4,726 results match your criteria Onchocerciasis


The foundations for a global elimination programme for onchocerciasis.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2018 Sep;112(9):415-416

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, UK.

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September 2018

PCR-coupled sequencing achieves specific diagnosis of onchocerciasis in a challenging clinical case, to underpin effective treatment and clinical management.

Infect Genet Evol 2018 Sep 17. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

This study demonstrates the utility of a PCR-based DNA sequencing approach to make a specific diagnosis of onchocerciasis in a returned traveller. Although a clinical diagnosis was not possible, the surgical excision of a suprascapular nodule from this patient, combined with an histological examination of this nodule and PCR-based sequencing of DNA from a nematode from this lesion solved the case. The analysis of DNA sequence data confirmed the presence of Onchocerca volvulus infection, supporting an effective treatment-clinical management strategy for the patient. Read More

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September 2018

Acquired disorders with depigmentation: A systematic approach to vitiliginoid conditions.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2018 Sep 17. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Department of Dermatology and Pediatric Dermatology, Cutaneous Physiopathology and Integrated Center of Metabolomics Research, San Gallicano Dermatologic Institute, IRCCS, Via Elio Chianesi 53, Rome 00144, Italy.

Acquired disorders with depigmentation are commonly encountered by dermatologists and present with a wide differential diagnosis. Vitiligo, the most common disorder of acquired depigmentation, is characterized by well-defined depigmented macules and patches. Other conditions, such as chemical leukoderma, can present with similar findings, and are often easily mistaken for vitiligo. Read More

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September 2018

Impact of repeated annual community directed treatment with ivermectin on loiasis parasitological indicators in Cameroon: Implications for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis elimination in areas co-endemic with Loa loa in Africa.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Sep 18;12(9):e0006750. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Parasites and Vector Biology research unit (PAVBRU), Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon.

Background: Loiasis is a filarial infection endemic in the rainforest zone of west and central Africa particularly in Cameroon, Gabon, Republic of Congo, and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Repeated treatments with ivermectin have been delivered using the annual community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) approach for several years to control onchocerciasis in some Loa loa-Onchocerca volvulus co-endemic areas. The impact of CDTI on loiasis parasitological indicators is not known. Read More

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September 2018

Onchocerciasis-Associated Epilepsy with Head Nodding Seizures-Nodding Syndrome: A Case Series of 15 Patients from Western Uganda, 1994.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Sep 17. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Basic Health Services Kabarole and Bundibugyo Districts, Fort Portal, Uganda; Vector Control Unit, Ministry of Health, Fort Portal, Uganda; Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Nodding syndrome (NS) is an encephalopathy characterized by the core symptom of epileptic head nodding seizures, affecting children at the age between 3 and 18 years in distinct areas of tropical Africa. A consistent correlation with onchocerciasis was found, but so far, the causation of NS has not been fully clarified. With a systematic analysis of features of a cohort of epilepsy patients examined in the Itwara onchocerciasis focus of western Uganda in 1994, we provide evidence that NS actually occurred in this area at this time, and we demonstrate a correlation between prevalence of NS and that of onchocerciasis in different villages. Read More

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September 2018

Ivermectin-induced fixed drug eruption in an elderly Cameroonian: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2018 Sep 11;12(1):254. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: Cutaneous adverse reactions to medications are extremely common and display characteristic clinical morphology. A fixed drug eruption is a cutaneous adverse drug reaction due to type IV or delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Ivermectin, a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic compound, has been an essential component of public health campaigns targeting the control of two devastating neglected tropical diseases: onchocerciasis (river blindness) and lymphatic filariasis. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Linear epitopes in Onchocerca volvulus vaccine candidate proteins and excretory-secretory proteins.

Parasite Immunol 2018 Sep 6:e12587. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Janssen Diagnostics Janssen R&D, Turnhoutseweg 30, 2340, Beerse, Belgium.

