4,757 results match your criteria Onchocerciasis River Blindness
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 12;12(12):e0006977. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia Pennsylvania, United States of America.
Background: The study of Onchocerca volvulus has been limited by its host range, with only humans and non-human primates shown to be susceptible to the full life cycle infection. Small animal models that support the development of adult parasites have not been identified.
Methodology/principal Findings: We hypothesized that highly immunodeficient NSG mice would support the survival and maturation of O. Read More
Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Dec 3;7(1):114. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Neurology Department, Yaoundé Central Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
Background: A high epilepsy prevalence has been reported in several onchocerciasis-endemic villages along the Mbam and Sanaga river valleys in Cameroon, including Bilomo and Kelleng. We sought to determine the prevalence of epilepsy in these two villages following more than 13 years of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI).
Methods: Door-to-door surveys were performed on the entire resident population in the villages in August 2017 and January 2018. Read More
Epilepsy Behav 2018 Dec 1;90:70-78. Epub 2018 Dec 1.
Neurology Department, Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon; Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon; Brain Research Africa Initiative (BRAIN), Yaoundé, Cameroon. Electronic address:
Background: A high prevalence of epilepsy has been observed in several onchocerciasis-endemic countries, including Cameroon. However, little is known on the clinical presentations of the affected persons with epilepsy (PWE). A community-based study was conducted with the aim of describing the spectrum of seizures in selected onchocerciasis-endemic villages in Cameroon and documenting relevant medical history in patients with onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE). Read More
Nat Prod Bioprospect 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Laboratoire de Chimie des Substances Naturelles, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 63 Rue Buffon, 75005, Paris, France.
A novel isoflavone-chromone flavonoid C-O-C dimmer, brevipedicelone D (1), along with one new C-O-C biflavonoid derivative, brevipedicelone E (2), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of Garcinia brevipedicellata, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine in parts of Cameroon. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic techniques, including 1D- and 2D- NMR, MS experiments, as well as comparing their spectral data with those of known analogues. Anti-onchocercal screening of 1 showed moderate inhibition of adult worm motility of Onchocerca ochengi by 60% at the highest concentration (20 µg/mL) and inhibited motility of both the juvenile worms of O. Read More
Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Dec 4;7(1):115. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
Background: A recent study in the Logo and Rethy health zones in the Ituri Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) reported that the majority of the persons with epilepsy (PWE) had not been treated with anti-epileptic medication (AEM) or had stopped treatment. Prior to the implementation of an epilepsy treatment programme in these health zones, this study investigated the perceptions and experiences regarding epilepsy and its treatment amongst community leaders, PWE and/or their families, traditional healers and health professionals.
Methods: A total of 14 focus group discussions (FGD) and 39 semi-structured interviews (SSI) were conducted with PWE and/or their family members, community leaders, traditional healers, and health professionals in the Logo and Rethy health zones during February 2-19, 2017. Read More
Seizure 2018 Dec 13;63:93-101. Epub 2018 Nov 13.
Neglected Tropical Diseases Unit, Ministry of Health, Juba, South Sudan. Electronic address:
Purpose: To determine the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy in an onchocerciasis endemic region of South Sudan.
Methods: In May 2018, a door-to-door household survey was conducted in 8 study sites in an onchocerciasis endemic area in Maridi County.
Results: A total of 2511 households agreed to participate in the study, corresponding to 17,652 individuals. Read More
Brain Res Bull 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.
Department of Neurology and School of Public Health, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA; Department of Neurology, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, People's Republic of Congo; Institut National de Recherches Biomedicales, University of Kinshasa, People's Republic of Congo. Electronic address:
Increased epilepsy prevalence is reported in onchocerciasis (OC) endemic areas and is associated with the occurrence of distinct syndromes such as nodding disease and Nakalanga syndrome. To date, a causal relationship between OC and epilepsy is still a matter of controversy. We conducted a case-control study of participants with epilepsy and age- and gender-matched presumably healthy controls to elucidate the relationships between OC and epilepsy and explore the role of inflammation and growth factors in an OC endemic area in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Read More
Brain Res Bull 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.
Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; Centre for Tropical Neuroscience, Kampala, Uganda; University of Oxford, Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:
Human onchocerciasis, caused by infection by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, is a major neglected public health problem that affects millions of people in the endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Onchocerciasis is known to be associated with skin and eye disease and more recently, neurological features have been recognized as a major manifestation. Especially the latter poses a severe burden on affected individuals and their families. Read More
Int J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 13;19(11). Epub 2018 Nov 13.
Department of Infection Biology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan 54538, Korea.
Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis caused by filarial nematodes are important diseases leading to considerable morbidity throughout tropical countries. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC), albendazole (ALB), and ivermectin (IVM) used in massive drug administration are not highly effective in killing the long-lived adult worms, and there is demand for the development of novel macrofilaricidal drugs affecting new molecular targets. A Ca binding protein, calumenin, was identified as a novel and nematode-specific drug target for filariasis, due to its involvement in fertility and cuticle development in nematodes. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Nov 14;12(11):e0006904. Epub 2018 Nov 14.
Sightsavers, Haywards Heath, United Kingdom.
Background: Massangam health district (HD), in the West Region of Cameroon, has received ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) for 20 years, however there is evidence of continued high transmission of Onchocerca volvulus. In order to better understand the transmission dynamics in the HD and inform intervention strategies there is a need to delineate the boundaries of the suspected area of high transmission within the wider transmission zone.
Methodology/principal Findings: Parasitological and entomological surveys were conducted to map out the breeding sites of Simulium damnosum and evaluate the prevalence of onchocerciasis in neighbouring communities, including Makouopsap sentinel community. Read More
Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Nov 14;7(1):112. Epub 2018 Nov 14.
Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Kinsbergen Centrum, Doornstraat 331, 2610, Antwerp, Belgium.
Background: Nodding syndrome (NS) is a devastating epileptic illness of unknown aetiology mainly affecting children 5-15 years of age. Head nodding distinguishes NS from other forms of epilepsy. Other manifestations of the illness include mental and physical growth retardation. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Nov 12;12(11):e0006794. Epub 2018 Nov 12.
Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
Progress towards controlling and eliminating parasitic worms, including schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and lymphatic filariasis, is advancing rapidly as national governments, multinational NGOs, and pharmaceutical companies launch collaborative chemotherapeutic control campaigns. Critical questions remain regarding the potential for achieving elimination of these infections, and analytical methods can help to quickly estimate progress towards-and the probability of achieving-elimination over specific timeframes. Here, we propose the effective reproduction number, Reff, as a proxy of elimination potential for sexually reproducing worms that are subject to poor mating success at very low abundance (positive density dependence, or Allee effects). Read More
Sci Rep 2018 Nov 9;8(1):16625. Epub 2018 Nov 9.
New England Biolabs Inc., Ipswich, Massachusetts, 01938, USA.
Filariases are diseases caused by infection with filarial nematodes and transmitted by insect vectors. The filarial roundworm Dirofilaria immitis causes heartworm disease in dogs and other carnivores. D. Read More
Math Biosci Eng 2018 08;15(4):841-862
Department of Mathematics, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0130, USA.
Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Complex mathematical models are being used to assess the likely efficacy of efforts to eradicate the disease; however, their predictions have not always been borne out in practice. In this paper, we represent the immunological aspects of the disease with a single empirical parameter in order to reduce the model complexity. Read More
Yi Chuan 2018 Oct;40(10):888-899
State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China.
Avermectins, are pesticides of fermentation products with high efficacy and low toxicity and play important roles in food and agricultural product safety, animal and human health. Ivermectins, the derivatives of avermectins, are used to treat Onchocerciasis, also known as River Blindness. Thanks to these discoveries, more than 200 million Africans are lucky to be exempted from blindness. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Oct 23;12(10):e0006897. Epub 2018 Oct 23.
Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases Division, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.
Background: Onchocerciasis control in Côte d'Ivoire started with aerial insecticide spraying in 1974 and continued with community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTi) from 1992 to the present. Onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) are co-endemic in 46 of the 81 health districts in the country. Fourteen and 12 districts are endemic for only LF or onchocerciasis, respectively. Read More
Seizure 2018 Nov 5;62:108-115. Epub 2018 Oct 5.
Neglected Tropical Diseases Unit, Ministry of Health, Juba, Sudan. Electronic address:
Purpose: To describe the clinical manifestations of persons with epilepsy (PWE) in onchocerciasis endemic villages in South Sudan.
