4,797 results match your criteria Onchocerciasis


Effect of a Single Standard Dose (150-200 μg/kg) of Ivermectin on Microfilaremia: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Apr 11;6(4):ofz019. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

IRD UMI 233-INSERM U1175- University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Background: In central Africa, millions of individuals infected with have received the anthelminthic drug ivermectin (IVM) as part of mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns targeting onchocerciasis control or elimination. Nonetheless, the parasitological surveys that are occasionally conducted to evaluate the impact of IVM treatments on do not include an assessment of the extra benefits of those MDA campaigns on .

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of trials on the effect of a single standard (150-200 μg/kg) dose of IVM on microfilarial density (MFD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449757PMC

Development of a High-Throughput Cytometric Screen to Identify Anti- Wolbachia Compounds: The Power of Public-Private Partnership.

SLAS Discov 2019 Apr 8:2472555219838341. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

1 Centre for Drugs and Diagnostics Research, Department of Tropical Disease Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK.

The Anti- Wolbachia (A·WOL) consortium at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) has partnered with the Global High-Throughput Screening (HTS) Centre at AstraZeneca to create the first anthelmintic HTS for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The A·WOL consortium aims to identify novel macrofilaricidal drugs targeting the essential bacterial symbiont ( Wolbachia) of the filarial nematodes causing onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Working in collaboration, we have validated a robust high-throughput assay capable of identifying compounds that selectively kill Wolbachia over the host insect cell. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2472555219838341DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

EC Microbiol 2019 Mar;15(3):160-167

Department of Parasitology, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.

Introduction: Onchocerciasis, remains an unfamiliar condition for health professionals in Mozambique leading to its misdiagnosis as leprosy or scabies as noted in previous studies. Meta-analyses conducted in some African countries, have concluded that onchocerciasis is associated with epilepsy and nodding syndrome. Epilepsy affects at least 3% of the Mozambican population. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448571PMC
March 2019
1 Read

A survey of Onchocerca fasciata infection in camels (Camelus bactrianus) with notes on morphology.

PLoS One 2019 4;14(4):e0214477. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China.

The goal of this study was to provide insight into the pathogenicity of Onchocerca fasciata in Camelus bactrianus to help control onchocerciasis. From November 2015 to January 2016, the prevalence and severity of onchocerciasis were recorded in 152 camels. Nodules containing Onchocerca were collected and observed. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214477PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448845PMC
April 2019
2 Reads
3.234 Impact Factor

Blackflies in the ointment: O. volvulus vector biting can be significantly reduced by the skin-application of mineral oil during human landing catches.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Apr 1;13(4):e0007234. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Instituto Leônidas e Maria Deane/ILMD/FIOCRUZ, Laboratório de Ecologia de Doenças Transmissíveis na Amazônia, 476 Rua Teresina, Adrianópolis, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

Background: Standard human landing catches (sHLCs) have historically been a key component of Onchocerca volvulus transmission monitoring, but expose health-workers to potentially hazardous vector bites. Novel human-bait-free trapping methods have been developed, but do not always work where they are needed and may not generate O. volvulus surveillance data that is directly comparable with historic data. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007234
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007234DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Comparison of Reported and Survey-Based Coverage in Onchocerciasis Programs over a Period of 8 Years in Cameroon and Uganda.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

The Carter Center, Atlanta, Georgia.

Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin must reach a high treatment coverage (90% of the eligible population) if onchocerciasis is to be eliminated. Questions have been raised as to whether reported treatment figures reaching such high coverage are reliable. Sample surveys are proposed as the method of choice for "validating" reported coverage figures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0680DOI Listing

Impact of 19 years of mass drug administration with ivermectin on epilepsy burden in a hyperendemic onchocerciasis area in Cameroon.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Mar 19;12(1):114. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: Surveys conducted in 1991-1992 in the Mbam Valley (Cameroon) revealed that onchocerciasis was highly endemic, with community microfilarial loads (CMFL) > 100 microfilariae/snip in some villages. Also in 1991-1992, a survey of suspected cases of epilepsy (SCE) found 746 SCE using a questionnaire administered to individuals identified by key informants, with prevalences reaching 13.6% in some communities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3345-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423875PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Epidemiological evidence concerning the association between onchocerciasis and epilepsy.

