4,784 results match your criteria Onchocerciasis River Blindness


Macro and microfilaricidal activities of extracts of Annona senegalensis and Milletia comosa against Onchocerca ochengi and Loa loa.

Exp Parasitol 2019 Feb 13;198:71-78. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Laboratory for Drugs and Molecular Diagnostics Research (ANDI Centre of Excellence for Onchocerciasis Drug Research), Biotechnology Unit, University of Buea, Cameroon; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea, Cameroon. Electronic address:

Despite the efforts employed for the control of onchocerciasis, the latter has remained a significant public health problem, due mainly to the lack of safe and effective adult worm drugs and/or microfilaricides that do not kill Loa loa microfilariae (mf). Serious adverse events have been encountered after administering ivermectin to some onchocerciasis patients coinfected with Loa loa. There is therefore, an urgent need for a macro and/or microfilaricidal drug which kills Onchocerca but not L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2019.02.004DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Differences in the Clinical and Laboratory Features of Imported Onchocerciasis in Endemic Individuals and Temporary Residents.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Many parasitic infections have different presenting features in endemic individuals (ENDs) and immunologically naive temporary residents (TRs). Temporary residents with loiasis often display acute symptoms and hypereosinophilia, in contrast to a parasite-induced subclinical state in chronically infected ENDs. Few studies have examined differences in ENDs and TRs infected with the related filarial parasite . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0757DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Prevalence and intensity of Loa loa infection over twenty-three years in three communities of the Mbalmayo health district (Central Cameroon).

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 13;19(1):146. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Centre for Research on Filariasis and other Tropical Diseases, PO Box 5797, Yaounde, Cameroon.

Background: Loiasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease due to Loa loa and transmitted to humans by tabanids of the genus Chrysops. Loiasis has been historically considered as the second or third most common reason for medical consultation after malaria, and a recent study has reported an excess mortality associated with the infection. However, the clinical impact of this filarial disease is yet to be elucidated, and it is still considered a benign disease eliciting very little attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3776-yDOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Comprehensive management of epilepsy in onchocerciasis-endemic areas: lessons learnt from community-based surveys.

Infect Dis Poverty 2019 Feb 10;8(1):11. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: Onchocerciasis-endemic regions are known to have a high epilepsy prevalence. Limited resources in these areas and poor access to healthcare by persons with epilepsy (PWE) result in a wide anti-epileptic treatment gap, poor seizure control and a high burden of seizure-related complications. Recent community-based surveys highlight the need for epilepsy management strategies suitable for remote onchocerciasis-endemic villages to ensure better health outcomes for PWE. Read More

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https://idpjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40249
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-019-0523-yDOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Boron-Pleuromutilins as Anti-Wolbachia Agents with Potential for Treatment of Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis.

J Med Chem 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

A series of pleuromutilins modified by introduction of a boron-containing heterocycle on C(14) of the polycyclic core are described. These analogs were found to be potent anti-Wolbachia antibiotics, and as such, may be useful in the treatment of filarial infections caused by Onchocherca volvulus, resulting in Onchocerciasis or river blindness, or Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi and related parasitic nematodes resulting in lymphatic filariasis. These two important Neglected Tropical diseases (NTDs) disproportionately impact patients in the developing world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b01854DOI Listing
February 2019

Population Fluctuations and Effect of Climatic Factors on the Relative Abundance of Simulium damnosum Complex (Diptera: Simuliidae).

Environ Entomol 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Zoology, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

Simulium damnosum (Theobald) sensu lato (s.l.) is a complex of many species of black flies that transmit Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) to varying capacities based on their ecological zones in Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvz004DOI Listing
January 2019

High prevalence of epilepsy in an onchocerciasis endemic health zone in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, despite 14 years of community-directed treatment with ivermectin: A mixed-method assessment.

Int J Infect Dis 2019 Feb;79:187-194

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium. Electronic address:

Objectives: To investigate the reasons for the high prevalence of epilepsy (>6%) discovered in 2015 in the Aketi health zone in the north of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Methods: Persons with epilepsy (PWE) diagnosed in a door-to-door survey in 2015 were traced and re-examined in 2017 by a neurologist. Confirmed PWE were paired with matched controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2018.10.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6353816PMC
February 2019

Onchocerciasis associated epilepsy-A question of causality.

