991 results match your criteria Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy


Hippocampal α-synuclein pathology correlates with memory impairment in multiple system atrophy.

Brain 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Queen Square Brain Bank for Neurological Disorders, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, 1 Wakefield Street, London WC1N 1PJ, UK.

Recent post-mortem studies reported 22-37% of patients with multiple system atrophy can develop cognitive impairment. With the aim of identifying associations between cognitive impairment including memory impairment and α-synuclein pathology, 148 consecutive patients with pathologically proven multiple system atrophy were reviewed. Among them, 118 (79. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa126DOI Listing

Supratentorial and Infratentorial Lesions in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 3.

Front Neurol 2020 3;11:124. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Brain Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA) is a cerebellum-dominant degenerative disorder that is characterized primarily by infratentorial damage, although less severe supratentorial involvement may contribute to the clinical manifestation. These impairments may result from the efferent loss of the cerebellar cortex and degeneration of the cerebral cortex. We used the three-dimensional fractal dimension (3D-FD) method to quantify the morphological changes in the supratentorial regions and assessed atrophy in the relatively focal regions in patients with SCA3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7062793PMC

Genes to treat excitotoxicity ameliorate the symptoms of the disease in mice models of multiple system atrophy.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2020 Feb 17;127(2):205-212. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by striatonigral degeneration and olivopontocerebellar atrophy. The main hallmark of MSA is the aggregation of alpha-synuclein in oligodendrocytes, which contributes to the dysfunction and death of the oligodendrocytes, followed by neurodegeneration. Studies suggested that oxidative-excitatory pathway is associated with the progression of the disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00702-020-02158-2DOI Listing
February 2020

Neuroimaging Biomarkers in SCA2 Gene Carriers.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Feb 4;21(3). Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Nuclear Medicine at University Hospital, 53100 Siena, Italy.

A variety of Magnetic Resonance (MR) and nuclear medicine (NM) techniques have been used in symptomatic and presymptomatic SCA2 gene carriers to explore,in vivo, the physiopathological biomarkers of the neurological dysfunctions characterizing the associated progressive disease that presents with a cerebellar syndrome, or less frequently, with a levodopa-responsive parkinsonian syndrome. Morphometry performed on T1-weighted images and diffusion MR imaging enable structural and microstructural evaluation of the brain in presymptomatic and symptomatic SCA2 gene carriers, in whom they show the typical pattern of olivopontocerebellar atrophy observed at neuropathological examination. Proton MR spectroscopy reveals, in the pons and cerebellum of SCA2 gene carriers,a more pronounced degree of abnormal neurochemical profile compared to other spinocerebellar ataxias with decreased NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr, increased mi/Cr ratios, and decreased NAA and increased mI concentrations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21031020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7037189PMC
February 2020

Multiple system atrophy.

Int Rev Neurobiol 2019 21;149:137-192. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic, adult-onset, relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative disorder, clinically characterized by various combinations of autonomic failure, parkinsonism and ataxia. The neuropathological hallmark of MSA are glial cytoplasmic inclusions consisting of misfolded α-synuclein. Selective atrophy and neuronal loss in striatonigral and olivopontocerebellar systems underlie the division into two main motor phenotypes of MSA-parkinsonian type and MSA-cerebellar type. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.irn.2019.10.004DOI Listing
June 2020
1.921 Impact Factor

Pathological changes in the cerebellum of patients with multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease-a stereological study.

Brain Pathol 2020 May 6;30(3):576-588. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Research Laboratory for Stereology and Neuroscience, Department of Neurology, Bispebjerg-Frederiksberg Hospital, Nielsine Nielsens Vej 6B, DK-2400, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are synucleinopathies characterized by aggregation of α-synuclein in brain cells. Recent studies have shown that morphological changes in terms of cerebral nerve cell loss and increase in glia cell numbers, the degree of brain atrophy and molecular and epidemiological findings are more severe in MSA than PD. In the present study, we performed a stereological comparison of cerebellar volumes, granule and Purkinje cells in 13 patients diagnosed with MSA [8 MSA-P (striatonigral subtype) and 5 MSA-C (olivopontocerebellar subtype)], 12 PD patients, and 15 age-matched control subjects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12806DOI Listing

Multiple System Atrophy With Predominant Striatonigral Degeneration and TAR DNA-Binding Protein of 43 kDa Pathology: An Unusual Variant of Multiple System Atrophy.

