4,939 results match your criteria Onchocerciasis


Designing antifilarial drug trials using clinical trial simulators.

Nat Commun 2020 Jun 1;11(1):2685. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

London Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease Research, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, W2 1PG, UK.

Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) targeted for elimination by mass (antifilarial) drug administration. These drugs are predominantly active against the microfilarial progeny of adult worms. New drugs or combinations are needed to improve patient therapy and to enhance the effectiveness of interventions in persistent hotspots of transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16442-yDOI Listing

Ivermectin: repurposing a multipurpose drug for Venezuela's humanitarian crisis.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020 May 29:106037. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Pathology, Molecular and Cell-Based Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

For decades, Ivermectin (IVM) has been recognized as a robust antiparasitic drug with excellent tolerance and safety profiles. Historically it has been used as the drug of choice for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis global elimination programs. IVM is also a standard treatment against intestinal helminths and ectoparasites given its action as an oral insecticide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7258829PMC

Risk factors associated with failing pre-transmission assessment surveys (pre-TAS) in lymphatic filariasis elimination programs: Results of a multi-country analysis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 Jun 1;14(6):e0008301. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Global Health Division, RTI International, Washington, DC, United States of America.

Achieving elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem requires a minimum of five effective rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) and demonstrating low prevalence in subsequent assessments. The first assessments recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) are sentinel and spot-check sites-referred to as pre-transmission assessment surveys (pre-TAS)-in each implementation unit after MDA. If pre-TAS shows that prevalence in each site has been lowered to less than 1% microfilaremia or less than 2% antigenemia, the implementation unit conducts a TAS to determine whether MDA can be stopped. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008301DOI Listing

[I promotori di salute come attori-protagonisti delle cure primarie nel controllo delle malattie comunicabili e non comunicabili e nell' empowerment delle comunità. Esperienza e risultati di lungo periodo in aree marginali in Ecuador dal 1980 al 2018.]

Assist Inferm Ric 2020 Jan-Mar;39(1):47-56

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Introduction: Against the increasing recognition of the critical importance of a direct participation of community members to assure effective health care in peripheral areas of Middle and Low Income Countries (MLIC), representative field experiences of their essential role are only occasionally available.

Aims And Methods: We report a narrative, factual documentation of a spectrum of projects covering the basic and specific health needs of the disperse communities in Ecuador, a model MLIC, and discuss the broader implications of the role and performance of HPs over a long period, 1980-2018, in the project activation, implementation and monitoring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1702/3371.33476DOI Listing

Assessing Onchocerciasis Subcriticality from Pre-Intervention Cross-Sectional Surveys.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Ophthalmology, UCSF, San Francisco, California.

Elimination of an infectious disease requires subcritical transmission, or a reproductive number less than one, and can be assessed with cross-sectional surveys conducted by neglected tropical disease programs. Here, we assess the distribution of onchocerciasis prevalence taken from surveys across sub-Saharan Africa before the initiation of ivermectin in mass drug administrations. Pre-intervention nodular palpation cross-sectional surveys were available from 15 countries in the Expanded Special Project for Elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases (ESPEN) database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0758DOI Listing

Socioeconomic impacts of elimination of onchocerciasis in Abu-Hamed focus, northern Sudan: lessons after elimination.

BMC Res Notes 2020 May 26;13(1):256. Epub 2020 May 26.

Public and Tropical Health Programmes, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan.

Objectives: Onchocerciasis is one of the most devastating neglected tropical diseases and it is mostly prevalent in Africa. The disease has important heavy social and economic burdens on the infected populations including low productivity, unemployment, social isolation, and stigma. A cross-sectional study was implemented using a well-established questionnaire to investigate the socio-economic impacts of Onchocerciasis elimination in Abu-Hamed, River Nile State, Sudan in 2015; 512 participants in ten affected communities were interviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05101-6DOI Listing

Zoonotic and vector-borne parasites and epilepsy in low-income and middle-income countries.

Nat Rev Neurol 2020 Jun 19;16(6):333-345. Epub 2020 May 19.

NIHR University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

Zoonotic and vector-borne parasites are important preventable risk factors for epilepsy. Three parasitic infections - cerebral malaria, Taenia solium cysticercosis and onchocerciasis - have an established association with epilepsy. Parasitoses are widely prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries, which are home to 80% of the people with epilepsy in the world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41582-020-0361-3DOI Listing

Effects of an injectable long-acting formulation of ivermectin on Onchocerca ochengi in zebu cattle.