Int J Infect Dis 2019 Mar 15;82:77-78. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.03.015DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

In-silico design of a multi-epitope vaccine candidate against onchocerciasis and related filarial diseases.

Sci Rep 2019 Mar 13;9(1):4409. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biology and Molecular Medicine, IBMM, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Gosselies, Belgium.

Onchocerciasis is a parasitic disease with high socio-economic burden particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The elimination plan for this disease has faced numerous challenges. A multi-epitope prophylactic/therapeutic vaccine targeting the infective L3 and microfilaria stages of the parasite's life cycle would be invaluable to achieve the current elimination goal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40833-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6416346PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Preclinical development of an oral anti- macrolide drug for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

Sci Transl Med 2019 Mar;11(483)

Centre for Drugs and Diagnostics, Department of Tropical Disease Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK.

There is an urgent global need for a safe macrofilaricide drug to accelerate elimination of the neglected tropical diseases onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. From an anti-infective compound library, the macrolide veterinary antibiotic, tylosin A, was identified as a hit against This bacterial endosymbiont is required for filarial worm viability and fertility and is a validated target for macrofilaricidal drugs. Medicinal chemistry was undertaken to develop tylosin A analogs with improved oral bioavailability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aau2086DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads
15.843 Impact Factor

Loa loa microfilariae in skin snips: consequences for onchocerciasis monitoring and evaluation in L. loa endemic areas.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar 6. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Centre for Research on Filariasis and other Tropical Diseases, Yaounde Cameroon.

The specificity of skin snips for onchocerciasis diagnosis is considered to be almost 100%. In this study, molecular methods revealed that microfilariae emerging from skin snips collected from highly microfilaremic Loa loa-infected individuals were largely misidentified as Onchocerca volvulus. This has important implications for onchocerciasis diagnostic testing in Loa-endemic areas. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz172DOI Listing
March 2019
12 Reads
8.886 Impact Factor

Gender equity in mass drug administration for neglected tropical diseases: data from 16 countries.

Int Health 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

RTI International, 701 13th St NW, Suite 750, Washington, DC USA.

Background: Gender equity in global health is a target of the Sustainable Development Goals and a requirement of just societies. Substantial progress has been made towards control and elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) via mass drug administration (MDA). However, little is known about whether MDA coverage is equitable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihz012DOI Listing

Discovery of ABBV-4083, a novel analog of Tylosin A that has potent anti-Wolbachia and anti-filarial activity.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 02 28;13(2):e0007159. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, AbbVie, North Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

There is a significant need for improved treatments for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, diseases caused by filarial worm infection. In particular, an agent able to selectively kill adult worms (macrofilaricide) would be expected to substantially augment the benefits of mass drug administration (MDA) with current microfilaricides, and to provide a solution to treatment of onchocerciasis / loiasis co-infection, where MDA is restricted. We have identified a novel macrofilaricidal agent, Tylosin A (TylA), which acts by targeting the worm-symbiont Wolbachia bacterium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413952PMC
February 2019
5 Reads

Macro and microfilaricidal activities of extracts of Annona senegalensis and Milletia comosa against Onchocerca ochengi and Loa loa.

Exp Parasitol 2019 Mar 13;198:71-78. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Laboratory for Drugs and Molecular Diagnostics Research (ANDI Centre of Excellence for Onchocerciasis Drug Research), Biotechnology Unit, University of Buea, Cameroon; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea, Cameroon. Electronic address:

Despite the efforts employed for the control of onchocerciasis, the latter has remained a significant public health problem, due mainly to the lack of safe and effective adult worm drugs and/or microfilaricides that do not kill Loa loa microfilariae (mf). Serious adverse events have been encountered after administering ivermectin to some onchocerciasis patients coinfected with Loa loa. There is therefore, an urgent need for a macro and/or microfilaricidal drug which kills Onchocerca but not L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2019.02.004DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads
1.859 Impact Factor

Differences in the Clinical and Laboratory Features of Imported Onchocerciasis in Endemic Individuals and Temporary Residents.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Many parasitic infections have different presenting features in endemic individuals (ENDs) and immunologically naive temporary residents (TRs). Temporary residents with loiasis often display acute symptoms and hypereosinophilia, in contrast to a parasite-induced subclinical state in chronically infected ENDs. Few studies have examined differences in ENDs and TRs infected with the related filarial parasite . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0757DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Prevalence and intensity of Loa loa infection over twenty-three years in three communities of the Mbalmayo health district (Central Cameroon).