Int J Infect Dis 2019 Feb;79:185-186

Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.01.044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6361767PMC
February 2019

Integrated seroprevalence-based assessment of Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus in two lymphatic filariasis evaluation units of Mali with the SD Bioline Onchocerciasis/LF IgG4 Rapid Test.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 30;13(1):e0007064. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, United States of America.

Background: Mali has become increasingly interested in the evaluation of transmission of both Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus as prevalences of both infections move toward their respective elimination targets. The SD Bioline Onchocerciasis/LF IgG4 Rapid Test was used in 2 evaluation units (EU) to assess its performance as an integrated surveillance tool for elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis.

Methodology/principal Findings: A cross sectional survey with SD Bioline Onchocerciasis/LF IgG4 Rapid Test was piggy-backed onto a transmission assessment survey (TAS) (using the immunochromatographic card test (ICT) Binax Filariasis Now test for filarial adult circulating antigen (CFA) detection) for LF in Mali among 6-7 year old children in 2016 as part of the TAS in two EUs namely Kadiolo-Kolondieba in the region of Sikasso and Bafoulabe -Kita-Oussoubidiagna-Yelimane in the region of Kayes. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007064
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007064DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Patent infections with soil-transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni are not associated with increased prevalence of antibodies to the Onchocerca volvulus peptide epitopes OvMP-1 and OvMP-23.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Jan 28;12(1):63. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Janssen Diagnostics, Janssen R&D, Turnhoutseweg 30, 2340, Beerse, Belgium.

Background: Ov16 serology is considered a reference method for Onchocerca volvulus epidemiological mapping. Given the suboptimal sensitivity of this test and the fact that seroconversion takes more than a year after infection, additional serological tests might be needed to guide onchocerciasis elimination programmes. Recently, two linear epitopes encoded in OvMP-1 and OvMP-23 peptides were introduced as serological markers, but the observed antibody cross-reactivity in samples originating from Onchocerca volvulus non-endemic areas required further investigation. Read More

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https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.11
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3308-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350367PMC
January 2019
8 Reads

Low prevalence of epilepsy and onchocerciasis after more than 20 years of ivermectin treatment in the Imo River Basin in Nigeria.

Infect Dis Poverty 2019 Jan 23;8(1). Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Doornstraat 331, 2610 Wilrijk, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: High epilepsy prevalence and incidence have been reported in areas with high onchocerciasis transmission. Recent findings suggest that proper community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) is potentially able to prevent onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE). We assessed the epilepsy prevalence and onchocerciasis transmission in two Nigerian villages following more than 20 years of CDTI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-019-0517-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343278PMC
January 2019

Development of a preliminary in vitro drug screening assay based on a newly established culturing system for pre-adult fifth-stage Onchocerca volvulus worms.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 01 17;13(1):e0007108. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Molecular Parasitology, Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, New York, United States of America.

Background: The human filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus is the causative agent of onchocerciasis (river blindness). It causes blindness in 270,000 individuals with an additional 6.5 million suffering from severe skin pathologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6353222PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Flubendazole as a macrofilaricide: History and background.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 01 16;13(1):e0006436. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Johnson & Johnson Global Public Health, Janssen Research and Development, LLC., New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States of America.

Benzimidazole anthelmintics have long been employed for the control of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Flubendazole (FBZ) was approved in 1980 for the treatment of gastrointestinal nematode infections in both veterinary and human medicine. It has also long been known that parenteral administration of FBZ can lead to high macrofilaricidal efficacy in a variety of preclinical models and in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334891PMC
January 2019
6 Reads

Macrofilaricidal efficacy of single and repeated oral and subcutaneous doses of flubendazole in Litomosoides sigmodontis infected jirds.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 01 16;13(1):e0006320. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Flubendazole (FBZ) is highly efficacious against filarial nematodes after parenteral administration and presents a promising macrofilaricidal drug candidate for the elimination of onchocerciasis and other filariae. In the present study the efficacy of a newly developed bioavailable amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) oral formulation of FBZ was investigated in the Litomosoides sigmodontis jird model. FBZ was administered to chronically infected, microfilariae-positive jirds by single (40mg/kg), repeated (2, 6 or 15mg/kg for 5 or 10 days) oral (OR) doses or single subcutaneous (SC) injections (2 or 10mg/kg). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334906PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Short-course, oral flubendazole does not mediate significant efficacy against Onchocerca adult male worms or Brugia microfilariae in murine infection models.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 01 16;13(1):e0006356. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Parasitology and Research Centre for Drugs and Diagnostics, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