Parasite 2020 18;27:36. Epub 2020 May 18.

Research Foundation for Tropical Diseases and the Environment, PO Box 474, Buea, Cameroon.

The availability of a safe macrofilaricidal drug would help to accelerate onchocerciasis elimination. A trial was conducted in Cameroon to evaluate the effects of a subcutaneous injectable long-acting formulation of ivermectin (LAFI) on the microfilariae (mf) and adult stages of Onchocerca ochengi. Ten zebu cattle naturally infected with the parasite were injected subcutaneously with either 500 mg (group A, N = 4), or 1000 mg long-acting ivermectin (group B, N = 4) or the vehicle (group C, N = 2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2020036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7233116PMC

Individuals living in an onchocerciasis focus and treated three-monthly with ivermectin develop fewer new onchocercal nodules than individuals treated annually.

Parasit Vectors 2020 May 15;13(1):258. Epub 2020 May 15.

UMI 233, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) and University of Montpellier 1, 911 avenue Agropolis, P.O. Box 64501, 34394, Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

Background: Little information is available on the effect of ivermectin on the third- and fourth-stage larvae of Onchocerca volvulus. To assess a possible prophylactic effect of ivermectin on this parasite, we compared the effects of different ivermectin regimens on the acquisition of onchocercal nodules.

Methods: We analyzed data from a controlled randomized clinical trial of ivermectin conducted in the Mbam Valley (Cameroon) between 1994 and 1998 in a cohort of onchocerciasis infected individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04126-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229600PMC

Evaluation of the Effects of Agro Pesticides Use on Liver and Kidney Function in Farmers from Buea, Cameroon.

J Toxicol 2020 29;2020:2305764. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Laboratory for Drugs and Molecular Diagnostics Research (ANDI Centre of Excellence for Onchocerciasis Drug Research), Biotechnology Unit, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon.

Agro pesticides are increasingly used worldwide to increase crop production. However, health hazards resulting from human exposure to these chemicals, especially from agricultural areas of developing countries have been a growing concern. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of occupational exposure to agro pesticides on the health of farmers in the Buea subdivision, which is one of the major agrarian areas in Cameroon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/2305764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204329PMC
January 2020

Biting rates and relative abundance of Simulium flies under different climatic conditions in an onchocerciasis endemic community in Ghana.

Parasit Vectors 2020 May 6;13(1):229. Epub 2020 May 6.

Experimental Parasitology Unit, Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Knowledge of the relative abundance and biting rates of riverine blackflies (vectors of onchocerciasis) is essential as these entomological indices affect transmission of the disease. However, transmission patterns vary from one ecological zone to another and this may be due to differences in species of blackfly vectors and the climatic conditions in the area. This study investigated the effects of climate variability on the relative abundance and biting rates of blackflies in the Tanfiano community (Nkoranza North District, Bono East Region, Ghana). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04102-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204027PMC

Focus of Ongoing Onchocerciasis Transmission Close to Bangui, Central African Republic.

Pathogens 2020 Apr 30;9(5). Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, 2610 Antwerp, Belgium.

Recently, there were anecdotal reports of a high number of persons with epilepsy, including children with nodding seizures in the Landja Mboko area located about 9 km from the capital city Bangui, Central African Republic. We suspected the area to be endemic for onchocerciasis, and that the alleged increase in the number of epilepsy cases was due to ongoing transmission. However, ivermectin mass drug distribution (MDA) had never been implemented in the area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050337DOI Listing

The Role of the Maridi Dam in Causing an Onchocerciasis-Associated Epilepsy Epidemic in Maridi, South Sudan: An Epidemiological, Sociological, and Entomological Study.

Pathogens 2020 Apr 24;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, 2610 Antwerp, Belgium.

: An epilepsy prevalence of 4.4% was documented in onchocerciasis-endemic villages close to the Maridi River in South Sudan. We investigated the role of the Maridi dam in causing an onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy epidemic in these villages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9040315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238195PMC

Determinants of community-led ivermectin treatment adherence for onchocerciasis control in Western Ethiopia: a case-control study.