Mov Disord Clin Pract 2019 Nov 6;6(8):661-666. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Department of Pathology Columbia University Medical Center New York New York USA.

Background: The pathological hallmark in MSA is oligodendrocytic glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) containing α-synuclein, in addition to neuronal loss and astrogliosis especially involving the striatonigral and olivopontocerebellar systems. Rarely, TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), a component of ubiquitinated inclusions observed mainly in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration has been demonstrated in cases of MSA and, more recently, was shown to colocalize with α-synuclein pathology in GCIs in 2 patients.

Methods: A 66-year-old woman presented with a syndrome characterized by spasticity, dysautonomia, bulbar dysfunction, and parkinsonism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mdc3.12823DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6856463PMC
November 2019

Neuroradiological Findings in the Spinocerebellar Ataxias.

Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y) 2019 26;9. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Service, Internal Medicine Department, Hospital de Clínicas, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, BR.

Background: The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a group of autosomal dominant degenerative diseases characterized by cerebellar ataxia. Classified according to gene discovery, specific features of the SCAs - clinical, laboratorial, and neuroradiological (NR) - can facilitate establishing the diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to review the particular NR abnormalities in the main SCAs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7916/tohm.v0.682DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6765228PMC
March 2020
1 Read

White matter DNA methylation profiling reveals deregulation of HIP1, LMAN2, MOBP, and other loci in multiple system atrophy.

Acta Neuropathol 2020 01 18;139(1):135-156. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

The Queen Square Brain Bank for Neurological Disorders, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a fatal late-onset neurodegenerative disease. Although presenting with distinct pathological hallmarks, which in MSA consist of glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) containing fibrillar α-synuclein in oligodendrocytes, both MSA and Parkinson's disease are α-synucleinopathies. Pathologically, MSA can be categorized into striatonigral degeneration (SND), olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) or mixed subtypes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-019-02074-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6942018PMC
January 2020
2 Reads

Cross-examining candidate genes implicated in multiple system atrophy.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2019 07 24;7(1):117. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Brain and Mind Centre & Central Clinical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by the clinical triad of parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and autonomic failure, impacting on striatonigral, olivopontocerebellar and autonomic systems. At early stage of the disease, the clinical symptoms of MSA can overlap with those of Parkinson's disease (PD). The key pathological hallmark of MSA is the presence of glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCI) in oligodendrocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-019-0769-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6651992PMC
July 2019
3 Reads

Young-onset multiple system atrophy: Its rarity and heterogeneity.

Mov Disord 2019 07;34(7):1085-1086

Department of Neurology and Movement Disorder Center, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.27716DOI Listing
July 2019
7 Reads

The 'Hot Cross Bun' Sign Is Not Always Multiple System Atrophy: Etiologies of 11 Cases.

J Mov Disord 2019 01 19;12(1):27-30. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Department of Neurology, Movement Disorders, Portland Veterans Administration, Parkinson’s Disease Research, Education and Clinical Center, Portland, OR, USA

Objective: To clarify the specificity of the 'hot cross bun' sign (HCBS) for multiple system atrophy (MSA) in adult cerebellar ataxia or parkinsonism.

Methods: The radiologic information systems at an academic center and affiliated veterans' hospital were queried using the keywords 'hot cross bun,' 'pontocerebellar,' 'cruciate,' 'cruciform,' 'MSA,' 'multiple system atrophy,' and 'multisystem atrophy.' Scans were reviewed by a neurologist and neuroradiologist to identify the HCBS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14802/jmd.18031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369380PMC
January 2019
9 Reads

New Radiologic Findings of Hypertrophic Olivary Degeneration in 2 Patients with Brainstem Lymphoma.

World Neurosurg 2019 Mar 26;123:464-468.e1. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan.

Background: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) is a rare neurological condition of trans-synaptic degeneration caused by disruption of the dentatorubro-olivary pathway. We present new radiologic findings of HOD in 2 cases of brainstem lymphoma.

Case Description: A 35-year-old woman (Case 1) and a 69-year-old man (Case 2) presented with remarkably similar clinical courses. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S18788750183272
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.11.161DOI Listing
March 2019
13 Reads

Neuroimaging Applications in Chronic Ataxias.