The Onchocerca ochengi adult implant and Brugia malayi microfilariemic Severe-Combined Immunodeficient (SCID) mouse models are validated screens to measure macrofilaricidal and microfilaricidal activities of candidate onchocerciasis drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess whether 5 daily sub-cutaneous (s.c. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334903PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Entomological assessment of the transmission following recrudescence of onchocerciasis in the Comoé Valley, Burkina Faso.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Jan 15;12(1):34. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Ministère de l'Enseignement Supérieur, de la Recherche Scientifique et de l'Innovation, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), Direction Régionale de l'Ouest, BP 545, Bobo Dioulasso 01, Burkina Faso.

Background: Onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is a dermal filariasis caused by infection with the nematode parasite Onchocerca volvulus, transmitted to humans through the bites of blackflies of the genus Simulium. Despite the decade-long West African Regional Programme for the Elimination of Onchocerciasis, involving the mass administration of ivermectin to populations in endemic areas, recrudescence has occurred. An example is in the Cascades Region of south-west Burkina Faso where the resumption of transmission had resulted in infection prevalences of up to 70% in some villages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3290-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6332526PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Effect of flubendazole on developing stages of Loa loa in vitro and in vivo: a new approach for screening filaricidal agents.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Jan 8;12(1):14. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Parasites and Vectors Biology Research Unit (PAVBRU), Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon.

Background: Loiasis, an often-neglected tropical disease, is a threat to the success of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis elimination programmes in rainforest areas of the central and western Africa. Its control and even its elimination might be possible through the use of a safe macrofilaricide, a prophylactic drug, or perhaps a vaccine. This present study evaluated the effect of flubendazole (FLBZ) on the development of Loa loa L3 in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3282-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323797PMC
January 2019
7 Reads
3.430 Impact Factor

AWZ1066S, a highly specific anti- drug candidate for a short-course treatment of filariasis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Jan 7;116(4):1414-1419. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Chemistry, University of Liverpool, L69 7ZD Liverpool, United Kingdom;

Onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis are two neglected tropical diseases that together affect ∼157 million people and inflict severe disability. Both diseases are caused by parasitic filarial nematodes with elimination efforts constrained by the lack of a safe drug that can kill the adult filaria (macrofilaricide). Previous proof-of-concept human trials have demonstrated that depleting >90% of the essential nematode endosymbiont bacterium, , using antibiotics, can lead to permanent sterilization of adult female parasites and a safe macrofilaricidal outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1816585116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347715PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Industrial scale high-throughput screening delivers multiple fast acting macrofilaricides.

Nat Commun 2019 01 2;10(1):11. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Centre for Drugs and Diagnostics, Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.

Nematodes causing lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis rely on their bacterial endosymbiont, Wolbachia, for survival and fecundity, making Wolbachia a promising therapeutic target. Here we perform a high-throughput screen of AstraZeneca's 1.3 million in-house compound library and identify 5 novel chemotypes with faster in vitro kill rates (<2 days) than existing anti-Wolbachia drugs that cure onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-07826-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315057PMC
January 2019
2 Reads
10.742 Impact Factor

Onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy - Authors' reply.

Lancet Infect Dis 2019 Jan;19(1):22

Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, 34394 Montpellier, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30743-6DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy.

Lancet Infect Dis 2019 Jan;19(1):21-22

ParaHealth Research Group, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, 46100 Burjassot-Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14733099183071
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30713-8DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Link to Alzheimer's seen in nodding syndrome.

Authors:
Laura Spinney

Science 2018 12;362(6421):1341

Laura Spinney is a journalist in Paris.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.362.6421.1341DOI Listing
December 2018

Inflammatory and regulatory CCL and CXCL chemokine and cytokine cellular responses in patients with patent Mansonella perstans filariasis.

Clin Exp Immunol 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

National Institute of Hygiene, Onchocerciasis Reference Laboratory, Sokodé, Togo.