Trop Med Health 2020 20;48:22. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

Background: Onchocerciasis is an infection of a filarial worm which is endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. Annual mass treatment with high coverage over for a long period of time should lead to a complete interruption of transmission and the ultimate elimination of the parasite. However, in Ethiopia, the required coverage levels were not achieved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41182-020-00210-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7168851PMC

The insufficiency of circulating miRNA and DNA as diagnostic tools or as biomarkers of treatment efficacy for Onchocerca volvulus.

Sci Rep 2020 Apr 21;10(1):6672. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Centre for Drugs and Diagnostics, Department of Tropical Disease Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Skin snip evaluation for onchocerciasis has insufficient sensitivity when skin microfilarial (mf) densities are low, such as following ivermectin treatment. Mf density is suitable for assessing microfilaricidal efficacy but only serves as an indirect indicator of macrofilaricidal activity. We assessed circulating nucleic acids from Onchocerca volvulus as an alternative to skin snips. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63249-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174290PMC

Study of onchocerciasis-related visual impairment in North Kivu province of the Democratic Republic of Congo in Africa.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2020 May;68(5):890-894

Spark Eye Care Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Purpose: The Objective of this study is to determine baseline data regarding onchocercal eye lesions and associated visual loss in the Nord Kivu province, an onchocerciasis hyperendemic tropical rain forest area in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Nord Kivu province of the DRC during which 2150 subjects were examined ophthalmologically. The eye examination included visual acuity (VA), slit-lamp examination, ophthalmoscopy, intraocular pressure, and visual field assessment by the confrontation test. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_1653_18DOI Listing

From nodding syndrome to onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy.

Rev Neurol (Paris) 2020 May 14;176(5):405-406. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Doornstraat 331, 2610 Antwerp, Belgium. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurol.2019.12.011DOI Listing

Mapping the burden of onchocercal skin disease.

Authors:
M E Murdoch

Br J Dermatol 2020 Apr 17. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Dermatology, West Herts Hospitals NHS Trust, Watford General Hospital, Watford, WD18 0HB, UK.

Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by a nematode parasite, Onchocerca volvulus, and transmitted by bites of Simulium blackflies which breed near fast-flowing rivers. In humans thousands of microfilariae (immature worms) migrate to the skin and eyes where they cause pathology. Historically, much research was devoted to the serious effect of blindness, from which the disease earns its alternative name of "river blindness". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjd.19143DOI Listing

Onchocerciasis dynamics: modelling the effects of treatment, education and vector control.

J Biol Dyn 2020 Dec;14(1):245-268

Department of Mathematics, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

A deterministic model of onchocerciasis disease dynamics is considered in a community partitioned into compartments based on the disease status. Public health education is offered in the community during the implementation of mass treatment using ivermectin drugs. Also, larviciding and trapping strategies are implemented in the vector population with the aim of controlling population growth of black flies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17513758.2020.1745306DOI Listing
December 2020

Ivermectin suppresses tumour growth and metastasis through degradation of PAK1 in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 May 31;24(9):5387-5401. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

School of Pharmacy, Henan University, Kaifeng, China.

Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the most common form of oesophageal malignancies in the Asia-Pacific region, remains a major clinical challenge. In this study, we found that ivermectin, an effective antiparasitic drug that has been approved for patients to orally treat onchocerciasis for over 30 years, displayed potent antitumour activity against ESCC cells in vitro and in nude mice. We demonstrated that ivermectin significantly inhibited cell viability and colony formation, and induced apoptosis through a mitochondrial-dependent manner in ESCC cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205794PMC

Historical Elimination of Onchocerciasis from Victoria Nile Focus in Central Uganda Verified Using WHO Criteria.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Mar 30. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

The Carter Center, Atlanta, Georgia.

Uganda has verified elimination of seven onchocerciasis foci since 2007 when the nationwide onchocerciasis elimination policy was launched. However, the Victoria Nile focus (which was eliminated in the early 1970s) had not been verified. The objective of this study was to verify this focus to the WHO verification guidelines and bring it in line with recently eliminated foci. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253126PMC

Eye diseases in travelers.

Int Marit Health 2020 ;71(1):78-84

Department of Epidemiology and Tropical Medicine, Military Institute of Medicine, 128 Szaserów St., 04-141 Warsaw, Poland.

Travelling has been growing in popularity over the last several decades. Eye diseases, e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/IMH.2020.0015DOI Listing
January 2020

Serological Evaluation of Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination in the Bakoye and Falémé foci, Mali.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Mar 24. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and London Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease Research, MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, Imperial College London, UK.