Int Rev Neurobiol 2018 29;143:109-162. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Nuclear Medicine, "Le Scotte" University Hospital, Siena, Italy.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are the main instruments for neuroimaging investigation of patients with chronic ataxia. MRI has a predominant diagnostic role in the single patient, based on the visual detection of three patterns of atrophy, namely, spinal atrophy, cortical cerebellar atrophy and olivopontocerebellar atrophy, which correlate with the aetiologies of inherited or sporadic ataxia. In fact spinal atrophy is observed in Friedreich ataxia, cortical cerebellar atrophy in Ataxia Telangectasia, gluten ataxia and Sporadic Adult Onset Ataxia and olivopontocerebellar atrophy in Multiple System Atrophy cerebellar type. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00747742183011
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.irn.2018.09.011DOI Listing
May 2019
36 Reads

Clinics in diagnostic imaging (191). Multiple system atrophy-cerebellar type (MSA-C).

Singapore Med J 2018 Oct;59(10):550-554

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.

A 49-year-old Chinese man was evaluated for progressive uncoordinated movements, dysphagia and urinary symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a cruciform pattern of T2-weighted hyperintensity within the pons and selective atrophy of the cerebellar hemispheres and pons. The clinical history and radiological findings were consistent with a diagnosis of multiple system atrophy-cerebellar type. Read More

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http://www.smj.org.sg/article/clinics-diagnostic-imaging-191
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2018128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6199191PMC
October 2018
47 Reads

Hypertrophic Olivary Degeneration Following Listerial Rhombencephalitis.

Authors:
Seong-Il Oh

Can J Neurol Sci 2018 09;45(5):593-595

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cjn.2018.324DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Converging Patterns of α-Synuclein Pathology in Multiple System Atrophy.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2018 11;77(11):1005-1016

Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research (CNDR), University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

We aimed to determine patterns of α-synuclein (α-syn) pathology in multiple system atrophy (MSA) using 70-µm-thick sections of 20 regions of the central nervous system of 37 cases with striato-nigral degeneration (SND) and 10 cases with olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (OPCA). In SND cases with the shortest disease duration (phase 1), α-syn pathology was observed in striatum, lentiform nucleus, substantia nigra, brainstem white matter tracts, cerebellar subcortical white matter as well as motor cortex, midfrontal cortex, and sensory cortex. SND with increasing duration of disease (phase 2) was characterized by involvement of spinal cord and thalamus, while phase 3 was characterized by involvement of hippocampus and amygdala. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nly080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6181179PMC
November 2018
23 Reads
3.800 Impact Factor

Young-onset multiple system atrophy: Clinical and pathological features.

Mov Disord 2018 07;33(7):1099-1107

University College London (UCL) Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

Background: The onset of multiple system atrophy (MSA) before age 40 years is referred to as "young-onset MSA." We identified clinical and pathological characteristics that might help with its early diagnosis and distinction from young-onset Parkinson's disease and late-onset MSA.

Methods: We reviewed the available clinical and pathological features in cases that fulfilled consensus criteria for diagnosis of probable MSA or had autopsy confirmed MSA with an onset before age 40 years and compared the clinical features with 16 autopsy confirmed cases with young-onset Parkinson's disease and a large published series of late-onset MSA from the European MSA Study Group. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/mds.27450
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.27450DOI Listing
July 2018
26 Reads

De novo variant in KIF26B is associated with pontocerebellar hypoplasia with infantile spinal muscular atrophy.

Am J Med Genet A 2018 12 27;176(12):2623-2629. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Division of Newborn Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

KIF26B is a member of the kinesin superfamily with evolutionarily conserved functions in controlling aspects of embryogenesis, including the development of the nervous system, though its function is incompletely understood. We describe an infant with progressive microcephaly, pontocerebellar hypoplasia, and arthrogryposis secondary to the involvement of anterior horn cells and ventral (motor) nerves. We performed whole exome sequencing on the trio and identified a de novo KIF26B missense variant, p. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.40493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6481602PMC
December 2018
7 Reads
2.160 Impact Factor

A Chemical Biology Approach to Model Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia Type 1B (PCH1B).