Mansonella perstans (Mp) filariasis is present in large populations in sub-Saharan Africa, and to what extent patent Mp infection modulates the expression of immunity in patients, notably their cellular cytokine and chemokine response profile, remains not well known. We studied the spontaneous and inducible cellular production of chemokines (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) [monokine induced by interferon (IFN)-γ (MIG)], CXCL-10 [inducible protein (IP)-10], chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 (CCL24) (eotaxin-2), CCL22 [macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC)], CCL13 [monocyte chemotactic protein-4 (MCP-4)], CCL18 [pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC)], CCL17 [thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)] and interleukin (IL)-27 in mansonelliasis patients (Mp-PAT) and mansonelliasis-free controls (CTRL). Freshly isolated peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMC) were stimulated with helminth, protozoan and bacterial antigens and mitogen [phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cei.13251DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

High Throughput and Computational Repurposing for Neglected Diseases.

Pharm Res 2018 Dec 17;36(2):27. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Collaborations Pharmaceuticals Inc., 840 Main Campus Drive, Lab 3510, Raleigh, North Carolina, 27606, USA.

Purpose: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent are a heterogeneous group of communicable diseases that are found within the poorest populations of the world. There are 23 NTDs that have been prioritized by the World Health Organization, which are endemic in 149 countries and affect more than 1.4 billion people, costing these developing economies billions of dollars annually. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-018-2558-3DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Development of Onchocerca volvulus in humanized NSG mice and detection of parasite biomarkers in urine and serum.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 12;12(12):e0006977. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Background: The study of Onchocerca volvulus has been limited by its host range, with only humans and non-human primates shown to be susceptible to the full life cycle infection. Small animal models that support the development of adult parasites have not been identified.

Methodology/principal Findings: We hypothesized that highly immunodeficient NSG mice would support the survival and maturation of O. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006977
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6306240PMC
December 2018
6 Reads

Epidemiology of onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy in the Mbam and Sanaga river valleys of Cameroon: impact of more than 13 years of ivermectin.

Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Dec 3;7(1):114. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Neurology Department, Yaoundé Central Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Background: A high epilepsy prevalence has been reported in several onchocerciasis-endemic villages along the Mbam and Sanaga river valleys in Cameroon, including Bilomo and Kelleng. We sought to determine the prevalence of epilepsy in these two villages following more than 13 years of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI).

Methods: Door-to-door surveys were performed on the entire resident population in the villages in August 2017 and January 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-018-0497-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6276171PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Clinical presentations of onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE) in Cameroon.

Epilepsy Behav 2019 Jan 1;90:70-78. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Neurology Department, Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon; Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon; Brain Research Africa Initiative (BRAIN), Yaoundé, Cameroon. Electronic address:

Background: A high prevalence of epilepsy has been observed in several onchocerciasis-endemic countries, including Cameroon. However, little is known on the clinical presentations of the affected persons with epilepsy (PWE). A community-based study was conducted with the aim of describing the spectrum of seizures in selected onchocerciasis-endemic villages in Cameroon and documenting relevant medical history in patients with onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15255050183055
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2018.11.008DOI Listing
January 2019
13 Reads

Brevipedicelones D and E, Two C-O-C Flavonoid Dimmers from the Leaves of Garcinia brevipedicellata and Anti-onchocercal Activity.

Nat Prod Bioprospect 2019 Jan 3;9(1):61-68. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Laboratoire de Chimie des Substances Naturelles, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 63 Rue Buffon, 75005, Paris, France.

A novel isoflavone-chromone flavonoid C-O-C dimmer, brevipedicelone D (1), along with one new C-O-C biflavonoid derivative, brevipedicelone E (2), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of Garcinia brevipedicellata, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine in parts of Cameroon. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic techniques, including 1D- and 2D- NMR, MS experiments, as well as comparing their spectral data with those of known analogues. Anti-onchocercal screening of 1 showed moderate inhibition of adult worm motility of Onchocerca ochengi by 60% at the highest concentration (20 µg/mL) and inhibited motility of both the juvenile worms of O. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13659-018-0191-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6328427PMC
January 2019

Community perceptions of epilepsy and its treatment in an onchocerciasis endemic region in Ituri, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Dec 4;7(1):115. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: A recent study in the Logo and Rethy health zones in the Ituri Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) reported that the majority of the persons with epilepsy (PWE) had not been treated with anti-epileptic medication (AEM) or had stopped treatment. Prior to the implementation of an epilepsy treatment programme in these health zones, this study investigated the perceptions and experiences regarding epilepsy and its treatment amongst community leaders, PWE and/or their families, traditional healers and health professionals.

