of Infection, Veterinary & Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK.

Onchocerciasis (river blindness), caused by the filarial nematode , is a neglected tropical disease mainly of sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide, an estimated 20.9 million individuals live with infection and a further 205 million are at risk of disease. Read More

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Aspartyl Protease Inhibitors as Anti-Filarial Drugs.

Pathogens 2022 Jun 18;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

The current treatments for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis do not effectively kill the adult parasitic nematodes, allowing these chronic and debilitating diseases to persist in millions of people. Thus, the discovery of new drugs with macrofilaricidal potential to treat these filarial diseases is critical. To facilitate this need, we first investigated the effects of three aspartyl protease inhibitors (APIs) that are FDA-approved as HIV antiretroviral drugs on the adult filarial nematode, and the endosymbiotic bacteria, . Read More

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Immunoinformatics Design and Assessment of a Multiepitope Antigen (OvMCBL02) for Onchocerciasis Diagnosis and Monitoring.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Jun 11;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Buea P.O. Box 63, Cameroon.

Onchocerciasis is a Neglected Tropical Disease that has a significant socioeconomic impact, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Numerous reports indicate that the Expanded Special Project for the Elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases needs novel diagnostic tools before achieving its goal of successful elimination of onchocerciasis in Africa. The current diagnostic tests are either invasive, insensitive, or not applicable in the field and about 25% of persons infected cannot mount immune responses against the single antigen used in the only approved Ov-16 serological test. Read More

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The preparatory phase for ground larviciding implementation for chocerciasis control in the Meme River Basin in South West Cameroon: the COUNTDOWN Consortium alternative strategy implementation trial.

Parasit Vectors 2022 Jun 21;15(1):219. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

COUNTDOWN, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon.

Background: Onchocerciasis control using ivermectin alone has been achieved in some endemic savannah zones of Africa. In the forest regions, the co-endemicity with Loa loa has led to severe adverse events (SAEs) resulting in poor adherence of community members to ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA). This may jeopardize achieving the interruption of transmission of onchocerciasis. Read More

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Integrated transmission assessment surveys (iTAS) of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis in Cross River, Taraba and Yobe States, Nigeria.

Parasit Vectors 2022 Jun 13;15(1):201. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria.

Background: Integrated transmission assessment surveys (iTAS) have been recommended for evaluation of the transmission of both lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis as the prevalence of both diseases moves toward their respective elimination targets in Nigeria. Therefore, we conducted an iTAS between May and December 2017 in five local government areas (LGAs), also known as implementation units (IUs), in states of Cross River, Taraba and Yobe in Nigeria.

Methods: The TAS comprised two phases: the Pre-iTAS and the iTAS itself. Read More

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[Control, elimination, eradication: Where do we stand with NTDs? Scientific day of the SFMTSI, 25 November 2021].

Med Trop Sante Int 2021 12 10;1(4). Epub 2021 Dec 10.

SFMTSI. Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière - Pavillon Laveran, 47-83 Boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75651 Paris cedex 13.

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December 2021

Contribution of researchers in Arab countries to scientific publications on neglected tropical diseases (1971 - 2020).

Authors:
Waleed M Sweileh

Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines 2022 Jun 1;8(1):14. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology/Toxicology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine.

Background: The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are endemic in several Arab countries. The purpose of the current study was to assess the contribution of researchers in Arab countries to the knowledge base on NTDs using bibliometric indicators.

Methods: Keywords related to all 20 NTDs were obtained from previously published bibliometric studies and were combined with the names of Arab countries listed as country affiliation. Read More

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Crystal structure of an extracellular superoxide dismutase from Onchocerca volvulus and implications for parasite-specific drug development.

Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun 2022 Jun 27;78(Pt 6):232-240. Epub 2022 May 27.

Laboratory for Structural Biology of Infection and Inflammation, University of Hamburg, c/o DESY, Building 22a, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.

Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are metalloproteins that are responsible for the dismutation of superoxide anion radicals. SODs are consequently protective against oxidative damage to cellular components. Among other protective mechanisms, the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus has a well developed defense system to scavenge toxic free radicals using SODs during migration and sojourning of the microfilariae and adult worms in the human body. Read More

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A refined and updated health impact assessment of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000-2020).