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 13;19(1):146. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Centre for Research on Filariasis and other Tropical Diseases, PO Box 5797, Yaounde, Cameroon.

Background: Loiasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease due to Loa loa and transmitted to humans by tabanids of the genus Chrysops. Loiasis has been historically considered as the second or third most common reason for medical consultation after malaria, and a recent study has reported an excess mortality associated with the infection. However, the clinical impact of this filarial disease is yet to be elucidated, and it is still considered a benign disease eliciting very little attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3776-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373160PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Comprehensive management of epilepsy in onchocerciasis-endemic areas: lessons learnt from community-based surveys.

Infect Dis Poverty 2019 Feb 10;8(1):11. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: Onchocerciasis-endemic regions are known to have a high epilepsy prevalence. Limited resources in these areas and poor access to healthcare by persons with epilepsy (PWE) result in a wide anti-epileptic treatment gap, poor seizure control and a high burden of seizure-related complications. Recent community-based surveys highlight the need for epilepsy management strategies suitable for remote onchocerciasis-endemic villages to ensure better health outcomes for PWE. Read More

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https://idpjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40249
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-019-0523-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368958PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Boron-Pleuromutilins as Anti- Wolbachia Agents with Potential for Treatment of Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis.

J Med Chem 2019 Mar 26;62(5):2521-2540. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Centre for Drugs and Diagnostics, Department of Parasitology , Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine , Pembroke Place , Liverpool L3 5QA , U.K.

A series of pleuromutilins modified by introduction of a boron-containing heterocycle on C(14) of the polycyclic core are described. These analogs were found to be potent anti- Wolbachia antibiotics and, as such, may be useful in the treatment of filarial infections caused by Onchocerca volvulus, resulting in Onchocerciasis or river blindness, or Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi and related parasitic nematodes resulting in lymphatic filariasis. These two important neglected tropical diseases disproportionately impact patients in the developing world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b01854DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6421521PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

Population Fluctuations and Effect of Climatic Factors on the Relative Abundance of Simulium damnosum Complex (Diptera: Simuliidae).

Environ Entomol 2019 04;48(2):284-290

Department of Zoology, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

Simulium damnosum (Theobald) sensu lato (s.l.) is a complex of many species of black flies that transmit Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) to varying capacities based on their ecological zones in Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvz004DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

High prevalence of epilepsy in an onchocerciasis endemic health zone in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, despite 14 years of community-directed treatment with ivermectin: A mixed-method assessment.

Int J Infect Dis 2019 Feb;79:187-194

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium. Electronic address:

Objectives: To investigate the reasons for the high prevalence of epilepsy (>6%) discovered in 2015 in the Aketi health zone in the north of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Methods: Persons with epilepsy (PWE) diagnosed in a door-to-door survey in 2015 were traced and re-examined in 2017 by a neurologist. Confirmed PWE were paired with matched controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2018.10.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6353816PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Onchocerciasis associated epilepsy-A question of causality.

Int J Infect Dis 2019 Feb;79:185-186

Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.01.044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6361767PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Integrated seroprevalence-based assessment of Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus in two lymphatic filariasis evaluation units of Mali with the SD Bioline Onchocerciasis/LF IgG4 Rapid Test.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 01 30;13(1):e0007064. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, United States of America.

Background: Mali has become increasingly interested in the evaluation of transmission of both Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus as prevalences of both infections move toward their respective elimination targets. The SD Bioline Onchocerciasis/LF IgG4 Rapid Test was used in 2 evaluation units (EU) to assess its performance as an integrated surveillance tool for elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis.

Methodology/principal Findings: A cross sectional survey with SD Bioline Onchocerciasis/LF IgG4 Rapid Test was piggy-backed onto a transmission assessment survey (TAS) (using the immunochromatographic card test (ICT) Binax Filariasis Now test for filarial adult circulating antigen (CFA) detection) for LF in Mali among 6-7 year old children in 2016 as part of the TAS in two EUs namely Kadiolo-Kolondieba in the region of Sikasso and Bafoulabe -Kita-Oussoubidiagna-Yelimane in the region of Kayes. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007064
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6370230PMC
January 2019
7 Reads

Patent infections with soil-transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni are not associated with increased prevalence of antibodies to the Onchocerca volvulus peptide epitopes OvMP-1 and OvMP-23.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Jan 28;12(1):63. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Janssen Diagnostics, Janssen R&D, Turnhoutseweg 30, 2340, Beerse, Belgium.