Background: In Mali, ivermectin-based onchocerciasis elimination from the Bakoye and Falémé foci, reported in 2009-2012, was a beacon leading to policy shifting from morbidity control to elimination of transmission (EOT). These foci are also endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF). In 2007-2016 mass ivermectin plus albendazole administration was implemented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa318DOI Listing

Structural Uncertainty in Onchocerciasis Transmission Models Influences the Estimation of Elimination Thresholds and Selection of Age Groups for Seromonitoring.

J Infect Dis 2020 Mar 16. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

London Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease Research, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Background: The World Health Organization recommends monitoring Onchocerca volvulus Ov16 serology in children aged <10 years for stopping mass ivermectin administration. Transmission models can help to identify the most informative age groups for serological monitoring and investigate the discriminatory power of serology-based elimination thresholds. Model predictions depend on assumed age-exposure patterns and transmission efficiency at low infection levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz674DOI Listing

Single versus Multiple Dose Ivermectin Regimen in Onchocerciasis-Infected Persons with Epilepsy Treated with Phenobarbital: A Randomized Clinical Trial in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Pathogens 2020 Mar 10;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, 2610 Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: There is anecdotal evidence that ivermectin may decrease seizure frequency in -infected persons with epilepsy (PWE).

Methods: In October 2017, a 12-month clinical trial was initiated in rural Democratic Republic of Congo. PWE with onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy experiencing ≥2 seizures/month were randomly allocated to receive, over a one-year period, ivermectin once or thrice (group 1), while other onchocerciasis-infected PWE (OIPWE) were randomized to ivermectin twice or thrice (group 2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7157533PMC

Urinary N-acetyltyramine-O,β-glucuronide in Persons with OnchocerciasisAssociated Epilepsy.

Pathogens 2020 Mar 5;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, B-2610 Wilrijk, Belgium.

We investigated urinary N-acetyltyramine-O,β-glucuronide (NATOG) levels as a biomarker for active infection in an onchocerciasis-endemic area in the Democratic Republic of Congo with a high epilepsy prevalence. Urinary NATOG was measured in non-epileptic men with and without infection, and in infected persons with epilepsy (PWE). Urinary NATOG concentration was positively associated with microfilarial density ( < 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7157704PMC

Data-driven modelling and spatial complexity supports heterogeneity-based integrative management for eliminating Simulium neavei-transmitted river blindness.

Sci Rep 2020 Mar 6;10(1):4235. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

The Carter Center, One Copenhill, 453 Freedom Parkway, Atlanta, GA, 30307, USA.

Concern is emerging regarding the challenges posed by spatial complexity for modelling and managing the area-wide elimination of parasitic infections. While this has led to calls for applying heterogeneity-based approaches for addressing this complexity, questions related to spatial scale, the discovery of locally-relevant models, and its interaction with options for interrupting parasite transmission remain to be resolved. We used a data-driven modelling framework applied to infection data gathered from different monitoring sites to investigate these questions in the context of understanding the transmission dynamics and efforts to eliminate Simulium neavei- transmitted onchocerciasis, a macroparasitic disease that causes river blindness in Western Uganda and other regions of Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61194-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7060237PMC

Meta-analysis of epilepsy prevalence in West Africa and its relationship with onchocerciasis endemicity and control.

Int Health 2020 May;12(3):192-202

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Doornstraat 331, 2610 Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: A high prevalence and incidence of epilepsy has been reported in onchocerciasis-endemic regions in Central and East Africa. There is compelling epidemiological evidence suggesting that this high burden is caused by onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE). We hypothesized that OAE had also occured in West African onchocerciasis foci. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihaa012DOI Listing

Prevalence and incidence of nodding syndrome and other forms of epilepsy in onchocerciasis-endemic areas in northern Uganda after the implementation of onchocerciasis control measures.

Infect Dis Poverty 2020 Mar 2;9(1):12. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: Around 2007, a nodding syndrome (NS) epidemic appeared in onchocerciasis-endemic districts of northern Uganda, where ivermectin mass distribution had never been implemented. This study evaluated the effect of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) and ground larviciding of rivers initiated after 2009 and 2012 respectively, on the epidemiology of NS and other forms of epilepsy (OFE) in some districts of northern Uganda.

Methods: In 2012, a population-based community survey of NS/epilepsy was carried out by the Ugandan Ministry of Health in Kitgum and Pader districts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-0628-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7050130PMC

Macrofilaricides: An Unmet Medical Need for Filarial Diseases.