In our previous study, a proteome-wide screen was conducted to identify linear epitopes in this parasite's proteome, resulting in the discovery of three immunodominant motifs. Here we investigated whether such antigenic peptides were found in proteins that were already known as vaccine candidates and excretome/secretome proteins for O. volvulus. Read More

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September 2018

Valuing the unpaid contribution of community health volunteers to mass drug administration programs.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Aug 29. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Community health volunteers (CHVs) are being used within a growing number of healthcare interventions, and they have become a cornerstone for the delivery of mass drug administration within many neglected tropical disease control programs. However, a greater understanding of the methods used to value the unpaid time CHVs contribute to healthcare programs is needed. We outline the two main approaches used to value CHVs' unpaid time (the opportunity cost and the replacement cost approaches). Read More

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August 2018
3 Reads

Community-directed vector control to supplement mass drug distribution for onchocerciasis elimination in the Madi mid-North focus of Northern Uganda.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Aug 27;12(8):e0006702. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Department of Global Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL United States of America.

Background: Onchocerciasis a neglected tropical disease that historically has been a major cause of morbidity and an obstacle to economic development in the developing world. It is caused by infection with Onchocerca volvulus, which is transmitted by black flies of the genus Simulium. The discovery of the potent effect of Mectizan (ivermectin) on O. Read More

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August 2018
3 Reads

Noninvasive Urine Biomarker Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Monitoring Active Onchocerciasis.

ACS Infect Dis 2018 Sep 21. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Chemistry , The Scripps Research Institute , 10550 North Torrey Pines Road , La Jolla , California 92037 , United States.

The parasitic disease onchocerciasis is the second leading cause of preventable blindness, afflicting more than 18 million people worldwide. Despite an available treatment, ivermectin, and control efforts by the World Health Organization, onchocerciasis remains a burden in many regions. With an estimated 120 million people living in areas at risk of infection, efforts are now shifting from prevention to surveillance and elimination. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Imported onchocerciasis in migrants and travelers.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Oct;31(5):393-398

Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Purpose Of Review: With increasing international travel and mass global population migration, clinicians in nonendemic countries must be familiar with imported neglected tropical diseases including onchocerciasis, which is commonly known as 'river blindness'.

Recent Findings: Imported onchocerciasis manifests differently in travelers compared with migrants from endemic areas and is likely underdiagnosed in both groups. Recent clinical studies confirm that eosinophilia is not a sensitive marker for Onchocerca volvulus, with one-third of patients having a normal eosinophil count. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

A Serological Survey of Human Onchocerciasis in Yemen.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Aug 6. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Parasitology Laboratory, National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland.

Yemen is a country that has been treating severe cases of oncho-dermatitis since 1992 and is now moving to a program aimed at the elimination of the transmission of . It is important to ensure that the currently acceptable tools used in epidemiological assessment of onchocerciasis in Africa and Latin America also apply to Yemen. Five hundred and ten blood samples from three known -endemic areas, locations that have never been under a mass treatment program, were tested for the presence of antibodies against a panel of -specific antigens using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ov16) and luciferase immunoprecipitation system (OvFAR-1 and Ov-MSA1) assays. Read More

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August 2018
2.70 Impact Factor

High prevalence of epilepsy in onchocerciasis endemic health areas in Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Aug 1;7(1):68. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: A high prevalence of epilepsy has been observed in many onchocerciasis endemic regions. This study is to estimate the prevalence of active epilepsy and exposure to Onchocerca volvulus infection in a rural population in Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Methods: In August 2016, a community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in an onchocerciasis endemic area in the rural health zone of Logo, Ituri Province. Read More

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Evaluation of an OV-16 IgG4 Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in Humans and Its Application to Determine the Dynamics of Antibody Responses in a Non-Human Primate Model of Infection.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jul 30. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Onchocerciasis is a neglected parasitic disease targeted for elimination. Current World Health Organization guidelines for elimination include monitoring antibody responses to the recombinant antigen OV-16 in children to demonstrate the absence of transmission. We report the performance characteristics of a modified OV-16 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and describe anti-OV-16 responses in serum samples from laboratory-inoculated nonhuman primates (NHPs) in relation to microfilariae (mf) in skin snip biopsies. Read More

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July 2018
9 Reads

Impact of Ivermectin Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis on Scabies in Eight Villages in Kongwa District, Tanzania.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jul 30. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Muhimbili University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Scabies was recently added to the World Health Organization list of neglected tropical diseases. The ability to treat scabies with oral ivermectin makes a mass drug administration (MDA) campaign a feasible option for scabies control. Ivermectin MDA in communities endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF) or onchocerciasis may already be having an impact on scabies. Read More

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July 2018
8 Reads

The Search for an Efficient Black Fly Trap for Xenomonitoring of Onchocerciasis.