ACS Chem Biol 2018 10 6;13(10):3000-3010. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Department of Pharmacology , College of Medicine, University of Arizona , Tucson , Arizona 85724 , United States.

Mutations of EXOSC3 have been linked to the rare neurological disorder known as Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia type 1B (PCH1B). EXOSC3 is one of three putative RNA-binding structural cap proteins that guide RNA into the RNA exosome, the cellular machinery that degrades RNA. Using RNAcompete, we identified a G-rich RNA motif binding to EXOSC3. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acschembio.8b00745
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschembio.8b00745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6504997PMC
October 2018
52 Reads
5.331 Impact Factor

Sarcomeric disorganization and nemaline bodies in muscle biopsies of patients with EXOSC3-related type 1 pontocerebellar hypoplasia.

Muscle Nerve 2019 01 16;59(1):137-141. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Unité de Morphologie Neuromusculaire, Institut de Myologie, Sorbonne University, INSERM UMR 974, Groupe Hospitalier Universitaire La Pitié-Salpêtrière, 75013, Paris, France.

Introduction: Mutations in the EXOSC3 gene are responsible for type 1 pontocerebellar hypoplasia, an autosomal recessive congenital disorder characterized by cerebellar atrophy, developmental delay, and anterior horn motor neuron degeneration. Muscle biopsies of these patients often show characteristics resembling classic spinal muscle atrophy, but to date, no distinct features have been identified.

Methods: Clinical data and muscle biopsy findings of 3 unrelated patients with EXOSC3 mutations are described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.26305DOI Listing
January 2019
13 Reads

Three human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases have distinct sub-mitochondrial localizations that are unaffected by disease-associated mutations.

J Biol Chem 2018 08 13;293(35):13604-13615. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

From the Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Architecture et Réactivité de l'ARN, UPR9002, F-67084 Strasbourg, France and

Human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mt-aaRSs) are key enzymes in the mitochondrial protein translation system and catalyze the charging of amino acids on their cognate tRNAs. Mutations in their nuclear genes are associated with pathologies having a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes, but with no clear molecular mechanism(s). For example, mutations in the nuclear genes encoding mt-AspRS and mt-ArgRS are correlated with the moderate neurodegenerative disorder leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL) and with the severe neurodevelopmental disorder pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 6 (PCH6), respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.003400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6120215PMC
August 2018
20 Reads

Immunohistochemical and Molecular Investigations Show Alteration in the Inflammatory Profile of Multiple System Atrophy Brain.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2018 07;77(7):598-607

Queen Square Brain Bank for Neurological Disorders, Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by aggregation of α-synuclein in oligodendrocytes to form glial cytoplasmic inclusions. According to the distribution of neurodegeneration, MSA is subtyped as striatonigral degeneration (SND), olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), or as combination of these 2 (mixed MSA). In the current study, we aimed to investigate regional microglial populations and gene expression in the 3 different MSA subtypes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nly035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6005028PMC
July 2018
43 Reads

[Multisemic atrophy: a description of the clinical case of olivopontocerebellar atrophy against the background of stenosing atherosclerotic vascular lesions].

Wiad Lek 2018;71(3 pt 1):603-606

The Higher State Educational Institution Of Ukraine "Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy", Poltava, Ukraina.

Features of the onset, the course of the disease causes difficulties in the early diagnosis and formulation of the correct diagnosis. Olivopontocerebellar atrophy is characterized by a broad polymorphism of clinical manifestations. There is a need to develop new methods of symptomatic and neuroprotective treatment, as well as the optimization of non-drug therapy. Read More

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August 2018
9 Reads

Spatial correlation and segregation of multimodal MRI abnormalities in multiple system atrophy.

J Neurol 2018 Jul 25;265(7):1540-1547. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Department of Neurology, Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beomo-ri, Mulgum-eup, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do, 626-770, Republic of Korea.

Objective: The variability of the severity and regional distribution of pathological process in basal ganglia (BG) and brainstem-cerebellar systems results in clinical heterogeneity and represents the motor subtype of multiple system atrophy (MSA). This study aimed to quantify spatial patterns of multimodal MRI abnormalities in BG and stem-CB regions and define structural MRI findings that correlate with clinical characteristics.