ACS Infect Dis 2020 04 5;6(4):662-671. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Bristol-Myers Squibb, Global Health, 10300 Campus Point Drive, San Diego, California 92121, United States.

Neglected parasitic helminth diseases such as onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis affect an estimated 145 million people worldwide, creating a serious health burden in endemic areas such as sub-Saharan Africa and India. Although these diseases are not usually lethal, these filarial nematodes, transmitted by blood-feeding insect vectors, cause severe debilitation and cause chronic disability to infected individuals. The adult worms can reproduce from 5 to up to 14 years, releasing millions of microfilariae, juvenile worms, over an infected individual's lifetime. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.9b00469DOI Listing

Onchocerca jakutensis ocular infection in Poland: a new vector-borne human health risk?

Parasit Vectors 2020 Feb 12;13(1):61. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Parasitology and Vector-Borne Diseases, National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: Zoonotic onchocerciasis is a vector-borne disease, which involves many animal species, including large ungulates, boars, dogs, and sporadically, humans. So far, 39 cases of zoonotic onchocerciasis have been reported worldwide, 30 of which have been found in the last 20 years. Onchocerca nematodes are transmitted to humans by blood-sucking vectors during a blood meal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-3925-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7017525PMC
February 2020

Situation analysis of onchocerciasis in Cameroon: a protocol for systematic review of epidemiological studies and impact of disease control interventions.

Syst Rev 2020 02 11;9(1):27. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Centre for Research on Filariasis and other Tropical Diseases (CRFilMT), Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Background: Many control methods have been implemented to tackle onchocerciasis and great successes have been achieved, leading to a paradigm shift from control of morbidity to interruption of transmission and ultimately elimination. The mandate of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) ended in 2015, and endemic countries are to plan and conduct elimination activities by themselves, with technical assistance by the Expanded Special Project for Elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases (ESPEN). To this end, an elimination expert committee was set up in Cameroon in 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-020-1287-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7011232PMC
February 2020

The Interruption of Transmission of Human Onchocerciasis by an Annual Mass Drug Administration Program in Plateau and Nasarawa States, Nigeria.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 03;102(3):582-592

The Carter Center Nigeria, Jos, Nigeria.

Plateau and Nasarawa states in central Nigeria were endemic for onchocerciasis. The rural populations of these two states received annual ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) for a period of 8-26 years (1992-2017). Ivermectin combined with albendazole was given for 8-13 of these years for lymphatic filariasis (LF); the LF MDA program successfully concluded in 2012, but ivermectin MDA continued in areas known to have a baseline meso-/hyperendemic onchocerciasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7056427PMC

The Galabat-Metema cross-border onchocerciasis focus: The first coordinated interruption of onchocerciasis transmission in Africa.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 02 6;14(2):e0007830. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Health Programs, The Carter Center, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Background: Onchocerciasis transmission across international borders is not uncommon, yet a coordinated cross border stops mass drug administration (MDA) decision has not been documented.

Methods/principle Findings: The Galabat-Metema focus involves neighboring districts on the border between Sudan and Ethiopia. Mass drug administration (MDA) was provided once and subsequently twice per year in this focus, with twice-per-year beginning in Ethiopia's Metema subfocus in 2016 and in the Sudan's Galabat subfocus in 2008. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007830DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7004312PMC
February 2020

Progress in Understanding the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Antitumour Effects of Ivermectin.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2020 21;14:285-296. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jilin University Second Hospital, ChangChun 130041, People's Republic of China.

Ivermectin, a dihydro derivative of avermectin (AVM), was introduced into the veterinary, agricultural and aquaculture markets for animal health in 1981. Ivermectin was soon adopted in 1987 as a human medicine that was originally used for the treatment of onchocerciasis, a parasitic infection. Since then, ivermectin has also been used to control other human diseases and has exerted a significant effect on human health and welfare. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S237393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6982461PMC
January 2020
3.028 Impact Factor

Update on parasitic dermatoses.

An Bras Dermatol 2020 Jan - Feb;95(1):1-14. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Dermatology, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Tropical Dermatology Outpatient Clinic, Fundação Alfredo da Matta de Dermatologia, Manaus, AM, Brazil.