Background: Ov16 serology is considered a reference method for Onchocerca volvulus epidemiological mapping. Given the suboptimal sensitivity of this test and the fact that seroconversion takes more than a year after infection, additional serological tests might be needed to guide onchocerciasis elimination programmes. Recently, two linear epitopes encoded in OvMP-1 and OvMP-23 peptides were introduced as serological markers, but the observed antibody cross-reactivity in samples originating from Onchocerca volvulus non-endemic areas required further investigation. Read More

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https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.11
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3308-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350367PMC
January 2019
19 Reads

Low prevalence of epilepsy and onchocerciasis after more than 20 years of ivermectin treatment in the Imo River Basin in Nigeria.

Infect Dis Poverty 2019 Jan 23;8(1). Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Doornstraat 331, 2610 Wilrijk, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: High epilepsy prevalence and incidence have been reported in areas with high onchocerciasis transmission. Recent findings suggest that proper community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) is potentially able to prevent onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE). We assessed the epilepsy prevalence and onchocerciasis transmission in two Nigerian villages following more than 20 years of CDTI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-019-0517-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343278PMC
January 2019

Development of a preliminary in vitro drug screening assay based on a newly established culturing system for pre-adult fifth-stage Onchocerca volvulus worms.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 01 17;13(1):e0007108. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Molecular Parasitology, Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, New York, United States of America.

Background: The human filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus is the causative agent of onchocerciasis (river blindness). It causes blindness in 270,000 individuals with an additional 6.5 million suffering from severe skin pathologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6353222PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Flubendazole as a macrofilaricide: History and background.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 01 16;13(1):e0006436. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Johnson & Johnson Global Public Health, Janssen Research and Development, LLC., New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States of America.

Benzimidazole anthelmintics have long been employed for the control of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Flubendazole (FBZ) was approved in 1980 for the treatment of gastrointestinal nematode infections in both veterinary and human medicine. It has also long been known that parenteral administration of FBZ can lead to high macrofilaricidal efficacy in a variety of preclinical models and in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334891PMC
January 2019
7 Reads

Macrofilaricidal efficacy of single and repeated oral and subcutaneous doses of flubendazole in Litomosoides sigmodontis infected jirds.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 01 16;13(1):e0006320. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Flubendazole (FBZ) is highly efficacious against filarial nematodes after parenteral administration and presents a promising macrofilaricidal drug candidate for the elimination of onchocerciasis and other filariae. In the present study the efficacy of a newly developed bioavailable amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) oral formulation of FBZ was investigated in the Litomosoides sigmodontis jird model. FBZ was administered to chronically infected, microfilariae-positive jirds by single (40mg/kg), repeated (2, 6 or 15mg/kg for 5 or 10 days) oral (OR) doses or single subcutaneous (SC) injections (2 or 10mg/kg). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334906PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Short-course, oral flubendazole does not mediate significant efficacy against Onchocerca adult male worms or Brugia microfilariae in murine infection models.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 01 16;13(1):e0006356. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Parasitology and Research Centre for Drugs and Diagnostics, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

The Onchocerca ochengi adult implant and Brugia malayi microfilariemic Severe-Combined Immunodeficient (SCID) mouse models are validated screens to measure macrofilaricidal and microfilaricidal activities of candidate onchocerciasis drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess whether 5 daily sub-cutaneous (s.c. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334903PMC
January 2019
6 Reads

Entomological assessment of the transmission following recrudescence of onchocerciasis in the Comoé Valley, Burkina Faso.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Jan 15;12(1):34. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Ministère de l'Enseignement Supérieur, de la Recherche Scientifique et de l'Innovation, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), Direction Régionale de l'Ouest, BP 545, Bobo Dioulasso 01, Burkina Faso.

Background: Onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is a dermal filariasis caused by infection with the nematode parasite Onchocerca volvulus, transmitted to humans through the bites of blackflies of the genus Simulium. Despite the decade-long West African Regional Programme for the Elimination of Onchocerciasis, involving the mass administration of ivermectin to populations in endemic areas, recrudescence has occurred. An example is in the Cascades Region of south-west Burkina Faso where the resumption of transmission had resulted in infection prevalences of up to 70% in some villages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3290-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6332526PMC
January 2019
5 Reads

Effect of flubendazole on developing stages of Loa loa in vitro and in vivo: a new approach for screening filaricidal agents.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Jan 8;12(1):14. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Parasites and Vectors Biology Research Unit (PAVBRU), Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon.