Methods: During a survey in Maridi County in May 2018, PWE were interviewed and examined in their households by a clinical officer or medical doctor. Onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE) was defined as ≥2 seizures without any obvious cause, starting between the ages of 3-18 years in previously healthy persons who had resided for at least 3 years in the onchocerciasis endemic area. Read More
Nat Commun 2018 10 18;9(1):4324. Epub 2018 Oct 18.
Emory University and The Carter Center, One Copenhill, 453 Freedom Parkway, Atlanta, GA, 30307, USA.
Stopping interventions is a critical decision for parasite elimination programmes. Quantifying the probability that elimination has occurred due to interventions can be facilitated by combining infection status information from parasitological surveys with extinction thresholds predicted by parasite transmission models. Here we demonstrate how the integrated use of these two pieces of information derived from infection monitoring data can be used to develop an analytic framework for guiding the making of defensible decisions to stop interventions. Read More
Theriogenology 2019 Jan 27;124:32-38. Epub 2018 Sep 27.
Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, São Paulo, SP, 05508-270, Brazil.
Ivermectin (IVM) is a macrocyclic lactone used as a broad spectrum antiparasitic agent against nematodes and arthropods. It is mainly used in the control of parasitic infections of domestic animals, and recently has been used in humans to treat onchocerciasis, scabies, and pediculosis. In mammals, evidence has indicated that macrocyclic lactones interact with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated chloride channels. Read More
Parasit Vectors 2018 Oct 16;11(1):547. Epub 2018 Oct 16.
School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.
Background: Entomological surveillance for pathogens based on molecular screening of putative arthropod vectors such as blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) is becoming increasingly important. Surveillance provides a means to understand host and geographical patterns of underestimated biodiversity among North American species of Onchocerca and a pathway to identify and track expanding emergence of the zoonotic Onchocerca lupi. Herein, we have screened two blackfly species, Simulium tescorum and Simulium vittatum (s. Read More
Zootaxa 2018 Aug 1;4455(1):35-67. Epub 2018 Aug 1.
Department of Plant & Environmental Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0310 USA..
The life of Roger Ward Crosskey stands as a paragon of scholarly dedication to the profession of entomology. His early interests in natural history prepared him for a diverse entomological career of about 65 years. He began as a medical entomologist working on the onchocerciasis problem with the Colonial Service in Northern Nigeria, and officially transitioned to dipterology, first studying the Tachinidae as a taxonomist with the Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, and later the Simuliidae as a Senior Principal Scientific Officer (Merit) with The Natural History Museum in London. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Oct 8;12(10):e0006624. Epub 2018 Oct 8.
Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Background: Stable low pre-control prevalences of helminth infection are not uncommon in field settings, yet it is poorly understood how such low levels can be sustained, thereby challenging efforts to model them. Disentangling possible facilitating mechanisms is important, since these may differently affect intervention impact. Here we explore the role of assortative (i. Read More
Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Oct 8;7(1):79. Epub 2018 Oct 8.
Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
Background: A high prevalence of epilepsy has been observed in onchocerciasis endemic areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). With this study we aimed to investigate whether Onchocerca volvulus infection is a risk factor for developing epilepsy in onchocerciasis endemic regions in the DRC.
Methods: Between October and December 2015, a multi-centre case control study was performed in onchocerciasis endemic health zones (HZ) in the DRC: one study site was situated in Tshopo Province in the HZ of Wanierukula (village of Salambongo) where there had been 13 annual community distributions of treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), a second was situated in Ituri Province in the HZ of Logo (village of Draju) where ivermectin had never been distributed and in the HZ of Rethy (village of Rassia) where there had been THREE CDTI annual campaigns before the study. Read More
Trop Med Infect Dis 2018 Sep 1;3(3). Epub 2018 Sep 1.
Department of Dermatology, West Herts Hospitals NHS Trust, Vicarage Road, Watford, Hertfordshire WD18 0HB, UK.
Onchocerciasis causes debilitating pruritus and rashes as well as visual impairment and blindness. Prior to control measures, eye disease was particularly prominent in savanna areas of sub-Saharan Africa whilst skin disease was more common across rainforest regions of tropical Africa. Mass drug distribution with ivermectin is changing the global scene of onchocerciasis. Read More
Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Nov 26;18(11):1278-1286. Epub 2018 Sep 26.