Methods: We simultaneously measured R2*, mean diffusivity (MD), and volume in the subcortical structures (BG, thalamus, brainstem-cerebellar regions) of 39 probable MSA and 22 control subjects. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00415-018-8874-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-018-8874-zDOI Listing
July 2018
17 Reads
3.380 Impact Factor

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1 for the neuropediatrician: Genotype-phenotype correlations and diagnostic guidelines based on new cases and overview of the literature.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2018 Jul 3;22(4):674-681. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

VIB Center for Molecular Neurology, University of Antwerp, Belgium; Molecular Medicine Center, Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Medical University-Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria. Electronic address:

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1 (PCH1) is a major cause of non-5q spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). We screened 128 SMN1-negative SMA patients from Bulgaria for a frequent mutation -p.G31A in EXOSC3, and performed a literature review of all genetically verified PCH1 cases. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10903798173196
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2018.03.011DOI Listing
July 2018
9 Reads

LRRK2 p.Ile1371Val Mutation in a Case with Neuropathologically Confirmed Multi-System Atrophy.

J Parkinsons Dis 2018 ;8(1):93-100

Parkinson's Institute and Clinical Center, Sunnyvale, CA, USA.

Background: Mutations in the leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are among the most common genetic causes of Lewy body Parkinson's disease (PD). However, LRRK2 mutations can also lead to a variety of pathological phenotypes other than typical PD, including relatively pure nigrostriatal cell loss without alpha-synuclein-positive Lewy bodies or Lewy neurites, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). The mechanisms behind this remarkable pleomorphic pathology are currently unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JPD-171237DOI Listing
October 2019
17 Reads

The Relevance of Iron in the Pathogenesis of Multiple System Atrophy: A Viewpoint.

J Alzheimers Dis 2018 ;61(4):1253-1273

Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Iron is essential for cellular development and maintenance of multiple physiological processes in the central nervous system. The disturbance of its homeostasis leads to abnormal iron deposition in the brain and causes neurotoxicity via generation of free radicals and oxidative stress. Iron toxicity has been established in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease; however, its contribution to multiple system atrophy (MSA) remains elusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-170601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5798525PMC
January 2019
16 Reads

Whole exome sequencing diagnoses the first fetal case of Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome presenting as pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1.

Birth Defects Res 2018 04 8;110(6):538-542. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Unité d'Embryofœtopathologie, Service d'Histologie Embryologie Cytogénétique, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), Paris, France.

Background: Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome (BRPS) is a recently identified severe disorder characterized by failure to thrive, facial dysmorphism, and severe developmental delay, caused by de novo dominant loss of function mutation in the ASXL3 gene.

Case: We report here the first case of prenatal BRPS in a fetus presenting with arthrogryposis on ultrasound and for pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1 (PCH1) following neuropathological examination. The diagnosis was done by whole exome sequencing that identified a novel de novo ASXL3 mutation. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/bdr2.1191
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdr2.1191DOI Listing
April 2018
39 Reads

Progressive striatonigral degeneration in a transgenic mouse model of multiple system atrophy: translational implications for interventional therapies.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2018 01 3;6(1). Epub 2018 Jan 3.

Division of Neurobiology, Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innrain 66 / G2, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria.

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by widespread oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions of filamentous α-synuclein, and neuronal loss in autonomic centres, basal ganglia and cerebellar circuits. It has been suggested that primary oligodendroglial α-synucleinopathy may represent a trigger in the pathogenesis of MSA, but the mechanisms underlying selective vulnerability and disease progression are unclear. The post-mortem analysis of MSA brains provides a static final picture of the disease neuropathology, but gives no clear indication on the sequence of pathogenic events in MSA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-017-0504-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5753576PMC
January 2018
22 Reads

Multiple system atrophy: Building a global community - 30years of advocacy efforts.

Authors:
Pamela G Bower

Auton Neurosci 2018 05 16;211:39-42. Epub 2017 Dec 16.