Parasit Vectors 2022 May 28;15(1):181. Epub 2022 May 28.

Global Health Programs GlaxoSmithKline, London, UK.

Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a neglected tropical disease (NTD). In 2000 the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). A key component of this programme is mass drug administration (MDA). Read More

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Colorimetric and Real-Time Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) for Detection of DNA in Human Blood Samples.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Apr 25;12(5). Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Group (e-INTRO), Biomedical Research Institute of Salamanca-Research Centre for Tropical Diseases at the University of Salamanca (IBSAL-CIETUS), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca, Spain.

Loiasis, caused by the filarial nematode , is endemic in Central and West Africa. has been associated with severe adverse reactions in high -infected individuals receiving ivermectin during mass drug administration programs for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Diagnosis of loiasis still depends on microscopy in blood samples, but this is not effective for large-scale surveys. Read More

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Characterization of a novel microfilarial antigen for diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infections.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 05 23;16(5):e0010407. Epub 2022 May 23.

Infectious Diseases Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a neglected tropical disease caused by the filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. The Global Program to Eliminate LF uses mass drug administration (MDA) of anti-filarial drugs that clear microfilariae (Mf) from blood to interrupt transmission by mosquitos. New diagnostic tools are needed to assess the impact of MDA on bancroftian filariasis, because available serologic tests can remain positive after successful treatment. Read More

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Ivermectin as a possible treatment for COVID-19: a review of the 2022 protocols.

Braz J Biol 2022 20;84:e258325. Epub 2022 May 20.

Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná - UTFPR, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Inovações Tecnológicas - PPGIT, Campo Mourão, PR, Brasil.

Ivermectin is a safe and effective drug in humans and has been approved for use in numerous parasitic infections for over 50 years. In addition, many studies have already shown its antiviral activity. Ivermectin is generally well tolerated, with no indication of central nervous system-associated toxicity at doses up to 10 times the highest FDA-approved dose of 200 µg/kg. Read More

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Forging Ahead the Repositioning of Multitargeted Drug Ivermectin.

Curr Drug Deliv 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Hyderabad, Telangana, 500037, India.

With the advent of ivermectin, tremendous improvement in public health has been observed, especially in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis that created chaos mostly in rural, sub-Saharan Africa and Latin American countries. The discovery of ivermectin became a boon to millions of people that had suffered in the pandemic and still hold its pharmacological potential against these. Ivermectin continued to surprise scientists because of its notable role in the treatment of various other tropical diseases (Chagas, leishmaniasis, worm infections, etc. Read More

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Wilful Blindness: Sleeping Sickness and Onchocerciasis in Colonial Northern Ghana, 1909-1957.

Authors:
David Bannister

Soc Hist Med 2022 May 8;35(2):635-660. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

As a contribution to the existing literature on deliberate or unintended neglect, concealment and ignorance regarding significant and enduring public health problems-produced by economic marginality, lack of political power and institutional failures affecting specific places and groups-this article discusses the history of epidemic sleeping sickness and endemic onchocerciasis in colonial northern Ghana from 1909 to 1957. Despite accumulating evidence of their serious impacts on the health of northern communities, and calls to action on the part of some health officials, both diseases were only officially recognised as significant risks when it was no longer politically possible to deny them. The particular histories of each disease, in the same region over the same decades, reveal two comparable and interrelated trajectories of neglect. Read More

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'There Were Moments We Wished She Could Just Die': The Highly Gendered Burden of Nodding Syndrome in Northern Uganda.

Qual Health Res 2022 May 13:10497323221085941. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Public Health, 37463Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.

Nodding Syndrome (NS) occurs within a wide spectrum of epilepsies seen in onchocerciasis endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa. It has debilitating consequences on affected individuals and increases the socio-economic, physical and psychological burden on care-givers and their households, diminishing their standing within the community. Social science research on the disproportionate burden of the disease on females is limited. Read More

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Theoretical modeling and design of some pyrazolopyrimidine derivatives as inhibitors, targeting lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

In Silico Pharmacol 2022 7;10(1). Epub 2022 May 7.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, P.M.B. 1044, Zaria, Kaduna State Nigeria.

Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are two common filarial diseases caused by a group of parasitic nematodes called filarial worms, which play host to the bacteria organism . One good treatment approach seeks as drug target. Here, a QSAR study was conducted to investigate the anti- activities (pEC) of 52 pyrazolopyrimidine analogues, while using the built model to predict the pEC values of the newly designed analogues. Read More

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Onchocerca volvulus-specific antibody and cellular responses in onchocerciasis patients treated annually with ivermectin for 30 years and exposed to parasite transmission in central Togo.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 05 3;16(5):e0010340. Epub 2022 May 3.

University Clinics Tübingen, Institute for Tropical Medicine, Eberhard-Karls University, Tübingen, Germany.

Background: Annual mass drug administrations (MDA) of ivermectin will strongly reduce Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae (mf) in the skin and in the onchocerciasis patients' eyes. Ivermectin treatment will also affect the expression of immunity in patients, such that activated immune defenses may help control and contribute to clearance of mf of O. volvulus. Read More

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A call for loiasis to be added to the WHO list of neglected tropical diseases.

Lancet Infect Dis 2022 Apr 29. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Health Studies, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA, USA.

Loiasis, also called African eye worm, is not currently on WHO's list of priority neglected tropical diseases, even though the risk that individuals with high Loa loa microfilarial densities will develop potentially fatal encephalopathy when they take ivermectin has complicated efforts to use mass drug administration for onchocerciasis (river blindness) and lymphatic filariasis control in co-endemic areas. At least 10 million residents of central and west Africa are thought to have loiasis, which causes painful and itchy subcutaneous oedema, arthralgia, and discomfort when adult helminths that are 3-7 cm in length are present under the conjunctiva of the eye. High levels of microfilaraemia are associated with renal, cardiac, neurological, and other sequelae, and an increased risk of death. Read More

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Relationship between skin snip and Ov16 ELISA: Two diagnostic tools for onchocerciasis in a focus in Cameroon after two decades of ivermectin-based preventive chemotherapy.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 05 2;16(5):e0010380. Epub 2022 May 2.

Centre for Research on Filariasis and other Tropical Diseases (CRFilMT), Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Background: Onchocerciasis elimination currently relies on repeated ivermectin-based preventive chemotherapy. Current World Health Organization's guidelines strongly recommend, though with low evidence of certainty, the use of Ov16 serology testing in children younger than 10 years old to assess whether mass drugs administration can be safely stopped. Therefore, more evidences are needed to support the use of this marker as sero-evaluation tool. Read More

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High infection rates for onchocerciasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in children under five not receiving preventive chemotherapy: a bottleneck to elimination.

Infect Dis Poverty 2022 Apr 28;11(1):47. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Centre for Research on Filariasis and other Tropical Diseases (CRFilMT), Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Background: The current mainstay for control/elimination of onchocerciasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) relies on ivermectin- and mebendazole/albendazole-based preventive chemotherapies. However, children under five years of age have been excluded in both research activities and control programs, because they were believed to have insignificant infection rates. There is therefore a need for up-to-date knowledge on the prevalence and intensity of STH and onchocerciasis infections in this age group. Read More

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Effect of a single dose of 8 mg moxidectin or 150 μg/kg ivermectin on O. volvulus skin microfilariae in a randomized trial: Differences between areas in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia and Ghana and impact of intensity of infection.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 04 27;16(4):e0010079. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (WHO/TDR), World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Our study in CDTI-naïve areas in Nord Kivu and Ituri (Democratic Republic of the Congo, DRC), Lofa County (Liberia) and Nkwanta district (Ghana) showed that a single 8 mg moxidectin dose reduced skin microfilariae density (microfilariae/mg skin, SmfD) better and for longer than a single 150μg/kg ivermectin dose. We now analysed efficacy by study area and pre-treatment SmfD (intensity of infection, IoI).