J Parasitol Res 2018 3;2018:5902367. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Global Health Infectious Disease Research, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease that has plagued mankind for decades with pathologies that involve the eyes and the skin. The WHO and the global health community have earmarked the disease for global elimination by 2045. However, as control programmes shift focus from reduction of the burden of the disease to elimination, new tools and strategies may be needed to meet targets. Read More

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Monitoring equity in universal health coverage with essential services for neglected tropical diseases: an analysis of data reported for five diseases in 123 countries over 9 years.

Lancet Glob Health 2018 Sep 24;6(9):e980-e988. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: A service coverage index has recently been proposed to monitor progress towards universal health coverage (UHC), and baseline results for 2015 are available. However, evidence on equity in that progress is scarce. The service coverage index did not consider services for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), a group of preventable diseases defined by WHO member states on the basis of the disproportionate burden they place on their poorest, remotest, and otherwise most marginalised communities. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Diagnosing risk factors alongside mass drug administration using serial diagnostic tests-which test first?

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jul;112(7):342-348

Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus, Oxford, UK.

Background: When tests are used in series to determine individual risk factors and infection status in a mass drug administration (MDA), the diagnostics, test order and subsequent treatment decisions (the testing algorithm) affect population-level treatment coverage and cost, but there is no existing framework for evaluating which algorithm optimizes any given outcome.

Methods: We present a mathematical tool (with spreadsheet implementation) to analyse the effect of test ordering, illustrated using treatment for onchocerciasis in an area where high-burden Loa loa co-infections present a known risk factor.

Results: The prevalence of the infection and risk factor have a non-linear impact on the optimal ordering of tests. Read More

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July 2018
17 Reads

Operational Performance of the "OEPA" Ov16 ELISA Serological Assay in Mapping, Guiding Decisions to Stop Mass Drug Administration, and Posttreatment Surveillance Surveys.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Sep 12;99(3):749-752. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Center for Global Health Infectious Disease Research, The University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.

Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease targeted for elimination. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed guidelines for the verification of onchocerciasis elimination that include entomological and epidemiological criteria. The latter require demonstrating with statistical confidence that the infection prevalence in children is less than 0. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Review on medicinal plants and natural compounds as anti-Onchocerca agents.

Parasitol Res 2018 Sep 15;117(9):2697-2713. Epub 2018 Jul 15.

University of Münster, Institute for Zoophysiology, Schlossplatz 8, 48143, Münster, Germany.

Onchocerciasis is a filarial vector borne disease which affects several million people mostly in Africa. The therapeutic approach of its control was based on a succession of drugs which always showed limits. The last one: ivermectin is not the least. Read More

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September 2018
7 Reads

Is onchocerciasis elimination in Africa feasible by 2025: a perspective based on lessons learnt from the African control programmes.

Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Jul 3;7(1):63. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

, BP 3841, Lomé 01, Togo.

Background: Onchocerciasis is found predominantly in Africa where large scale vector control started in 1974. Registration and donation of ivermectin by Merck & Co in 1987 enabled mass treatment with ivermectin in all endemic countries in Africa and the Americas. Although elimination of onchocerciasis with ivermectin was considered feasible only in the Americas, recently it has been shown possible in Africa too, necessitating fundamental changes in technical and operational approaches and procedures. Read More

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July 2018
9 Reads

Equity and efficiency in the scaled-up implementation of integrated neglected tropical disease control: the health economics protocol of the COUNTDOWN multicountry observational study in Ghana, Cameroon and Liberia.

BMJ Open 2018 Jun 30;8(6):e020113. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.

Introduction: Worldwide, millions of individuals are affected by neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). They are frequently the poorest and most marginalised members of society. Their living conditions, among other things, make them susceptible to such diseases. Read More

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Innovative Surveillance Strategies to Support the Elimination of Filariasis in Africa.

Trends Parasitol 2018 Aug 26;34(8):694-711. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.

Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis are two neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) of public health significance targeted for global elimination. The World Health Organization (WHO) African Region is a priority region, with the highest collective burden of LF and onchocerciasis globally. Coendemic loiasis further complicates elimination due to the risk of adverse events associated with ivermectin treatment. Read More

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Characterization of Divalent Metal Transporter 1 (DMT1) in Brugia malayi suggests an intestinal-associated pathway for iron absorption.

Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2018 08 20;8(2):341-349. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, 21111 Lakeshore Road, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, H9X 3V9, Canada. Electronic address:

Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are neglected parasitic diseases which pose a threat to public health in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Strategies for control and elimination of these diseases by mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns are designed to reduce symptoms of onchocerciasis and transmission of both parasites to eventually eliminate the burden on public health. Drugs used for MDA are predominantly microfilaricidal, and prolonged rounds of treatment are required for eradication. Read More

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August 2018
7 Reads
2.51 Impact Factor

Use of the Litomosoides sigmodontis Infection Model of Filariasis to Study Type 2 Immunity.

Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1799:11-26

Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Helminth parasites infect over 2 billion people worldwide resulting in huge global health and economic burden. Helminths typically stimulate Type 2 immune responses and excel at manipulating or suppressing host-immune responses resulting in chronic infections that can last for years to decades. Alongside the importance for the development of helminth treatments and vaccines, studying helminth immunity has unraveled many fundamental aspects of Type 2 immunity and immune regulation with implications for the treatment of autoimmunity and Type 2-mediated diseases, such as allergies. Read More

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January 2018

Evaluation of Treatment Coverage and Enhanced Mass Drug Administration for Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis in Five Local Government Areas Treating Twice Per Year in Edo State, Nigeria.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Aug 21;99(2):396-403. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

The Carter Center, Atlanta, Georgia.

The western region of Edo state in southern Nigeria is highly endemic for onchocerciasis. Despite years of mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin (IVM), reports suggest persistently high prevalence of onchocerciasis, presumably because of poor coverage. In 2016, twice-per-year treatment with IVM (combined with albendazole for lymphatic filariasis in the first round where needed) began in five local government areas (LGAs) of Edo state. Read More

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August 2018
5 Reads

Evaluation of onchocerciasis control in the Upper Denkyira East municipal in the forest area of Ghana: Responses of participants and distributors to the CDTI programme.

Acta Trop 2018 Sep 19;185:357-362. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medical, UPO, PMB, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana; Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard Nocht Str.74, 20359, Hamburg, Germany.

The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC), which focused on annual mass treatment with ivermectin, was launched in 1995 and was replaced by the Expanded Special Project for Neglected Tropical Diseases (ESPEN) by the end of 2015. In Ghana, the Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) was introduced in 1999. After a decade, biannual reinforcement was introduced during which the Ghana Health Service (GHS) recorded coverage rates through routine data collection. Read More

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September 2018
5 Reads

Absence of IL-17A in Litomosoides sigmodontis-infected mice influences worm development and drives elevated filarial-specific IFN-γ.

Parasitol Res 2018 Jun 22. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology (IMMIP), University Hospital of Bonn, Sigmund Freud Str. 25, 53127, Bonn, Germany.

Lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and loiasis are widespread neglected tropical diseases causing serious public health problems and impacting the socio-economic climate in endemic communities. More than 100 million people currently suffer from filarial infections but disease-related symptoms and infection-induced immune mechanisms are still ambiguous. Although most infected individuals have dominant Th2 and regulatory immune responses leading to a homeostatic regulated state, filarial-induced overt pathology like lymphedema, dermal pathologies or blindness can occur. Read More

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June 2018
4 Reads

High prevalence of epilepsy in two rural onchocerciasis endemic villages in the Mahenge area, Tanzania, after 20 years of community directed treatment with ivermectin.

Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Jun 20;7(1):64. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder with a multitude of underlying causes, which may include infection with Onchocerca volvulus, the parasitic worm that causes human onchocerciasis. A survey carried out in 1989 revealed a high prevalence of epilepsy (1.02% overall, ranging from 0. Read More

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June 2018
6 Reads

Audit of the community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) for onchocerciasis and factors associated with adherence in three regions of Cameroon.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Jun 19;11(1):356. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique, Faculté de santé publique, Université catholique de Louvain, Clos Chapelle-aux-champs 30 bte B1.30.13, BE-1200, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: After more than 15 years of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in the Centre 1, Littoral 2 and West CDTI projects in Cameroon, the epidemiological evaluation conducted in 2011 revealed that onchocerciasis endemicity was still high in some communities. To investigate the potential reasons explaining this high endemicity, a cluster coverage survey was conducted in April-May 2015 in three health districts (HD), to assess the implementation of the CDTI, the 2014 therapeutic coverage and the five-year adherence to treatment. A two-stage cluster design was considered during analyses, with data weighted proportionally to age and gender distribution in the population. Read More

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June 2018
4 Reads

Increasing evidence of low lymphatic filariasis prevalence in high risk Loa loa areas in Central and West Africa: a literature review.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Jun 15;11(1):349. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.

In West and Central Africa, there is a need to establish the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti in areas that are co-endemic for Loa loa, in order to implement the appropriate strategies to scale-up interventions for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF). Due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs) to ivermectin in individuals with high L. loa microfilaraemia, the current strategy recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) is twice yearly mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole, supplemented by vector control targeting the Anopheles vectors. Read More

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June 2018
5 Reads

Filaricidal properties of Lantana camara and Tamarindus indica extracts, and Lantadene A from L. camara against Onchocerca ochengi and Loa loa.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 06 13;12(6):e0006565. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon.

Background: Ivermectin is the only drug currently recommended for the treatment of onchocerciasis, the second leading infectious cause of blindness in the world. This drug kills only the first stage larvae-microfilariae (mf) of Onchocerca volvulus and is to be used cautiously in areas where Loa loa is prevalent because of severe adverse events observed with coinfected patients.

Methodology/principal Findings: This study investigated the anti-filarial activities of two Cameroonian medicinal plants, Lantana camara and Tamarindus indica locally used to treat onchocerciasis. Read More

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June 2018
9 Reads

Progress on elimination of lymphatic filariasis in Sierra Leone.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Jun 4;11(1):334. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Helen Keller International, Regional Office for Africa, Dakar, Senegal.

Background: A baseline survey in 2007-2008 found lymphatic filariasis (LF) to be endemic in Sierra Leone in all 14 districts and co-endemic with onchocerciasis in 12 districts. Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin started in 2006 for onchocerciasis and was modified to add albendazole in 2008 to include LF treatment. In 2011, after three effective MDAs, a significant reduction in microfilaraemia (mf) prevalence and density was reported at the midterm assessment. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

The burden of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Brazil, 1990-2016: A subnational analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 06 4;12(6):e0006559. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Institute of Studies in Public Health, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background: Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are important causes of morbidity, disability, and mortality among poor and vulnerable populations in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. We present the burden of NTDs in Brazil from 1990 to 2016 based on findings from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016).

Methodology: We extracted data from GBD 2016 to assess years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for NTDs by sex, age group, causes, and Brazilian states, from 1990 to 2016. Read More

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June 2018
9 Reads

How Can Onchocerciasis Elimination in Africa Be Accelerated? Modeling the Impact of Increased Ivermectin Treatment Frequency and Complementary Vector Control.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Jun;66(suppl_4):S267-S274

Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Great strides have been made toward onchocerciasis elimination by mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin. Focusing on MDA-eligible areas, we investigated where the elimination goal can be achieved by 2025 by continuation of current practice (annual MDA with ivermectin) and where intensification or additional vector control is required. We did not consider areas hypoendemic for onchocerciasis with loiasis coendemicity where MDA is contraindicated. Read More

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June 2018
6 Reads

Efficacy and tolerability of moxidectin alone and in co-administration with albendazole and tribendimidine versus albendazole plus oxantel pamoate against Trichuris trichiura infections: a randomised, non-inferiority, single-blind trial.

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Aug 29;18(8):864-873. Epub 2018 May 29.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: The recommended anthelmintics show low efficacy in a single-dose regimen against Trichuris trichiura. Moxidectin, a new treatment for river blindness, might complement the drug armamentarium for the treatment and control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis. However, its efficacy against T trichiura has not yet been studied. Read More

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August 2018
4 Reads
22.43 Impact Factor

Modelling the impact of larviciding on the population dynamics and biting rates of Simulium damnosum (s.l.): implications for vector control as a complementary strategy for onchocerciasis elimination in Africa.