These are cutaneous diseases caused by insects, worms, protozoa, or coelenterates which may or may not have a parasitic life. In this review the main ethological agents, clinical aspects, laboratory exams, and treatments of these dermatological diseases will be studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abd.2019.12.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058862PMC

Post-elimination surveillance in formerly onchocerciasis endemic focus in Southern Mexico.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 01 30;14(1):e0008008. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Biotecnología Genómica, Reynosa, Tamaulipas, México.

Background: All formerly endemic communities of the Southern Chiapas focus of onchocerciasis in Mexico were treated with ivermectin until parasite transmission was eliminated by 2015. Transmission of onchocerciasis did not resume during a period of three years (2012-2014) following the final distribution of ivermectin in 2011; it was thus concluded that transmission remained undetectable without intervention. WHO thus declared the elimination of transmission of onchocerciasis from Mexico in 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7012445PMC
January 2020

Genomic Epidemiology in Filarial Nematodes: Transforming the Basis for Elimination Program Decisions.

Front Genet 2019 9;10:1282. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Microbiology, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC, Australia.

Onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis are targeted for elimination, primarily using mass drug administration at the country and community levels. Elimination of transmission is the onchocerciasis target and global elimination as a public health problem is the end point for lymphatic filariasis. Where program duration, treatment coverage, and compliance are sufficiently high, elimination is achievable for both parasites within defined geographic areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.01282DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6964045PMC
January 2020

In vivo efficacy of the boron-pleuromutilin AN11251 against Wolbachia of the rodent filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 01 27;14(1):e0007957. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

The elimination of filarial diseases such as onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis is hampered by the lack of a macrofilaricidal-adult worm killing-drug. In the present study, we tested the in vivo efficacy of AN11251, a boron-pleuromutilin that targets endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria from filarial nematodes and compared its efficacy to doxycycline and rifampicin. Doxycycline and rifampicin were previously shown to deplete Wolbachia endosymbionts leading to a permanent sterilization of the female adult filariae and adult worm death in human clinical studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7004383PMC
January 2020

The Pathogenesis of Nodding Syndrome.

Annu Rev Pathol 2020 01;15:395-417

Section of Infections of the Nervous System, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; email:

Nodding syndrome is a rare, enigmatic form of pediatric epilepsy that has occurred in an epidemic fashion beginning in the early 2000s in geographically distinct regions of Africa. Despite extensive investigation, the etiology of nodding syndrome remains unclear, although much progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as in treatment and prevention. Nodding syndrome is recognized as a defined disease entity, but it is likely one manifestation along a continuum of -associated neurological complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pathmechdis-012419-032748DOI Listing
January 2020

Safety of high-dose ivermectin: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2020 Apr;75(4):827-834

Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal) Hospital Clínic - Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Ivermectin is a key anthelmintic for the control of neglected tropical diseases. The main indications for population-level control with ivermectin through mass drug administration are onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis; however, there is interest in using higher, fixed-dose regimens for the control of scabies, soil-transmitted helminths and malaria. Safety data for these higher-dose regimens are needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz524DOI Listing

Natural infections with larvae of Onchocerca species type I in the human-biting black fly, Simulium nigrogilvum (Diptera: Simuliidae), in western Thailand.

Acta Trop 2020 Apr 16;204:105344. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Tropical Infectious Diseases Research and Education Centre (TIDREC), University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Zoonotic onchocerciasis is a human infection caused by Onchocerca species of animal origins and transmitted by black fly vectors. The reported incidence of this disease has increased throughout the world. This study aims to clarify the vectorial roles of black fly species in zoonotic filarial transmission in Tak province, western Thailand. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105344DOI Listing

First molecular detection of Onchocerca flexuosa (Wedl, 1856) in red deer in Slovakia.

Parasitol Res 2020 Mar 17;119(3):985-990. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Institute of Breeding and Diseases of Game and Fish, The University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice, Košice, Slovak Republic.

The present paper deals with the post-mortem diagnostics of onchocerciasis and the molecular detection of causative agents of this disease in wild ruminant ungulates (Cervus elaphus, Dama dama and Capreolus capreolus). The animals were shot in hunting seasons 2017 and 2018, in two regions of the Eastern Slovakia. The total number of examined skins was fifty-eight. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06607-5DOI Listing

Ivermectin as a novel complementary malaria control tool to reduce incidence and prevalence: a modelling study.

Lancet Infect Dis 2020 Apr 13;20(4):498-508. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.