Methodology/principal Findings: Four and three IoI categories were defined for across-study and by-study area analyses, respectively. Read More

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Anti-Th17 and anti-Th2 responses effects of hydro-ethanolic extracts of Aframomum melegueta, Khaya senegalensis and Xylopia aethiopica in hyperreactive onchocerciasis individuals' peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 04 25;16(4):e0010341. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology (IMMIP), University Hospital Bonn (UKB), Bonn, Germany.

Hyperreactive onchocerciasis (HO) is characterized by a severe skin inflammation with elevated Th17-Th2 combined responses. We previously demonstrated the anthelminthic activity of Aframomum melegueta (AM), Xylopia aethiopica (XA) and Khaya senegalensis (KS) used by traditional healers to treat helminthiasis in the endemic area of Togo. However, their effect on severe onchocerciasis is poorly investigated. Read More

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Current perspective of new anti-Wolbachial and direct-acting macrofilaricidal drugs as treatment strategies for human filariasis.

GMS Infect Dis 2022 30;10:Doc02. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, Germany.

Filarial diseases like lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis belong to the Neglected Tropical Diseases and remain a public health problem in endemic countries. Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis can lead to stigmatizing pathologies and present a socio-economic burden for affected people and their endemic countries. Current treatment recommendations by the WHO include mass drug administration with ivermectin for the treatment of onchocerciasis and a combination of ivermectin, albendazole and diethylcarbamazine (DEC) for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis in areas that are not co-endemic for onchocerciasis or loiasis. Read More

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The Prevalence of Onchocerciasis-Associated Epilepsy in Mundri West and East Counties, South Sudan: A Door-to-Door Survey.

Pathogens 2022 Mar 24;11(4). Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, 2016 Antwerp, Belgium.

A two-phase survey of epilepsy was conducted in selected villages in Mundri West and East Counties (26 June-8 July, 2021), an onchocerciasis-endemic area in Western Equatoria State in South Sudan. In the first phase, households were visited by a trained research team to identify persons suspected to have epilepsy. In the second phase, persons suspected to have epilepsy were interviewed and examined by a clinician to confirm the diagnosis. Read More

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Black flies and Onchocerciasis: Knowledge, attitude and practices among inhabitants of Alabameta, Osun State, Southwestern, Nigeria.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 04 21;16(4):e0010320. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Background And Objectives: This study reports knowledge of residents of Alabameta community, Osun State, Nigeria on the bioecology and socio-economic burden of black flies and onchocerciasis.

Methods: Using structured questionnaires and Focus Group Discussion (FGD), a total of 150 community respondents participated in the study.

Results: The knowledge of the residents on the existence of black flies in the community was significant (p<0. Read More

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Advancing a Human Onchocerciasis Vaccine From Antigen Discovery to Efficacy Studies Against Natural Infection of Cattle With .

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 4;12:869039. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Laboratory of Molecular Parasitology, Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, NY, United States.

Human onchocerciasis is a devastating neglected tropical disease caused by infection of the filarial nematode . The infection can cause irreversible visual impairment or blindness and stigmatizing dermatitis. More than 32 million people were estimated to be infected with in Africa, and 385,000 suffered from blindness. Read More

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The spectrum of disease and tau pathology of nodding syndrome in Uganda.

Brain 2022 Apr 12. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Ontario Forensic Pathology Service, Toronto, Ontario M3M 0B1, Canada.

Nodding syndrome is an enigmatic recurrent epidemic neurologic disease that affects children in East Africa. The illness begins with vertical nodding of the head and can progress to grand mal seizures and death after several years. The most recent outbreak of nodding syndrome occurred in northern Uganda. Read More

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Community-based trial assessing the impact of annual versus semiannual mass drug administration with ivermectin plus albendazole and praziquantel on helminth infections in northwestern Liberia.

Acta Trop 2022 Jul 8;231:106437. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States. Electronic address:

We assessed the impact of three annual vs five semiannual rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin plus albendazole followed by praziquantel for the control or elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and schistosomiasis in Lofa County, Liberia. The study started in 2012 and was interrupted in 2014 during the Ebola virus outbreak. Repeated cross-sectional surveys were conducted in individuals 5 years and older to measure infection markers. Read More

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