Background: Loiasis, an often-neglected tropical disease, is a threat to the success of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis elimination programmes in rainforest areas of the central and western Africa. Its control and even its elimination might be possible through the use of a safe macrofilaricide, a prophylactic drug, or perhaps a vaccine. This present study evaluated the effect of flubendazole (FLBZ) on the development of Loa loa L3 in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3282-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323797PMC
January 2019
10 Reads
3.430 Impact Factor

AWZ1066S, a highly specific anti- drug candidate for a short-course treatment of filariasis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 01 7;116(4):1414-1419. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Chemistry, University of Liverpool, L69 7ZD Liverpool, United Kingdom;

Onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis are two neglected tropical diseases that together affect ∼157 million people and inflict severe disability. Both diseases are caused by parasitic filarial nematodes with elimination efforts constrained by the lack of a safe drug that can kill the adult filaria (macrofilaricide). Previous proof-of-concept human trials have demonstrated that depleting >90% of the essential nematode endosymbiont bacterium, , using antibiotics, can lead to permanent sterilization of adult female parasites and a safe macrofilaricidal outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1816585116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347715PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Industrial scale high-throughput screening delivers multiple fast acting macrofilaricides.

Nat Commun 2019 01 2;10(1):11. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Centre for Drugs and Diagnostics, Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.

Nematodes causing lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis rely on their bacterial endosymbiont, Wolbachia, for survival and fecundity, making Wolbachia a promising therapeutic target. Here we perform a high-throughput screen of AstraZeneca's 1.3 million in-house compound library and identify 5 novel chemotypes with faster in vitro kill rates (<2 days) than existing anti-Wolbachia drugs that cure onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-07826-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315057PMC
January 2019
2 Reads
10.742 Impact Factor

Onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy - Authors' reply.

Lancet Infect Dis 2019 Jan;19(1):22

Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, 34394 Montpellier, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30743-6DOI Listing
January 2019
11 Reads

Onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy.

Lancet Infect Dis 2019 Jan;19(1):21-22

ParaHealth Research Group, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, 46100 Burjassot-Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14733099183071
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30713-8DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Link to Alzheimer's seen in nodding syndrome.

Authors:
Laura Spinney

Science 2018 12;362(6421):1341

Laura Spinney is a journalist in Paris.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.362.6421.1341DOI Listing
December 2018

Inflammatory and regulatory CCL and CXCL chemokine and cytokine cellular responses in patients with patent Mansonella perstans filariasis.

Clin Exp Immunol 2019 Apr 13;196(1):111-122. Epub 2019 Jan 13.

National Institute of Hygiene, Onchocerciasis Reference Laboratory, Sokodé, Togo.

Mansonella perstans (Mp) filariasis is present in large populations in sub-Saharan Africa, and to what extent patent Mp infection modulates the expression of immunity in patients, notably their cellular cytokine and chemokine response profile, remains not well known. We studied the spontaneous and inducible cellular production of chemokines (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) [monokine induced by interferon (IFN)-γ (MIG)], CXCL-10 [inducible protein (IP)-10], chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 (CCL24) (eotaxin-2), CCL22 [macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC)], CCL13 [monocyte chemotactic protein-4 (MCP-4)], CCL18 [pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC)], CCL17 [thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)] and interleukin (IL)-27 in mansonelliasis patients (Mp-PAT) and mansonelliasis-free controls (CTRL). Freshly isolated peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMC) were stimulated with helminth, protozoan and bacterial antigens and mitogen [phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cei.13251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422653PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

High Throughput and Computational Repurposing for Neglected Diseases.

Pharm Res 2018 Dec 17;36(2):27. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Collaborations Pharmaceuticals Inc., 840 Main Campus Drive, Lab 3510, Raleigh, North Carolina, 27606, USA.