The Multiple System Atrophy Coalition, Inc., 9935-D Rea Rd, #212, Charlotte, NC 28277, USA. Electronic address:

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, progressive and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disease with no known cause and no available disease modifying treatment. Known previously by various names including Shy-Drager Syndrome, olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) and striatonigral degeneration, MSA can be classified simultaneously as a movement disorder, an autonomic disorder, a cerebellar ataxia and an atypical parkinsonian disorder. Despite scholarly attempts to better describe the disease, awareness among medical practitioners about multiple system atrophy as a diagnostic possibility has been slow to catch on. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15660702173020
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autneu.2017.12.006DOI Listing
May 2018
17 Reads

Unilateral Symptomatic Hypertrophic Olivary Degeneration Secondary to Midline Brainstem Cavernous Angioma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

World Neurosurg 2018 Feb 20;110:294-300. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Drexel Neurosciences Institute, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) is a rare phenomenon in the dento-rubro-olivary pathway caused by lesion or disruption of the fibers of the Guillain-Mollaret triangle. Hemorrhage of pontine and midbrain cavernous angiomas can rarely lead to HOD portending neurologic deterioration and possible concomitant life-threatening complications; for this reason, it may define a poignant consideration in planning intervention.

Case Description: The patient was a 57-year-old woman with known midbrain-pontine cavernous angioma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2017.10.061DOI Listing
February 2018
12 Reads
2.417 Impact Factor

Multiple System Atrophy: An Oligodendroglioneural Synucleinopathy1.

Authors:
Kurt A Jellinger

J Alzheimers Dis 2018 ;62(3):1141-1179

Institute of Clinical Neurobiology, Vienna, Austria.

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an orphan, fatal, adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder of uncertain etiology that is clinically characterized by various combinations of parkinsonism, cerebellar, autonomic, and motor dysfunction. MSA is an α-synucleinopathy with specific glioneuronal degeneration involving striatonigral, olivopontocerebellar, and autonomic nervous systems but also other parts of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The major clinical variants correlate with the morphologic phenotypes of striatonigral degeneration (MSA-P) and olivopontocerebellar atrophy (MSA-C). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-170397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5870010PMC
May 2019
27 Reads

Recent advances in neuropathology, biomarkers and therapeutic approach of multiple system atrophy.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2018 02 31;89(2):175-184. Epub 2017 Aug 31.

Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by a variable combination of autonomic failure, levodopa-unresponsive parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and pyramidal symptoms. The pathological hallmark is the oligodendrocytic glial cytoplasmic inclusion (GCI) consisting of α-synuclein; therefore, MSA is included in the category of α-synucleinopathies. MSA has been divided into two clinicopathological subtypes: MSA with predominant parkinsonism and MSA with predominant cerebellar ataxia, which generally correlate with striatonigral degeneration and olivopontocerebellar atrophy, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2017-315813DOI Listing
February 2018
21 Reads

Role of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor in Cerebellar Motor Control and Ataxia.

Curr Biol 2017 Sep 24;27(17):2661-2669.e5. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Department of Biological Science and Technology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:

Cerebellar ataxia, characterized by motor incoordination, postural instability, and gait abnormality [1-3], greatly affects daily activities and quality of life. Although accumulating genetic and non-genetic etiological factors have been revealed [4-7], effective therapies for cerebellar ataxia are still lacking. Intriguingly, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a peptide hormone and neurotransmitter [8, 9], is considered a putative neurotransmitter in the olivo-cerebellar system [10-14]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.07.035DOI Listing
September 2017
7 Reads

Recessive mutation in EXOSC3 associates with mitochondrial dysfunction and pontocerebellar hypoplasia.

Mitochondrion 2017 11 4;37:46-54. Epub 2017 Jul 4.

NeuroCure Clinical Research Center (NCRC), Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Germany; Department of Neuropediatrics, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Germany. Electronic address:

Recessive mutations in EXOSC3, encoding a subunit of the human RNA exosome complex, cause pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1b (PCH1B). We report a boy with severe muscular hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, progressive microcephaly, and cerebellar atrophy. Biochemical abnormalities comprised mitochondrial complex I and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) deficiency. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15677249163028
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mito.2017.06.007DOI Listing
November 2017
15 Reads

A New Patient With Intermediate Severe Salla Disease With Hypomyelination: A Literature Review for Salla Disease.

Pediatr Neurol 2017 Sep 1;74:87-91.e2. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Genetics and Genome Biology Program, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario Canada; Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Likely pathogenic variants in SLC17A5 results in allelic disorders of free sialic acid metabolism including (1) infantile free sialic acid storage disease with severe global developmental delay, coarse facial features, hepatosplenomegaly, and cardiomegaly; (2) intermediate severe Salla disease with moderate to severe global developmental delay, hypotonia, and hypomyelination with or without coarse facial features, and (3) Salla disease with normal appearance, mild cognitive dysfunction, and spasticity.

Patient Description: This five-year-old girl presented with infantile-onset severe global developmental delay, truncal hypotonia, and generalized dystonia following normal development during her first six months of life. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed marked hypomyelination and a thin corpus callosum at age 19 months, both unchanged on follow-up at age 28 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2017.05.022DOI Listing
September 2017
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Extension of the phenotype of biallelic loss-of-function mutations in SLC25A46 to the severe form of pontocerebellar hypoplasia type I.

Clin Genet 2018 02 8;93(2):255-265. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Institute of Human Genetics, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Biallelic mutations in SLC25A46, encoding a modified solute transporter involved in mitochondrial dynamics, have been identified in a wide range of conditions such as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with optic atrophy type VIB (OMIM: *610826) and congenital lethal pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH). To date, 18 patients from 13 families have been reported, presenting with the key clinical features of optic atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, and cerebellar atrophy. The course of the disease was highly variable ranging from severe muscular hypotonia at birth and early death to first manifestations in late childhood and survival into the fifties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13084DOI Listing
February 2018
1 Read

Multiple system atrophy: clinicopathological characteristics in Japanese patients.

Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci 2017 ;93(5):251-258

Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University.

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder that has both clinical and pathological variants. Clinical examples include MSA with predominant cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C) and MSA with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P), whereas olivopontocerebellar atrophy and striatonigral degeneration represent pathological variants. We performed systematic reviews of studies that addressed the relative frequencies of clinical or pathological variants of MSA in various populations to determine the clinicopathological characteristics in Japanese MSA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2183/pjab.93.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5489432PMC
May 2017
34 Reads

Perirhinal accumulation of neuronal alpha-synuclein in a multiple system atrophy patient with dementia.

Neuropathology 2017 Oct 16;37(5):431-440. Epub 2017 Apr 16.

Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

We report the case of a 79-year-old Japanese woman who developed cerebellar ataxia followed by rigidity, dysautonomia and cognitive disorders, and was thus clinically diagnosed as having possible MSA with dementia. Neuropathological findings demonstrated not only olivopontocerebellar and striatonigral degeneration with frequent glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs), but also degenerative changes in the parahippocampal region, accentuated in the anterior portion of perirhinal cortex, where neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) and NFTs were numerous while GCIs were limited. NCIs were frequent in the deep layer, whereas NFTs were more frequent in superficial cortical layers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/neup.12381DOI Listing
October 2017
48 Reads

Mutations of EXOSC3/Rrp40p associated with neurological diseases impact ribosomal RNA processing functions of the exosome in .

RNA 2017 04 4;23(4):466-472. Epub 2017 Jan 4.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and the Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1569, USA.

The RNA exosome is a conserved multiprotein complex that achieves a large number of processive and degradative functions in eukaryotic cells. Recently, mutations have been mapped to the gene encoding one of the subunits of the exosome, EXOSC3 (yeast Rrp40p), which results in pontocerebellar hypoplasia with motor neuron degeneration in human patients. However, the molecular impact of these mutations in the pathology of these diseases is not well understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1261/rna.060004.116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5340910PMC
April 2017
12 Reads

PET and MRI detection of early and progressive neurodegeneration in spinocerebellar ataxia type 36.

Mov Disord 2017 02 10;32(2):264-273. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Group, University Hospital of Santiago de Compostela (CHUS), IDIS Health Research Institute, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Background: The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) form a clinically, genetically, and pathological heterogeneous group of autosomal-dominant degenerative diseases. In particular, SCA36 is characterized by a late-onset, slowly progressive cerebellar syndrome typically associated with sensorineural hearing loss. This study was aimed at analyzing the neurodegenerative process underlying SCA36 through fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and MRI scans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.26854DOI Listing
February 2017
34 Reads

Does the Type of Multisystem Atrophy, Parkinsonism, or Cerebellar Ataxia Impact on the Nature of Sleep Disorders?