UMI 233, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Montpellier, France; Université Montpellier, Montpellier, France; INSERM Unité 1175, Montpellier, France. Electronic address:
Background: Many studies have suggested that onchocerciasis might be associated with epilepsy. Therefore, we did a cohort study to assess the incidence of epilepsy relative to Onchocerca volvulus skin microfilarial density (MFD) measured during childhood and to assess the possibility of a temporal relationship.
Methods: During onchocerciasis surveys undertaken in 25 villages in Cameroon during 1991-93, we measured MFD in individuals aged 5 years or older. Read More
Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Nov 26;18(11):1172-1174. Epub 2018 Sep 26.
CUNY Institute for Implementation Science in Population Health & Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, CUNY Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, City University of New York, New York, NY 10027, USA.
PLoS One 2018 26;13(9):e0202915. Epub 2018 Sep 26.
Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biology and Molecular Medicine, IBMM Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Gosselies Campus, Gosselies, Hainaut, Belgium.
Onchocerciasis is a severely debilitating yet neglected tropical disease (NTD) that creates social stigma, generates and perpetuates poverty, and leads ultimately in some cases to irreversible unilateral or bilateral blindness if untreated. Consequently, the disease is a major impediment to socioeconomic development. Many control programs have been launched for the disease with moderate successes achieved. Read More
Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Sep 19;7(1):101. Epub 2018 Sep 19.
Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, P.O. box 2040, 3000, CA, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Background: Since the 1990s, evidence has accumulated of an increased prevalence of epilepsy in onchocerciasis-endemic areas in Africa as compared to onchocerciasis-free areas. Although the causal relationship between onchocerciasis and epilepsy has yet to be proven, there is likely an association. Here we discuss the need for disease burden estimates of onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE), provide them, detail how such estimates should be refined, and discuss the socioeconomic impact of OAE, including a cost-estimate for anti-epileptic drugs. Read More
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2018 Sep;112(9):415-416
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, UK.
Infect Genet Evol 2018 Dec 17;66:192-194. Epub 2018 Sep 17.
Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. Electronic address:
This study demonstrates the utility of a PCR-based DNA sequencing approach to make a specific diagnosis of onchocerciasis in a returned traveller. Although a clinical diagnosis was not possible, the surgical excision of a suprascapular nodule from this patient, combined with an histological examination of this nodule and PCR-based sequencing of DNA from a nematode from this lesion solved the case. The analysis of DNA sequence data confirmed the presence of Onchocerca volvulus infection, supporting an effective treatment-clinical management strategy for the patient. Read More
J Am Acad Dermatol 2018 Sep 17. Epub 2018 Sep 17.
Department of Dermatology and Pediatric Dermatology, Cutaneous Physiopathology and Integrated Center of Metabolomics Research, San Gallicano Dermatologic Institute, IRCCS, Via Elio Chianesi 53, Rome 00144, Italy.
Acquired disorders with depigmentation are commonly encountered by dermatologists and present with a wide differential diagnosis. Vitiligo, the most common disorder of acquired depigmentation, is characterized by well-defined depigmented macules and patches. Other conditions, such as chemical leukoderma, can present with similar findings, and are often easily mistaken for vitiligo. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 09 18;12(9):e0006750. Epub 2018 Sep 18.
Parasites and Vector Biology research unit (PAVBRU), Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon.
Background: Loiasis is a filarial infection endemic in the rainforest zone of west and central Africa particularly in Cameroon, Gabon, Republic of Congo, and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Repeated treatments with ivermectin have been delivered using the annual community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) approach for several years to control onchocerciasis in some Loa loa-Onchocerca volvulus co-endemic areas. The impact of CDTI on loiasis parasitological indicators is not known. Read More
Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Nov;99(5):1211-1218
Basic Health Services Kabarole and Bundibugyo Districts, Fort Portal, Uganda; Vector Control Unit, Ministry of Health, Fort Portal, Uganda; Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
Nodding syndrome (NS) is an encephalopathy characterized by the core symptom of epileptic head nodding seizures, affecting children at the age between 3 and 18 years in distinct areas of tropical Africa. A consistent correlation with onchocerciasis was found, but so far, the causation of NS has not been fully clarified. With a systematic analysis of features of a cohort of epilepsy patients examined in the Itwara onchocerciasis focus of western Uganda in 1994, we provide evidence that NS actually occurred in this area at this time, and we demonstrate a correlation between prevalence of NS and that of onchocerciasis in different villages. Read More
J Med Case Rep 2018 Sep 11;12(1):254. Epub 2018 Sep 11.