Parasit Vectors 2018 May 29;11(1):316. Epub 2018 May 29.

MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine (St Mary's campus), Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, UK.

Background: In 2012, the World Health Organization set goals for the elimination of onchocerciasis transmission by 2020 in selected African countries. Epidemiological data and mathematical modelling have indicated that elimination may not be achieved with annual ivermectin distribution in all endemic foci. Complementary and alternative treatment strategies (ATS), including vector control, will be necessary. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Onchocerciasis prevalence, human migration and risks for onchocerciasis elimination in the Upper Mouhoun, Nakambé and Nazinon river basins in Burkina Faso.

Acta Trop 2018 Sep 18;185:176-182. Epub 2018 May 18.

BP 2938, Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso.

Historically, the whole of Burkina Faso was considered to be endemic for onchocerciasis (except a small area in the far north of the country) with prevalence rates 60-80%, but all endemic areas were included in the World Health Organisation Onchocerciasis Control Programme, which operated a system of vector control by larviciding beginning in 1974. In Burkina Faso larviciding had been phased out by 1989 when it was considered that onchocerciasis had been reduced to levels below the transmission breakpoint (and any residual infections would disappear without further intervention). There was never any mass drug administration against onchocerciasis in Burkina Faso, except in the Bougouriba and Comoé river basins (from 1996 and 2011 to present respectively) because in each of these two areas there was a resurgence of infection, and in parts of the Nakambé River basin and Sissili River basin from 1992 to 1998. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Parasitic Infections in Individuals Travelling to America and Precautionary Measures.

Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2018 Mar;42(1):81-89

Ege Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Parazitoloji Anabilim Dalı, İzmir, Türkiye.

Over the past decade, the number of international travels has increased. Hence, the risk of transmission of parasitic diseases has also increased. One of the risk infections is malaria; Plasmodium vivax and P. Read More

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Parasitic Diseases that can Infect Travelers to Africa.

Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2018 Jun;42(2):154-160

Ege Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Parazitoloji Anabilim Dalı, İzmir, Türkiye.

Travel is important in the spread of diseases, and the number of travelers is increasing daily. Therefore, the importance of the diseases that occur during or after travel is increasing. In underdeveloped countries in particular, parasitic diseases are epidemic or endemic, and these diseases lead to high numbers of deaths. Read More

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, and infections in rural populations in central and southern Togo.

Parasite Epidemiol Control 2018 May 13;3(2):77-87. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Institute for Tropical Medicine, University Clinics of Tübingen, Germany.

Background: , and are widespread helminth parasites in the tropics. Their distribution remains difficult to determine as it may change during national disease control programs and with regional mass drug administration (MDA). Epidemiological surveys are of importance to evaluate the geographical distribution of these helminth parasites and the diseases they may cause, however, up to date epidemiological evaluations on and in Togo are rare, and surveys on are important especially under the aspect of MDA of ivermectin which is performed since decades. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Rapid integrated clinical survey to determine prevalence and co-distribution patterns of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis in a co-endemic area: The Angolan experience.

Parasite Epidemiol Control 2017 Aug 7;2(3):71-84. Epub 2017 May 7.

Centre for Neglected Tropical Diseases, and Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.

The Republic of Angola is a priority country for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination, however, the co-distribution of the filarial parasite (loiasis) is a significant impediment, due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs) associated with ivermectin used in mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns. Angola has a high risk loiasis zone identified in Bengo Province where alternative interventions may need to be implemented; however, the presence and geographical overlap of the three filarial infections/diseases are not well defined. Therefore, this study conducted a rapid integrated filarial mapping survey based on readily identifiable clinical conditions of each disease in this risk zone to help determine prevalence and co-distribution patterns in a timely manner with limited resources. Read More

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August 2017
2 Reads

In Southern Nigeria Blood Microfilaria Density is Very Low Even in Areas with High Prevalence of Loiasis: Results of a Survey Using the New LoaScope Technology.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jul 10;99(1):116-123. Epub 2018 May 10.