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2016 12;16(12):105

Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, Università of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a combination of autonomic failure, parkinsonism, and/or cerebellar ataxia. The cause of MSA is unknown, but neuropathologically the disease is characterized by widespread α-synuclein-positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions and striatonigral and/or olivopontocerebellar neurodegeneration. Two motor phenotypes have been clinically identified: parkinsonian (MSA-P) and cerebellar (MSA-C). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11910-016-0704-zDOI Listing
December 2016
28 Reads

Novel homozygous RARS2 mutation in two siblings without pontocerebellar hypoplasia - further expansion of the phenotypic spectrum.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2016 10 21;11(1):140. Epub 2016 Oct 21.

Department of General Pediatrics, Adolescent Medicine and Neonatology, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg, Germany.

Background: Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 6 (PCH6) is a mitochondrial disease caused by mutations in the RARS2 gene. RARS2 encodes mitochondrial arginyl transfer RNA synthetase, an enzyme involved in mitochondrial protein translation. A total of 27 patients from 14 families have been reported so far. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-016-0525-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5073905PMC
October 2016
22 Reads

Dystonia in ATP2B3-associated X-linked spinocerebellar ataxia.

Mov Disord 2016 11 22;31(11):1752-1753. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

Program in Neuroscience, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.26800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5380585PMC
November 2016
51 Reads

Brain morphometry in Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia type 2.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2016 07 19;11(1):100. Epub 2016 Jul 19.

Department of Child Neurology, Children's Hospital, University of Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 1, 72072, Tübingen, Germany.

Background: Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2 (PCH2) is caused by a defect in the TSEN54-gene and leads to severe and early disruption of brain development, especially of cerebellum and pons. The aim of this work was to quantify the infra- and supratentorial brain growth during postnatal brain development in children with PCH2.

Methods: MRI data of 24 children with PCH2 (age 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-016-0481-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4950429PMC
July 2016
13 Reads

New susceptible variant of COQ2 gene in Japanese patients with sporadic multiple system atrophy.

Neurol Genet 2016 Apr 3;2(2):e54. Epub 2016 Mar 3.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Japan.

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the variations of coenzyme Q2 4-hydroxybenzoate polyprenyltransferase gene (COQ2) and Japanese patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA).

Methods: We investigated the genetic variations in exons 1, 2, 6, and 7 of the COQ2 gene in 133 Japanese patients with MSA and 200 controls and analyzed the association between the variations and MSA.

Results: Six DNA variations (G21S, L25V, V66L, P157S, V393A, and X422K) were found in the 133 patients with MSA, and G21S and X422K were new variations that had never been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXG.0000000000000054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4830192PMC
April 2016
8 Reads

Frequent globular neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in the medial temporal region as a possible characteristic feature in multiple system atrophy with dementia.

Neuropathology 2016 Oct 11;36(5):421-431. Epub 2016 Mar 11.

Department of Neurology, Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, Japan.

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease, which is characterized clinically by parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and/or autonomic dysfunction, and pathologically by alpha-synuclein-related multisystem neurodegeneration, so-called alpha-synucleinopathy, which particularly involves the striatonigral and olivopontocerebellar systems, with glial cytoplasmic inclusions and neuronal cytoplasmic/nuclear inclusions (NCIs/NNIs). In the recent consensus criteria for the diagnosis of MSA, dementia is described as one of the features not supporting a diagnosis of MSA. However, MSA with dementia has been reported, although the location of the lesion responsible for the dementia remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/neup.12289DOI Listing
October 2016
38 Reads

Coenzyme Q10 Levels Are Decreased in the Cerebellum of Multiple-System Atrophy Patients.

PLoS One 2016 19;11(2):e0149557. Epub 2016 Feb 19.

Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom.

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the levels of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in brain tissue of multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients differ from those in elderly controls and in patients with other neurodegenerative diseases.

Methods: Flash frozen brain tissue of a series of 20 pathologically confirmed MSA patients [9 olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) type, 6 striatonigral degeneration (SND) type, and 5 mixed type] was used for this study. Elderly controls (n = 37) as well as idiopathic Parkinson's disease (n = 7), dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 20), corticobasal degeneration (n = 15) and cerebellar ataxia (n = 18) patients were used as comparison groups. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0149557PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4760984PMC
July 2016
63 Reads