Background: Ivermectin is a potential new vector control tool to reduce malaria transmission. Mosquitoes feeding on a bloodmeal containing ivermectin have a reduced lifespan, meaning they are less likely to live long enough to complete sporogony and become infectious. We aimed to estimate the effect of ivermectin on malaria transmission in various scenarios of use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30633-4DOI Listing

Ivermectin as an adjuvant to anti-epileptic treatment in persons with onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy: A randomized proof-of-concept clinical trial.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 01 10;14(1):e0007966. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Introduction: Recent findings from onchocerciasis-endemic foci uphold that increasing ivermectin coverage reduces the epilepsy incidence, and anecdotal evidence suggests seizure frequency reduction in persons with onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy, when treated with ivermectin. We conducted a randomized clinical trial to assess whether ivermectin treatment decreases seizure frequency.

Methods: A proof-of-concept randomized clinical trial was conducted in the Logo health zone in the Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo, to compare seizure frequencies in onchocerciasis-infected persons with epilepsy (PWE) randomized to one of two treatment arms: the anti-epileptic drug phenobarbital supplemented with ivermectin, versus phenobarbital alone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007966DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6977765PMC
January 2020

Biting Rates and Onchocerca Infectivity Status of Black Flies from the Simulium damnosum Complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Osun State, Nigeria.

J Med Entomol 2020 May;57(3):901-907

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL.

The Simulium damnosum Theobald complex transmits Onchocerca volvulus Leuckart (Spirurida: Onchocercidae), the causative agent of onchocerciasis. Recent evidence suggests that control efforts have strongly suppressed parasite populations, but vector surveillance is needed in parts of Africa where the disease remains endemic. Here, studies on biting rates and infectivity status of suspected vector species were conducted in three onchocerciasis-endemic areas, namely Iwo, Ede, and Obokun, in Osun State, Nigeria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjz250DOI Listing

A general method for multiscale modelling of vector-borne disease systems.

Interface Focus 2020 Feb 13;10(1):20190047. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, South Africa.

The inability to develop multiscale models which can describe vector-borne disease systems in terms of the complete pathogen life cycle which represents multiple targets for control has hindered progress in our efforts to control, eliminate and even eradicate these multi-host infections. This is because it is currently not easy to determine precisely where and how in the life cycles of vector-borne disease systems the key constrains which are regarded as crucial in regulating pathogen population dynamics in both the vertebrate host and vector host operate. In this article, we present a general method for development of multiscale models of vector-borne disease systems which integrate the within-host and between-host scales for the two hosts (a vertebrate host and a vector host) that are implicated in vector-borne disease dynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2019.0047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6936014PMC
February 2020
2.630 Impact Factor

Macrofilaricidal Benzimidazole-Benzoxaborole Hybrids as an Approach to the Treatment of River Blindness: Part 1. Amide Linked Analogs.

ACS Infect Dis 2020 02 14;6(2):173-179. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Anacor Pharmaceuticals, Inc. , 1020 E. Meadow Circle , Palo Alto , California 94303 , United States.

A series of benzimidazole-benzoxaborole hybrid molecules linked via an amide linker are described that exhibit good activity against , a filarial nematode responsible for the disease onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness. The lead identified in this series,  (AN8799), was found to have acceptable pharmacokinetic properties to enable evaluation in animal models of human filariasis. Compound was effective in killing , , and worms present in Mongolian gerbils when dosed subcutaneously as a suspension at 100 mg/kg/day for 14 days but not when dosed orally at 100 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.9b00396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7026885PMC
February 2020

Macrofilaricidal Benzimidazole-Benzoxaborole Hybrids as an Approach to the Treatment of River Blindness: Part 2. Ketone Linked Analogs.

ACS Infect Dis 2020 02 28;6(2):180-185. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Anacor Pharmaceuticals, Inc. , 1020 E. Meadow Circle , Palo Alto , California 94303 , United States.

The optimization of a series of benzimidazole-benzoxaborole hybrid molecules linked via a ketone that exhibit good activity against , a filarial nematode responsible for the disease onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness, is described. The lead identified in this series, (AN15470), was found to have acceptable pharmacokinetic properties to enable an evaluation following oral dosing in an animal model of onchocerciasis. Compound was effective in killing worms implanted in Mongolian gerbils when dosed orally as a suspension at 100 mg/kg/day for 14 days but not when dosed orally at 100 mg/kg/day for 7 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.9b00397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7026882PMC
February 2020