Purpose: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent are a heterogeneous group of communicable diseases that are found within the poorest populations of the world. There are 23 NTDs that have been prioritized by the World Health Organization, which are endemic in 149 countries and affect more than 1.4 billion people, costing these developing economies billions of dollars annually. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-018-2558-3DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Development of Onchocerca volvulus in humanized NSG mice and detection of parasite biomarkers in urine and serum.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 12;12(12):e0006977. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Background: The study of Onchocerca volvulus has been limited by its host range, with only humans and non-human primates shown to be susceptible to the full life cycle infection. Small animal models that support the development of adult parasites have not been identified.

Methodology/principal Findings: We hypothesized that highly immunodeficient NSG mice would support the survival and maturation of O. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006977
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6306240PMC
December 2018
12 Reads

Epidemiology of onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy in the Mbam and Sanaga river valleys of Cameroon: impact of more than 13 years of ivermectin.

Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Dec 3;7(1):114. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Neurology Department, Yaoundé Central Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Background: A high epilepsy prevalence has been reported in several onchocerciasis-endemic villages along the Mbam and Sanaga river valleys in Cameroon, including Bilomo and Kelleng. We sought to determine the prevalence of epilepsy in these two villages following more than 13 years of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI).

Methods: Door-to-door surveys were performed on the entire resident population in the villages in August 2017 and January 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-018-0497-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6276171PMC
December 2018
9 Reads

Clinical presentations of onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE) in Cameroon.

Epilepsy Behav 2019 Jan 1;90:70-78. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Neurology Department, Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon; Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon; Brain Research Africa Initiative (BRAIN), Yaoundé, Cameroon. Electronic address:

Background: A high prevalence of epilepsy has been observed in several onchocerciasis-endemic countries, including Cameroon. However, little is known on the clinical presentations of the affected persons with epilepsy (PWE). A community-based study was conducted with the aim of describing the spectrum of seizures in selected onchocerciasis-endemic villages in Cameroon and documenting relevant medical history in patients with onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15255050183055
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2018.11.008DOI Listing
January 2019
18 Reads

Brevipedicelones D and E, Two C-O-C Flavonoid Dimmers from the Leaves of Garcinia brevipedicellata and Anti-onchocercal Activity.

Nat Prod Bioprospect 2019 Jan 3;9(1):61-68. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Laboratoire de Chimie des Substances Naturelles, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 63 Rue Buffon, 75005, Paris, France.

A novel isoflavone-chromone flavonoid C-O-C dimmer, brevipedicelone D (1), along with one new C-O-C biflavonoid derivative, brevipedicelone E (2), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of Garcinia brevipedicellata, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine in parts of Cameroon. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic techniques, including 1D- and 2D- NMR, MS experiments, as well as comparing their spectral data with those of known analogues. Anti-onchocercal screening of 1 showed moderate inhibition of adult worm motility of Onchocerca ochengi by 60% at the highest concentration (20 µg/mL) and inhibited motility of both the juvenile worms of O. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13659-018-0191-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6328427PMC
January 2019

Community perceptions of epilepsy and its treatment in an onchocerciasis endemic region in Ituri, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Dec 4;7(1):115. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: A recent study in the Logo and Rethy health zones in the Ituri Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) reported that the majority of the persons with epilepsy (PWE) had not been treated with anti-epileptic medication (AEM) or had stopped treatment. Prior to the implementation of an epilepsy treatment programme in these health zones, this study investigated the perceptions and experiences regarding epilepsy and its treatment amongst community leaders, PWE and/or their families, traditional healers and health professionals.

Methods: A total of 14 focus group discussions (FGD) and 39 semi-structured interviews (SSI) were conducted with PWE and/or their family members, community leaders, traditional healers, and health professionals in the Logo and Rethy health zones during February 2-19, 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-018-0498-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6278164PMC
December 2018
9 Reads

High prevalence of onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy in villages in Maridi County, Republic of South Sudan: A community-based survey.

Seizure 2018 Dec 13;63:93-101. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Neglected Tropical Diseases Unit, Ministry of Health, Juba, South Sudan. Electronic address:

Purpose: To determine the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy in an onchocerciasis endemic region of South Sudan.

Methods: In May 2018, a door-to-door household survey was conducted in 8 study sites in an onchocerciasis endemic area in Maridi County.