School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Background: Cutaneous adverse reactions to medications are extremely common and display characteristic clinical morphology. A fixed drug eruption is a cutaneous adverse drug reaction due to type IV or delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Ivermectin, a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic compound, has been an essential component of public health campaigns targeting the control of two devastating neglected tropical diseases: onchocerciasis (river blindness) and lymphatic filariasis. Read More
Parasite Immunol 2018 Nov 8;40(11):e12587. Epub 2018 Oct 8.
Janssen Diagnostics, Janssen R&D, Beerse, Belgium.
In our previous study, a proteome-wide screen was conducted to identify linear epitopes in this parasite's proteome, resulting in the discovery of three immunodominant motifs. Here, we investigated whether such antigenic peptides were found in proteins that were already known as vaccine candidates and excretome/secretome proteins for Onchocerca volvulus This approach led to the identification of 71 immunoreactive stretches in 46 proteins. A deep-dive into the immunoreactivity profiles of eight vaccine candidates that were chosen as most promising candidates for further development (Ov-CPI-2, Ov-ALT-1, Ov-RAL-2, Ov-ASP-1, Ov-103, Ov-RBP-1, Ov-CHI-1, and Ov-B20), resulted in the identification of a poly-glutamine stretch in Ov-RAL-2 that has properties for use as a serodiagnostic marker for O. Read More
Clin Infect Dis 2018 Aug 29. Epub 2018 Aug 29.
Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Community health volunteers (CHVs) are being used within a growing number of healthcare interventions, and they have become a cornerstone for the delivery of mass drug administration within many neglected tropical disease control programs. However, a greater understanding of the methods used to value the unpaid time CHVs contribute to healthcare programs is needed. We outline the two main approaches used to value CHVs' unpaid time (the opportunity cost and the replacement cost approaches). Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 08 27;12(8):e0006702. Epub 2018 Aug 27.
Department of Global Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL United States of America.
Background: Onchocerciasis a neglected tropical disease that historically has been a major cause of morbidity and an obstacle to economic development in the developing world. It is caused by infection with Onchocerca volvulus, which is transmitted by black flies of the genus Simulium. The discovery of the potent effect of Mectizan (ivermectin) on O. Read More
ACS Infect Dis 2018 Oct 21;4(10):1423-1431. Epub 2018 Sep 21.
Department of Chemistry , The Scripps Research Institute , 10550 North Torrey Pines Road , La Jolla , California 92037 , United States.
The parasitic disease onchocerciasis is the second leading cause of preventable blindness, afflicting more than 18 million people worldwide. Despite an available treatment, ivermectin, and control efforts by the World Health Organization, onchocerciasis remains a burden in many regions. With an estimated 120 million people living in areas at risk of infection, efforts are now shifting from prevention to surveillance and elimination. Read More
Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Oct;31(5):393-398
Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Purpose Of Review: With increasing international travel and mass global population migration, clinicians in nonendemic countries must be familiar with imported neglected tropical diseases including onchocerciasis, which is commonly known as 'river blindness'.
Recent Findings: Imported onchocerciasis manifests differently in travelers compared with migrants from endemic areas and is likely underdiagnosed in both groups. Recent clinical studies confirm that eosinophilia is not a sensitive marker for Onchocerca volvulus, with one-third of patients having a normal eosinophil count. Read More
Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Oct;99(4):1049-1052
Parasitology Laboratory, National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland.
Yemen is a country that has been treating severe cases of oncho-dermatitis since 1992 and is now moving to a program aimed at the elimination of the transmission of . It is important to ensure that the currently acceptable tools used in epidemiological assessment of onchocerciasis in Africa and Latin America also apply to Yemen. Five hundred and ten blood samples from three known -endemic areas, locations that have never been under a mass treatment program, were tested for the presence of antibodies against a panel of -specific antigens using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ov16) and luciferase immunoprecipitation system (Ov-FAR-1 and Ov-MSA-1) assays. Read More
Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Aug 1;7(1):68. Epub 2018 Aug 1.
Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
Background: A high prevalence of epilepsy has been observed in many onchocerciasis endemic regions. This study is to estimate the prevalence of active epilepsy and exposure to Onchocerca volvulus infection in a rural population in Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo.
Methods: In August 2016, a community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in an onchocerciasis endemic area in the rural health zone of Logo, Ituri Province. Read More
Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Oct;99(4):1041-1048
Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
Onchocerciasis is a neglected parasitic disease targeted for elimination. Current World Health Organization guidelines for elimination include monitoring antibody responses to the recombinant antigen OV-16 in children to demonstrate the absence of transmission. We report the performance characteristics of a modified OV-16 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and describe anti-OV-16 responses in serum samples from laboratory-inoculated nonhuman primates (NHPs) in relation to microfilariae (mf) in skin snip biopsies. Read More
Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Oct;99(4):937-939
Muhimbili University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Scabies was recently added to the World Health Organization list of neglected tropical diseases. The ability to treat scabies with oral ivermectin makes a mass drug administration (MDA) campaign a feasible option for scabies control. Ivermectin MDA in communities endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF) or onchocerciasis may already be having an impact on scabies. Read More
J Parasitol Res 2018 3;2018:5902367. Epub 2018 Jul 3.
Global Health Infectious Disease Research, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.
Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease that has plagued mankind for decades with pathologies that involve the eyes and the skin. The WHO and the global health community have earmarked the disease for global elimination by 2045. However, as control programmes shift focus from reduction of the burden of the disease to elimination, new tools and strategies may be needed to meet targets. Read More
Lancet Glob Health 2018 Sep 24;6(9):e980-e988. Epub 2018 Jul 24.
World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Background: A service coverage index has recently been proposed to monitor progress towards universal health coverage (UHC), and baseline results for 2015 are available. However, evidence on equity in that progress is scarce. The service coverage index did not consider services for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), a group of preventable diseases defined by WHO member states on the basis of the disproportionate burden they place on their poorest, remotest, and otherwise most marginalised communities. Read More
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jul;112(7):342-348
Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus, Oxford, UK.
Background: When tests are used in series to determine individual risk factors and infection status in a mass drug administration (MDA), the diagnostics, test order and subsequent treatment decisions (the testing algorithm) affect population-level treatment coverage and cost, but there is no existing framework for evaluating which algorithm optimizes any given outcome.
Methods: We present a mathematical tool (with spreadsheet implementation) to analyse the effect of test ordering, illustrated using treatment for onchocerciasis in an area where high-burden Loa loa co-infections present a known risk factor.
Results: The prevalence of the infection and risk factor have a non-linear impact on the optimal ordering of tests. Read More
Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Sep 12;99(3):749-752. Epub 2018 Jul 12.
Center for Global Health Infectious Disease Research, The University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.
Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease targeted for elimination. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed guidelines for the verification of onchocerciasis elimination that include entomological and epidemiological criteria. The latter require demonstrating with statistical confidence that the infection prevalence in children is less than 0. Read More
Parasitol Res 2018 Sep 15;117(9):2697-2713. Epub 2018 Jul 15.
University of Münster, Institute for Zoophysiology, Schlossplatz 8, 48143, Münster, Germany.
Onchocerciasis is a filarial vector borne disease which affects several million people mostly in Africa. The therapeutic approach of its control was based on a succession of drugs which always showed limits. The last one: ivermectin is not the least. Read More
Ann Parasitol 2018;64(2):89-91
W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw, Poland
Onchocerca alcis Bain et Rehbinder, 1986 belongs to the subfamily Onchocercinae. Mature nematodes of O. alcis are located on the surface of hindlimb tendons. Read More
Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Jul 3;7(1):63. Epub 2018 Jul 3.
, BP 3841, Lomé 01, Togo.
Background: Onchocerciasis is found predominantly in Africa where large scale vector control started in 1974. Registration and donation of ivermectin by Merck & Co in 1987 enabled mass treatment with ivermectin in all endemic countries in Africa and the Americas. Although elimination of onchocerciasis with ivermectin was considered feasible only in the Americas, recently it has been shown possible in Africa too, necessitating fundamental changes in technical and operational approaches and procedures. Read More