Methods: A total of 14 focus group discussions (FGD) and 39 semi-structured interviews (SSI) were conducted with PWE and/or their family members, community leaders, traditional healers, and health professionals in the Logo and Rethy health zones during February 2-19, 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-018-0498-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6278164PMC
December 2018
1 Read

High prevalence of onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy in villages in Maridi County, Republic of South Sudan: A community-based survey.

Seizure 2018 Dec 13;63:93-101. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Neglected Tropical Diseases Unit, Ministry of Health, Juba, South Sudan. Electronic address:

Purpose: To determine the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy in an onchocerciasis endemic region of South Sudan.

Methods: In May 2018, a door-to-door household survey was conducted in 8 study sites in an onchocerciasis endemic area in Maridi County.

Results: A total of 2511 households agreed to participate in the study, corresponding to 17,652 individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2018.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291739PMC
December 2018
11 Reads

Baseline characterization of epilepsy in an onchocerciasis endemic area of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Brain Res Bull 2019 Feb 20;145:45-52. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Neurology and School of Public Health, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA; Department of Neurology, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, People's Republic of Congo; Institut National de Recherches Biomedicales, University of Kinshasa, People's Republic of Congo. Electronic address:

Increased epilepsy prevalence is reported in onchocerciasis (OC) endemic areas and is associated with the occurrence of distinct syndromes such as nodding disease and Nakalanga syndrome. To date, a causal relationship between OC and epilepsy is still a matter of controversy. We conducted a case-control study of participants with epilepsy and age- and gender-matched presumably healthy controls to elucidate the relationships between OC and epilepsy and explore the role of inflammation and growth factors in an OC endemic area in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2018.11.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377286PMC
February 2019
18 Reads

Neurological manifestations in Onchocerca volvulus infection: A review.

Brain Res Bull 2019 Feb 17;145:39-44. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; Centre for Tropical Neuroscience, Kampala, Uganda; University of Oxford, Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

Human onchocerciasis, caused by infection by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, is a major neglected public health problem that affects millions of people in the endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Onchocerciasis is known to be associated with skin and eye disease and more recently, neurological features have been recognized as a major manifestation. Especially the latter poses a severe burden on affected individuals and their families. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03619230183028
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2018.08.024DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

Creative use of the priority review voucher by public and not-for-profit actors delivers the first new FDA-approved treatment for river blindness in 20 years.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 11 15;12(11):e0006837. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland.

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006837
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006837DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6237288PMC
November 2018
8 Reads

Novel Findings of Anti-Filarial Drug Target and Structure-Based Virtual Screening for Drug Discovery.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 13;19(11). Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Infection Biology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan 54538, Korea.

Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis caused by filarial nematodes are important diseases leading to considerable morbidity throughout tropical countries. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC), albendazole (ALB), and ivermectin (IVM) used in massive drug administration are not highly effective in killing the long-lived adult worms, and there is demand for the development of novel macrofilaricidal drugs affecting new molecular targets. A Ca binding protein, calumenin, was identified as a novel and nematode-specific drug target for filariasis, due to its involvement in fertility and cuticle development in nematodes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113579DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6274684PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

On-going transmission of human onchocerciasis in the Massangam health district in the West Region of Cameroon: Better understanding transmission dynamics to inform changes in programmatic interventions.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 11 14;12(11):e0006904. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Sightsavers, Haywards Heath, United Kingdom.

Background: Massangam health district (HD), in the West Region of Cameroon, has received ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) for 20 years, however there is evidence of continued high transmission of Onchocerca volvulus. In order to better understand the transmission dynamics in the HD and inform intervention strategies there is a need to delineate the boundaries of the suspected area of high transmission within the wider transmission zone.

Methodology/principal Findings: Parasitological and entomological surveys were conducted to map out the breeding sites of Simulium damnosum and evaluate the prevalence of onchocerciasis in neighbouring communities, including Makouopsap sentinel community. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006904
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6261645PMC
November 2018
10 Reads

The effect of bi-annual community-directed treatment with ivermectin on the incidence of epilepsy in onchocerciasis endemic villages in South Sudan: a study protocol.

Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Nov 14;7(1):112. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Kinsbergen Centrum, Doornstraat 331, 2610, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: Nodding syndrome (NS) is a devastating epileptic illness of unknown aetiology mainly affecting children 5-15 years of age. Head nodding distinguishes NS from other forms of epilepsy. Other manifestations of the illness include mental and physical growth retardation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-018-0496-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234538PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Estimating the elimination feasibility in the 'end game' of control efforts for parasites subjected to regular mass drug administration: Methods and their application to schistosomiasis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 11 12;12(11):e0006794. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Progress towards controlling and eliminating parasitic worms, including schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and lymphatic filariasis, is advancing rapidly as national governments, multinational NGOs, and pharmaceutical companies launch collaborative chemotherapeutic control campaigns. Critical questions remain regarding the potential for achieving elimination of these infections, and analytical methods can help to quickly estimate progress towards-and the probability of achieving-elimination over specific timeframes. Here, we propose the effective reproduction number, Reff, as a proxy of elimination potential for sexually reproducing worms that are subject to poor mating success at very low abundance (positive density dependence, or Allee effects). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6258430PMC
November 2018
9 Reads

Changes in canine serum N-glycosylation as a result of infection with the heartworm parasite Dirofilaria immitis.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 9;8(1):16625. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

New England Biolabs Inc., Ipswich, Massachusetts, 01938, USA.

Filariases are diseases caused by infection with filarial nematodes and transmitted by insect vectors. The filarial roundworm Dirofilaria immitis causes heartworm disease in dogs and other carnivores. D. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-35038-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-35038-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6226445PMC
November 2018
14 Reads

Continuous and pulsed epidemiological models for onchocerciasis with implications for eradication strategy.

Math Biosci Eng 2018 08;15(4):841-862

Department of Mathematics, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0130, USA.

Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Complex mathematical models are being used to assess the likely efficacy of efforts to eradicate the disease; however, their predictions have not always been borne out in practice. In this paper, we represent the immunological aspects of the disease with a single empirical parameter in order to reduce the model complexity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/mbe.2018038DOI Listing

[Avermectins, intelligently made in China].

Yi Chuan 2018 Oct;40(10):888-899

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China.

Avermectins, are pesticides of fermentation products with high efficacy and low toxicity and play important roles in food and agricultural product safety, animal and human health. Ivermectins, the derivatives of avermectins, are used to treat Onchocerciasis, also known as River Blindness. Thanks to these discoveries, more than 200 million Africans are lucky to be exempted from blindness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.16288/j.yczz. 18-194DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Update on the current status of onchocerciasis in Côte d'Ivoire following 40 years of intervention: Progress and challenges.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 10 23;12(10):e0006897. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases Division, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

Background: Onchocerciasis control in Côte d'Ivoire started with aerial insecticide spraying in 1974 and continued with community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTi) from 1992 to the present. Onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) are co-endemic in 46 of the 81 health districts in the country. Fourteen and 12 districts are endemic for only LF or onchocerciasis, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6214569PMC
October 2018
3 Reads

Clinical characteristics of onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy in villages in Maridi County, Republic of South Sudan.

Seizure 2018 Nov 5;62:108-115. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Neglected Tropical Diseases Unit, Ministry of Health, Juba, Sudan. Electronic address:

Purpose: To describe the clinical manifestations of persons with epilepsy (PWE) in onchocerciasis endemic villages in South Sudan.

Methods: During a survey in Maridi County in May 2018, PWE were interviewed and examined in their households by a clinical officer or medical doctor. Onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE) was defined as ≥2 seizures without any obvious cause, starting between the ages of 3-18 years in previously healthy persons who had resided for at least 3 years in the onchocerciasis endemic area. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10591311183062
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2018.10.004DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Substantiating freedom from parasitic infection by combining transmission model predictions with disease surveys.

Nat Commun 2018 10 18;9(1):4324. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Emory University and The Carter Center, One Copenhill, 453 Freedom Parkway, Atlanta, GA, 30307, USA.

Stopping interventions is a critical decision for parasite elimination programmes. Quantifying the probability that elimination has occurred due to interventions can be facilitated by combining infection status information from parasitological surveys with extinction thresholds predicted by parasite transmission models. Here we demonstrate how the integrated use of these two pieces of information derived from infection monitoring data can be used to develop an analytic framework for guiding the making of defensible decisions to stop interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06657-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6193962PMC
October 2018
3 Reads

Ivermectin does not interfere with seminal and hormonal parameters in male rabbits.

Theriogenology 2019 Jan 27;124:32-38. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, São Paulo, SP, 05508-270, Brazil.