The Carter Center, Atlanta, Georgia.

Ivermectin treatment can cause central nervous system adverse events (CNS-AEs) in persons with very high-density microfilaremia (≥ 30,000 mf/mL blood). Hypoendemic onchocerciasis areas where is endemic have been excluded from ivermectin mass drug administration programs (MDA) because of the concern for CNS AEs. The rapid assessment procedure for (RAPLOA) is a questionnaire survey to assess history of eye worm. Read More

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July 2018
7 Reads

Human Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases: Heading Towards 2050.

Authors:
Peter J Hotez

Adv Parasitol 2018 5;100:29-38. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States; Department of Pediatrics, Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States; Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, TX, United States. Electronic address:

By 2050 our civilized planet may be comprised predominantly of networked megacities embedded in warm subtropical and tropical climates, and under stress from climate change and catastrophic weather events. Urban slum areas in these cities, including those found in wealthier middle- and high-income nations (blue marble health), will be especially vulnerable to disease. Moreover, regional conflicts fought over shifting and limited resources, including water, will collapse health systems infrastructures to further promote disease emergence and reemergence. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

Case Report: Probable Case of Spontaneous Encephalopathy Due to Loiasis and Dramatic Reduction of Microfilariaemia with Prolonged Repeated Courses of Albendazole.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jul 3;99(1):112-115. Epub 2018 May 3.

Centre for Research on Filariasis and other Tropical Diseases (CRFilMT), Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Loiasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematode and transmitted by the tabanid vectors from the genus . infection is associated with clinical manifestations such as pruritus, migratory transient edema, passage of adult worm in the bulbar conjunctiva, retinal damage, glomerular damage, albuminuria, pleural effusion, hydrocele, and endomyocardial fibrosis. Data reporting the occurrence of spontaneous encephalopathy associated with loiasis are very scanty. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Interruption of onchocerciasis transmission in Bioko Island: Accelerating the movement from control to elimination in Equatorial Guinea.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 05 3;12(5):e0006471. Epub 2018 May 3.

National Centre for Tropical Medicine, Health Institute Carlos III (ISCIII in Spanish), Madrid, Spain.

Background: Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness, is a parasitic disease. More than 99 percent of all cases occur in Africa. Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea) is the only island endemic for onchocerciasis in the world. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Onchocerca - infected cattle produce strong antibody responses to excretory-secretory proteins released from adult male Onchocerca ochengi worms.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 2;18(1):200. Epub 2018 May 2.

Bernhard Nocht Institute of Tropical Medicine, Disease Epidemiology Department, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: The front line molecules from filarial worms and other nematodes or helminthes are their Excretory-Secretory (ES) products. Their interaction with the host cells, proteins and immune system accounts for the skin and eye pathology or hyposensitivity observed in human onchocerciasis. ES products and adult worms' crude extracts from Onchocerca ochengi, a filarial nematode that infects the African zebu cattle, were utilized in the present study as a model for studying Onchocerca volvulus that causes river blindness in man. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Elimination of onchocerciasis in Ecuador: findings of post-treatment surveillance.

Parasit Vectors 2018 04 24;11(1):265. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Desarrollo Comunitario Vozandes, Hospital Vozandes, Quito, Ecuador.

Background: The Esmeraldas focus of onchocerciasis in Ecuador expanded geographically during the 1980s and was associated with severe ocular and skin disease. Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin started in 1991, initially once but later twice a year, in the principle endemic focus followed by all satellite foci. Treatment was stopped in 2009 when entomological assessments determined that transmission of Onchocerca volvulus had been interrupted. Read More

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Elimination of onchocerciasis from Colombia: first proof of concept of river blindness elimination in the world.

Parasit Vectors 2018 04 11;11(1):237. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Departamento de Microbiologia, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Campus San Fernando, Calle 4B No. 36-00, CP 760043, Cali, Colombia.

Background: Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic infection originally endemic in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries of Latin America (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela). In Colombia, this disease was discovered in 1965 in the Pacific Coast of the country. The National Onchocerciasis Elimination Program was established in 1993 with the aim of eliminating disease morbidity and infection transmission. Read More

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April 2018
3 Reads