Results: A total of 2511 households agreed to participate in the study, corresponding to 17,652 individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2018.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291739PMC
December 2018
16 Reads

Baseline characterization of epilepsy in an onchocerciasis endemic area of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Brain Res Bull 2019 Feb 20;145:45-52. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Neurology and School of Public Health, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA; Department of Neurology, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, People's Republic of Congo; Institut National de Recherches Biomedicales, University of Kinshasa, People's Republic of Congo. Electronic address:

Increased epilepsy prevalence is reported in onchocerciasis (OC) endemic areas and is associated with the occurrence of distinct syndromes such as nodding disease and Nakalanga syndrome. To date, a causal relationship between OC and epilepsy is still a matter of controversy. We conducted a case-control study of participants with epilepsy and age- and gender-matched presumably healthy controls to elucidate the relationships between OC and epilepsy and explore the role of inflammation and growth factors in an OC endemic area in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2018.11.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377286PMC
February 2019
29 Reads

Neurological manifestations in Onchocerca volvulus infection: A review.

Brain Res Bull 2019 Feb 17;145:39-44. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; Centre for Tropical Neuroscience, Kampala, Uganda; University of Oxford, Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

Human onchocerciasis, caused by infection by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, is a major neglected public health problem that affects millions of people in the endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Onchocerciasis is known to be associated with skin and eye disease and more recently, neurological features have been recognized as a major manifestation. Especially the latter poses a severe burden on affected individuals and their families. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03619230183028
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2018.08.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6382410PMC
February 2019
11 Reads

Creative use of the priority review voucher by public and not-for-profit actors delivers the first new FDA-approved treatment for river blindness in 20 years.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 11 15;12(11):e0006837. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland.

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006837
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006837DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6237288PMC
November 2018
9 Reads

Novel Findings of Anti-Filarial Drug Target and Structure-Based Virtual Screening for Drug Discovery.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 13;19(11). Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Infection Biology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan 54538, Korea.

Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis caused by filarial nematodes are important diseases leading to considerable morbidity throughout tropical countries. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC), albendazole (ALB), and ivermectin (IVM) used in massive drug administration are not highly effective in killing the long-lived adult worms, and there is demand for the development of novel macrofilaricidal drugs affecting new molecular targets. A Ca binding protein, calumenin, was identified as a novel and nematode-specific drug target for filariasis, due to its involvement in fertility and cuticle development in nematodes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113579DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6274684PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

On-going transmission of human onchocerciasis in the Massangam health district in the West Region of Cameroon: Better understanding transmission dynamics to inform changes in programmatic interventions.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 11 14;12(11):e0006904. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Sightsavers, Haywards Heath, United Kingdom.

Background: Massangam health district (HD), in the West Region of Cameroon, has received ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) for 20 years, however there is evidence of continued high transmission of Onchocerca volvulus. In order to better understand the transmission dynamics in the HD and inform intervention strategies there is a need to delineate the boundaries of the suspected area of high transmission within the wider transmission zone.

Methodology/principal Findings: Parasitological and entomological surveys were conducted to map out the breeding sites of Simulium damnosum and evaluate the prevalence of onchocerciasis in neighbouring communities, including Makouopsap sentinel community. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006904
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6261645PMC
November 2018
15 Reads

The effect of bi-annual community-directed treatment with ivermectin on the incidence of epilepsy in onchocerciasis endemic villages in South Sudan: a study protocol.

Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Nov 14;7(1):112. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Kinsbergen Centrum, Doornstraat 331, 2610, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: Nodding syndrome (NS) is a devastating epileptic illness of unknown aetiology mainly affecting children 5-15 years of age. Head nodding distinguishes NS from other forms of epilepsy. Other manifestations of the illness include mental and physical growth retardation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-018-0496-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234538PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Estimating the elimination feasibility in the 'end game' of control efforts for parasites subjected to regular mass drug administration: Methods and their application to schistosomiasis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 11 12;12(11):e0006794. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Progress towards controlling and eliminating parasitic worms, including schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and lymphatic filariasis, is advancing rapidly as national governments, multinational NGOs, and pharmaceutical companies launch collaborative chemotherapeutic control campaigns. Critical questions remain regarding the potential for achieving elimination of these infections, and analytical methods can help to quickly estimate progress towards-and the probability of achieving-elimination over specific timeframes. Here, we propose the effective reproduction number, Reff, as a proxy of elimination potential for sexually reproducing worms that are subject to poor mating success at very low abundance (positive density dependence, or Allee effects). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6258430PMC
November 2018
10 Reads