Ivermectin (IVM) is a macrocyclic lactone used as a broad spectrum antiparasitic agent against nematodes and arthropods. It is mainly used in the control of parasitic infections of domestic animals, and recently has been used in humans to treat onchocerciasis, scabies, and pediculosis. In mammals, evidence has indicated that macrocyclic lactones interact with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated chloride channels. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0093691X183086
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2018.09.029DOI Listing
January 2019
17 Reads

A cryptic species of Onchocerca (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) in blackflies (Simulium spp.) from southern California, USA.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Oct 16;11(1):547. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Background: Entomological surveillance for pathogens based on molecular screening of putative arthropod vectors such as blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) is becoming increasingly important. Surveillance provides a means to understand host and geographical patterns of underestimated biodiversity among North American species of Onchocerca and a pathway to identify and track expanding emergence of the zoonotic Onchocerca lupi. Herein, we have screened two blackfly species, Simulium tescorum and Simulium vittatum (s. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3133-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6192150PMC
October 2018

Roger Ward Crosskey-The Life and Contributions of an Entomologist par Excellence (1930-2017).

Authors:
Peter H Adler

Zootaxa 2018 Aug 1;4455(1):35-67. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Department of Plant & Environmental Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0310 USA..

The life of Roger Ward Crosskey stands as a paragon of scholarly dedication to the profession of entomology. His early interests in natural history prepared him for a diverse entomological career of about 65 years. He began as a medical entomologist working on the onchocerciasis problem with the Colonial Service in Northern Nigeria, and officially transitioned to dipterology, first studying the Tachinidae as a taxonomist with the Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, and later the Simuliidae as a Senior Principal Scientific Officer (Merit) with The Natural History Museum in London. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4455.1.2DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

The effect of assortative mixing on stability of low helminth transmission levels and on the impact of mass drug administration: Model explorations for onchocerciasis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 10 8;12(10):e0006624. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Stable low pre-control prevalences of helminth infection are not uncommon in field settings, yet it is poorly understood how such low levels can be sustained, thereby challenging efforts to model them. Disentangling possible facilitating mechanisms is important, since these may differently affect intervention impact. Here we explore the role of assortative (i. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006624
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6175282PMC
October 2018
3 Reads

Onchocerca volvulus as a risk factor for developing epilepsy in onchocerciasis endemic regions in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a case control study.

Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Oct 8;7(1):79. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: A high prevalence of epilepsy has been observed in onchocerciasis endemic areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). With this study we aimed to investigate whether Onchocerca volvulus infection is a risk factor for developing epilepsy in onchocerciasis endemic regions in the DRC.

Methods: Between October and December 2015, a multi-centre case control study was performed in onchocerciasis endemic health zones (HZ) in the DRC: one study site was situated in Tshopo Province in the HZ of Wanierukula (village of Salambongo) where there had been 13 annual community distributions of treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), a second was situated in Ituri Province in the HZ of Logo (village of Draju) where ivermectin had never been distributed and in the HZ of Rethy (village of Rassia) where there had been THREE CDTI annual campaigns before the study. Read More

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https://idpjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40249
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-018-0465-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6174565PMC
October 2018
3 Reads

Onchodermatitis: Where Are We Now?

Trop Med Infect Dis 2018 Sep 1;3(3). Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Department of Dermatology, West Herts Hospitals NHS Trust, Vicarage Road, Watford, Hertfordshire WD18 0HB, UK.

Onchocerciasis causes debilitating pruritus and rashes as well as visual impairment and blindness. Prior to control measures, eye disease was particularly prominent in savanna areas of sub-Saharan Africa whilst skin disease was more common across rainforest regions of tropical Africa. Mass drug distribution with ivermectin is changing the global scene of onchocerciasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6160948PMC
September 2018
1 Read

The temporal relationship between onchocerciasis and epilepsy: a population-based cohort study.

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Nov 26;18(11):1278-1286. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

UMI 233, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Montpellier, France; Université Montpellier, Montpellier, France; INSERM Unité 1175, Montpellier, France. Electronic address:

Background: Many studies have suggested that onchocerciasis might be associated with epilepsy. Therefore, we did a cohort study to assess the incidence of epilepsy relative to Onchocerca volvulus skin microfilarial density (MFD) measured during childhood and to assess the possibility of a temporal relationship.

Methods: During onchocerciasis surveys undertaken in 25 villages in Cameroon during 1991-93, we measured MFD in individuals aged 5 years or older. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30425-0DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads