192,132 results match your criteria Ocular Manifestations of HIV


Gelatinized core liposomes: A new Trojan horse for the development of a novel timolol maleate glaucoma medication.

Int J Pharm 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy , Ain Shams University, African Union Street Authority Street, Abbassia, 11566 Cairo, Egypt.

Glaucoma treatment with ocular medications requires overcoming the corneal barrier to drug penetration. Liposomes have a great corneal penetration ability and affinity while suffering from poor stability and low entrapment of hydrophilic drugs accompanied by rapid drug release. This work aims to develop a new, effective and stable glaucoma medication with sustained drug release properties; Timolol maleate gelatinized core liposomes. Read More

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December 2018

Dual 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate - 0.1% disodium EDTA loaded thermosensitive ocular gel for Acanthamoeba keratitis treatment.

Int J Pharm 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Service Pharmaceutique, Plateforme Fripharm, Groupe Hospitalier Centre Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 5, Place d'Arsonval, F-69437 Lyon cedex 03, France; Université de Lyon, Laboratoire de Pharmacie Galénique Industrielle, UMR-CNRS 5305, Plateforme Fripharm, ISPB-Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 8, avenue Rockefeller, F-69373 Lyon Cedex 08, France. Electronic address: http://fripharm.com.

Poor bioavailability and low residence time limit the efficiency of conventional biguanide-based eye drops against Acanthamoeba keratitis. The aim of this work was to formulate an original anti-amoebic thermoreversible ocular gel combining biguanide and metalloproteases inhibitor - chelating agent. Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (NaEDTA) were compounded in poloxamer 407 saline solution. Read More

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December 2018

Immune cells in the retina and choroid: Two different tissue environments that require different defenses and surveillance.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

In the eye immune defenses must take place in a plethora of differing microenvironments ranging from the corneal and conjunctival epithelia facing the external environment to the pigmented connective tissue of the uveal tract containing smooth muscle, blood vessels and peripheral nerves to the innermost and highly protected neural retina. The extravascular environment of the neural retina, like the brain parenchyma, is stringently controlled to maintain conditions required for neural transmission. The unique physiological nature of the neural retina can be attributed to the blood retinal barriers (BRB) of the retinal vasculature and the retinal pigment epithelium, which both tightly regulate the transport of small molecules and restrict passage of cells and macromolecules from the circulation into the retina in a similar fashion to the blood brain barrier (BBB). Read More

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December 2018

Protocol for evaluation of topical ophthalmic drug products in different compartments of fresh eye tissues in a rabbit model.

J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Office of Translational Science, Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Division of Applied Regulatory Science, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, White Oak Federal Research Center, 10903 New Hampshire Ave, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA. Electronic address:

Topical ophthalmic drugs are the most commonly used dosage form to treat diseases of the anterior segment of the eye. Although this dosage form has the advantages of ease of application, small volume dose, and rapid action and is largely devoid of systemic adverse effects, the bioavailability is low due to pre-corneal anatomical barriers and the nature of the drug formulation itself. Some complex generic formulations (suspensions, ointments, gels) for topical ophthalmic products face impediments to rapid regulatory approval because of the complex nature of the formulations and difficulties in determining bioequivalence with the innovator product. Read More

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December 2018

Tear Inflammatory Cytokines Analysis and Clinical Correlations in Diabetes and Non-diabetes with Dry Eye.

Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Restoration of Damaged Ocular Nerve, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, 100191, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To enhance the understanding of dry eye (DE) in diabetes by evaluating the ocular surface characteristics and the levels of tear inflammatory cytokines.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Methods: Subjects were divided into four groups: 32 patients in diabetes with DE group; 24 patients in diabetes without DE group; 28 patients in non-diabetes with DE group and 29 volunteers in normal group. Read More

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December 2018

Association of age-related macular degeneration with mortality in patients with AIDS; role of systemic inflammation.

Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine, the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the relationships among age-related macular degeneration (AMD), mortality, and biomarkers of systemic inflammation in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Design: Case control study.

Participants: Participants with intermediate-stage AMD at enrollment in the Longitudinal Study of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (LSOCA) and 2:1 controls matched for age and gender. Read More

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December 2018

Management of invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the conjunctiva Treatment of invasive conjunctival carcinoma.

Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Pasteur 2 Teaching Hospital, Nice, France.

Purpose: Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia includes a spectrum of diseases from dysplasia to invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva. Whether the degree of invasion influences outcomes is debated. We evaluated the outcomes and management of conjunctival carcinomas defined as ≤0. Read More

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December 2018

What Is Behind Cerebellar Vertigo and Dizziness?

Cerebellum 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377, Munich, Germany.

The differential diagnosis of vertigo or dizziness as a result of cerebellar disorders can be difficult as many patients with a cerebellar pathology do not present with the full spectrum of cerebellar signs. The main goal of this study was to describe the typical clinical features of these patients with vertigo or dizziness of a cerebellar origin. We reviewed the medical records of 5400 patients with vertigo and dizziness from our tertiary outpatient clinic for vertigo and balance disorders. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of botulinum toxin type A on the treatment of dry eye disease and tear cytokines.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Purpose: To determine the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection on dry eye signs, symptoms, and tear cytokine levels in patients with intractable dry eye disease (DED).

Methods: In this prospective study, patients with intractable DED were randomized to a BTX-A (group A) or control group (group B). Patients were injected with BTX-A or normal saline in the medial part of the upper and lower eyelids. Read More

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December 2018

Lymphatic Vascular Structures: A New Aspect in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 13;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Research Programs Unit, Genome-Scale Biology, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common diabetic microvascular complication and major cause of blindness in working-age adults. According to the level of microvascular degeneration and ischemic damage, DR is classified into non-proliferative DR (NPDR), and end-stage, proliferative DR (PDR). Despite advances in the disease etiology and pathogenesis, molecular understanding of end-stage PDR, characterized by ischemia- and inflammation-associated neovascularization and fibrosis, remains incomplete due to the limited availability of ideal clinical samples and experimental research models. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Nanostructured lipid carriers: A potential use for skin drug delivery systems.

Pharmacol Rep 2018 Oct 11;71(1):156-166. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Medical University of Bialystok, Białystok, Poland. Electronic address:

Skin application of pharmaceutical products is one of the methods used for drug administration. The problem of limited drug penetration via topical application makes searching for safe drug carriers that will provide an expected therapeutic effect of utmost importance. Research into safe drug carriers began with liposome structures, paving the way for work with nanocarriers, which currently play a large role as drug vehicles. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

New Year's Resolutions for The Ocular Surface Journal.

Authors:
Ali R Djalilian

Ocul Surf 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 1855 W. Taylor Street, EEI, 3164 Chicago, IL 60612, USA. Electronic address:

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December 2018

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Differentially Regulate Intraocular Pressure.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5904-5911

The Gill Center for Biomolecular Science and the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, United States.

Purpose: It has been known for nearly 50 years that cannabis and the psychoactive constituent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reduce intraocular pressure (IOP). Elevated IOP remains the chief hallmark and therapeutic target for glaucoma, a major cause of blindness. THC likely acts via one of the known cannabinoid-related receptors (CB1, CB2, GPR18, GPR119, GPR55) but this has never been determined explicitly. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

A multigene typing system for human adenoviruses reveals a new genotype in a collection of Swedish clinical isolates.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209038. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology, and Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are common pathogens that can cause respiratory, gastrointestinal, urogenital, and ocular infections. They are divided into seven species containing 85 genotypes. Straightforward typing systems might help epidemiological investigations. Read More

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December 2018

Serological and PCR-based markers of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis transmission in northern Ghana after elimination of trachoma as a public health problem.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 14;12(12):e0007027. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Clinical Research Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Validation of elimination of trachoma as a public health problem is based on clinical indicators, using the WHO simplified grading system. Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection and anti-Ct antibody responses (anti-Pgp3) have both been evaluated as alternative indicators in settings with varying levels of trachoma. There is a need to evaluate the feasibility of using tests for Ct infection and anti-Pgp3 antibodies at scale in a trachoma-endemic country and to establish the added value of the data generated for understanding transmission dynamics in the peri-elimination setting. Read More

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December 2018

A Prospective Comparative Study Between Subcuticular and Sutureless Technique of Skin Closure Following External Dacryocystorhinostomy.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Orbit Oculoplasty Reconstructive and Aesthetic Services, Aditya Birla Sankara Nethralaya, Kolkata, India.

Purpose: To compare the cosmetic outcome of the surgical scar of external dacryocystorhinostomy by the subcuticular versus sutureless technique.

Methods: This was a prospective interventional randomized control study conducted at tertiary level hospital. Fifty patients of primary-acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction were included in this study. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Ocular Considerations in Face Transplantation: Report of 2 Cases and Review of the Literature.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

The Hansjörg Wyss Department of Plastic Surgery and.

Purpose: Periorbital injuries are common in face transplantation (FT) candidates. It is therefore essential that the ophthalmologist play a central role in the multidisciplinary treatment of these patients. In this study, the authors perform a comprehensive review of all procedures involving periorbital components, provide an update for the ophthalmology community regarding the current state of the field, and present 2 cases. Read More

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December 2018
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[The application value of suppression head impulse paradigm in vestibular neuritis].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018 Sep;32(18):1374-1377

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Second Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710004, China.

To study the parameters of the suppression head impulse paradigm of vestibular neuritis and explore the application value of suppression head impulse paradigm in vestibular neuritis.Twenty patients with vestibular neuritis in our outpatient clinic were selected. The HIMP and SHIMP gain of unilateral vestibular neuritis patients were detected by video pulse detector. Read More

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September 2018

[Analysis of features of ocular tilt reaction for patients with vestibular neuritis].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018 Jul;32(14):1091-1094

Department of Ophthalmology, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region People's Hospital.

To analyze the clinical characteristics of ocular tilt reaction in vestibular neuritis patients and discuss its value to the diagnosis of vestibular neuritis.Thirty-five patients with vestibular neuritis confirmed between January 2016 and March 2018 underwent bedside vestibular function physical examination including nystagmus, head impulse test(HIT),head shaking nystagmus(HSN), ocular tilt reaction(OTR), Romberg sign, Fukuda stepping. All patients underwent head CT scan and brain MRI scan + DWI to exclude bleeding and infarction. Read More

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Dry eye symptoms and associated risk factors among adults aged 50 or more years in Central Mexico.

Salud Publica Mex 2018 Sep-Oct;60(5):520-527

Departamento de Epidemiología Ocular y Salud Visual, Instituto de Oftalmología Conde de Valenciana. Mexico City, Mexico.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of dry eye symptoms (DES) and associated risk factors among adults in Tlaxcala, Mexico.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional population-based study that included 1 508 individuals aged ≥50 years who answered the Dry Eye Questionnaire (DEQ5), with a score ranging between 0 and 22; the following categories were defined: no DES (<6); mild-moderate DES (6 to 11) and severe DES (≥12).

Results: The prevalence of DES was 41. Read More

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Management of Postoperative Ocular Hypotony after Tube Surgery by Stenting Using Two 5-0 Nylon Threads.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec;32(6):523-524

Department of Ophthalmology, Kim's Eye Hospital, Myung-Gok Eye Research Institute, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

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December 2018

Evaluation of Tear Film Lipid Layer Thickness Measurements Obtained Using an Ocular Surface Interferometer in Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Patients.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec;32(6):445-450

Department of Ophthalmology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea.

Purpose: To compare the tear film lipid layer thickness (LLT) between patients with incomplete nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) and normal controls and to analyze the changes in tear film LLT and blinking pattern after silicone tube intubation in NLDO patients.

Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 68 eyes in 52 incomplete NLDO patients who underwent silicone tube intubation from January 2017 to July 2017. The LLT, blinking pattern, and Meibomian gland image were measured with the LipiView II ocular surface interferometer. Read More

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December 2018

Postoperative volumetric modulated arc therapy for sinonasal cancer: Improved survival compared with 3D conformal radiation therapy.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Radiation Therapy, Centre Jean Perrin, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Background: Prospective evaluation of the results of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for sinonasal cancer compared to 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT).

Materials And Methods: We prospectively evaluated 34 patients (pts) treated with postoperative VMAT with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB; RapidArc) from 2011 to 2015. These pts were retrospectively compared with 24 pts treated with 3DCRT from 2003 to 2011. Read More

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December 2018

Optic Disc Coloboma in children - prevalence, clinical characteristics and associated morbidity.

Acta Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Purpose: The aim of the study was to report prevalence, ocular outcome, neurological characteristics, cognitive and behavioural problems in children with optic disc coloboma (ODC).

Methods: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study of 31 children between 2 and 18 years of age diagnosed with ODC. The children were part of a larger cohort of 184 children with congenital optic disc malformations. Read More

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December 2018
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Vestibular atelectasis: Decoding pressure and sound-induced nystagmus with bilateral vestibulopathy.

Laryngoscope 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, County General and Veterans Hospital Vukovar, Vukovar, Croatia.

We present the case of a 27-year-old male who presented with vertigo when pressing the entrance of his right auditory meatus and exposing his right ear to loud noise. A diagnostic procedure revealed bilateral labyrinth weakness, which was confirmed by caloric and rotational testing. The ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials investigation demonstrated a significant weakness of the right utriculus, whereas the cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials were normal, indicating preservation of the saccular response. Read More

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December 2018

Conjunctival melanoma and electrochemotherapy: preliminary results using 2D and 3D cell culture models in vitro.

Acta Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Liverpool Ocular Oncology Research Group, Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Purpose: To investigate the cytotoxic effect of bleomycin, mitomycin C (MMC) and Fluorouracil (5-FU) in combination with electroporation (EP) on human conjunctival melanoma (CM) and normal conjunctival cell lines using 2D and 3D cell culture systems in vitro.

Methods: Two CM (CRMM1, CRMM2) and one normal conjunctival epithelial cell line (HCjE-Gi) were treated with various EP conditions and increasing concentrations of 5-FU, MMC and bleomycin. Cell survival was assessed by MTT viability assay. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Skeletons of the Eye: An Evolutionary and Developmental Perspective.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

The ocular skeleton, composed of the scleral cartilage and scleral ossicles, is present in many vertebrates. The morphology of the scleral cartilage and ossicles varies within different extant reptiles (including birds) and also varies dramatically from the morphology in extant teleosts. This incredible range of diverse morphologies is the result of millions of years of evolution. Read More

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December 2018
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Interferon-α-induced retinopathy in chronic hepatitis C treatment: summary, considerations, and recommendations.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, M5G 2M9, Canada.

Interferons are cytokines that regulate the host's response to viral infection, particularly in the setting of the immunologic response to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). While the virus has the ability to evade the host's innate and specific immunity, exogenous interferon-α with combined ribavirin, treatments have been found to achieve a significant sustained viral response in subgroups of patients with chronic HCV. One of the major side effects of interferon-α is an ocular retinopathy characterized by flame-shaped hemorrhages and cotton wool spots visualized on funduscopic examination. Read More

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December 2018

A Case of Acute Granulomatous Conjunctivitis Caused by Cat-transmitted Sporothrix schenckii.

Cureus 2018 Oct 8;10(10):e3428. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences/Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, MYS.

In human, sporotrichosis infection commonly manifests as skin lesions through direct inoculation. It is rarely associated with ocular manifestation via a zoonotic transmission. We describe a young lady who presented with acute left eye granulomatous conjunctivitis who had a history of exposure to her sick cat diagnosed with sporotrichosis infection. Read More

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October 2018

Retinal burns from laser pointers: a risk in children with behavioural problems.

Eye (Lond) 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Bolton Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Bolton, UK.

Objective: To explore self-inflicted retinal burns from laser pointers in children.

Methods: Literature review of laser pointer retinal injuries in childhood and online survey of UK Consultant Ophthalmologists. A cohort of local children with self-inflicted injury is described. Read More

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December 2018

Air pollutant particulate matter 2.5 induces dry eye syndrome in mice.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 13;8(1):17828. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330006, Jiangxi Province, China.

In this study, we explored the effects of particulate matter 2.5 (PM) eye drops on the ocular surface structure and tear function in mice and established a novel animal model for dry eye research. We found that, following treatment with PM, the tear volume and, the tear film break-up time showed statistical differences at each time point (P < 0. Read More

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December 2018

Reduced vision-related quality of life in people living with dystonia.

Disabil Rehabil 2018 Dec 13:1-5. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

e School of Psychology, University of South Australia , Adelaide , Australia.

Purpose: Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder with negative impact on function and quality of life. It is currently unclear whether vision-related quality of life is affected. The aim of this study was to determine whether vision-related quality of life is reduced by dystonia. Read More

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December 2018

Neurological and Inflammatory Manifestations in Sjögren's Syndrome: The Role of the Kynurenine Metabolic Pathway.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 8;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Ribeirao Preto Medical School, Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP 14049-900 Brazil.

For decades, neurological, psychological, and cognitive alterations, as well as other glandular manifestations (EGM), have been described and are being considered to be part of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Dry eye and dry mouth are major findings in SS. The lacrimal glands (LG), ocular surface (OS), and salivary glands (SG) are linked to the central nervous system (CNS) at the brainstem and hippocampus. Read More

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December 2018

Association between MDM2 rs2279744, MDM2 rs937283, and p21 rs1801270 polymorphisms and retinoblastoma susceptibility.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Dec;97(49):e13547

Department of Ophthalmology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Huzhou University, Huzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Retinoblastoma (Rb) is the most common intra-ocular malignancy in children. The association of rs2279744, and rs937283 in MDM2 gene, and p21 rs1801270 polymorphism and RB development have been demonstrated. To provide a comprehensive assessment of and to clarify associations between the 3 SNPs (MDM2 rs2279744, MDM2 rs937283, and p21 rs1801270) and the risk of RB, we performed a meta-analysis of all the eligible case-control studies. Read More

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December 2018

Student acceptance of e-learning methods in the laboratory class in Optometry.

PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209004. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Today's students have increased expectations for flexible learning options and evidence-based practice resources to be available to support curricular activities. We investigated: (i) the suitability of a static website for teaching ocular anatomy and physiology and an interactive version of the website with quiz and self-assessment activities and (ii) the usefulness of a blended online and in-lab environment to teach in Optometry. We administered a survey to compare responses of optometry students who had access to the interactive website, with those from students from a previous year who used the static version. Read More

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December 2018

Reducing the impact of the impending myopia epidemic in New Zealand.

N Z Med J 2018 Dec 14;131(1487):80-85. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Ophthalmologist, Gisborne; Senior Lecturer, Dept of Ophthalmology, University of Otago.

Myopia is an eye condition that is increasing around the world, reaching epidemic levels in many countries. It is associated with a higher risk of other ocular diseases including myopic maculopathy and retinal detachment. Historically in New Zealand myopia has existed at a low level, however the environmental changes that have increased myopia internationally will affect New Zealanders too. Read More

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December 2018

Noninvasive biodegradable nanoparticles-in-nanofibers single-dose ocular insert: in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo evaluation.

Nanomedicine (Lond) 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Nanomaterials Lab, Center of Material Science (CMS), Zewail City of Science & Technology, 6th of October, Giza 12578, Egypt.

Aim: This study involves, for the first time, the development of mucoadhesive biodegradable polymeric-multilayered nanoparticles-in-nanofibers (NPs-in-NFs) matrix as an innovative single-dose noninvasive ocular-insert that could substitute conventional ocular dosage-forms.

Materials & Methods: Azithromycin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) copolymer/pluronic NPs were developed then incorporated into electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone NFs, and tested for their efficient treatment of ocular bacterial infection.

Results: Release and permeation studies proved the ability of the insert to control drug release over 10 days. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of a Single Dose of Azithromycin for Trachoma in Low-Prevalence Communities.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec 13:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

a Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Atlanta , GA , USA.

Purpose: Trachoma, caused by repeated ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide and is targeted for elimination as a public health problem. We sought to determine whether a one-time azithromycin mass treatment would reduce trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) levels below the elimination threshold of 5% in communities with disease prevalence between 5 and 9.9%. Read More

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December 2018

Alagille syndrome: a case report.

Ann Biol Clin (Paris) 2018 Dec;76(6):675-680

Département de biochimie et génétique, CHU Angers, France.

We report the case of an infant hospitalized for neonatal anoxic ischemia in whom the diagnosis of Alagille syndrome (SAG ; MIM # 118450) was suspected in the presence of major cholestasis, cardiac malformations, suggestive facial dysmorphia, and vertebral and ocular abnormalities. This diagnosis was later confirmed by the detection of a heterozygous pathogenic variant in the gene JAG1, i.e. Read More

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December 2018

Gene-based therapeutic tools in the treatment of Cornea Disease.

Curr Gene Ther 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, The College of Optometry, Tianjin 300384. China.

Background: As one of the main blinding ocular diseases, corneal blindness results from neovascularization that disrupts the angiogenic privilege of corneal avascularity. Following neovascularization, inflammatory cells are infiltrating into corneal to strengthen corneal injury. How to maintain corneal angiogenic privilege to treat corneal disease has been investigated for decades. Read More

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December 2018

[Corneal deposits in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Review of the literature and case report].

Orv Hetil 2018 Sep;159(39):1575-1583

Szemészeti Klinika, Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Budapest.

To summarize ophthalmological signs of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and to present a case report. Summary of the literature data and presentation of the history of a 46-year-old female patient. In MGUS, pathological, but non-malignant plasma cells produce abnormal monoclonal immunoglobulin. Read More

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September 2018

Clinical and genetic characterization of an Italian family with slow-channel syndrome.

Neurol Sci 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Introduction: The slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (SCCMS) is a postsynaptic form of congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs), a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders caused by genetic defects leading to an abnormal signal transmission at the endplate.

Methods: We report clinical and molecular data of a multigenerational family in which the presentation of a progressive proximal-distal weakness with ocular involvement led to a number of different clinical diagnoses.

Results: A comprehensive genetic study which included whole-genome linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing identified a heterozygous missense substitution (c. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery on dry eye.

Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 15;16(6):5073-5078. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, Air Force General Hospital, Beijing 100089, P.R. China.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) on tear film and ocular surface function. Patients with age-related cataract who underwent phacoemulsification (phaco) in Air Force Aviation Medicine Research Institute Affiliation Hospital from January 2016 to December 2016 were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in experimental group (n=123, 150 eyes) received FLACS, while patients in phaco group (n=110, 150 eyes) underwent conventional coaxial micro-incision phaco and were implanted with foldable intraocular lens (IOL). Read More

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December 2018

Immunotoxin-Induced Ablation of the Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells in Rhesus Monkeys.

Front Neurol 2018 27;9:1000. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States.

Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) contain the photopigment melanopsin, and are primarily involved in non-image forming functions, such as the pupillary light reflex and circadian rhythm entrainment. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a targeted ipRGC immunotoxin to ultimately examine the role of ipRGCs in macaque monkeys. An immunotoxin for the macaque melanopsin gene (), consisting of a saporin-conjugated antibody directed at the N-terminus, was prepared in solutions of 0. Read More

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November 2018

In vivo confocal microscopy classification in the diagnosis of meibomian gland dysfunction.

Eye (Lond) 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Ophthalmology III, Quinze-Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, DHU Sight Restore, INSERM-DHOS CIC, Paris, France.

Aim: Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is one of the most common disorders in ophthalmology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of this in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM)-MGD description to classify patients affected by clinical MGD and measure the correlation with standard clinical criteria and subjective symptoms.

Methods: One hundred eyes of 100 patients suffering from MGD and 15 eyes of normal subjects were included. Read More

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December 2018

The Effects of Intravitreal Ranibizumab, Aflibercept or Dexamethasone Implant Injections on Intraocular Pressure Changes.

Med Sci Monit 2018 Dec 13;24:9019-9025. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Erzincan Mengücek Gazi Education and Research Hospital, Erzincan, Turkey.

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to compare the alterations in intraocular pressure (IOP) values during the early postoperative period after intravitreal ranibizumab, aflibercept, or dexamethasone implant injections. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this retrospective study, a total of 188 patients were grouped into 3 groups: the ranibizumab group, the aflibercept group, and the dexamethasone group. Ocular axial length (AXL) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured in the pre-injection period. Read More

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December 2018

Effect of Eyelid Hygiene Detergent on Obstructive Meibomian Gland Dysfunction.

J Oleo Sci 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine.

Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of eyelid margin cleansing with lid hygiene detergent in patients with obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD).

Methods: As a pilot study, we investigated the safety and efficacy of lid hygiene using tap water and/or lid hygiene shampoo in fourteen eyes of 7 normal subjects. All subjects were instructed to cleanse the eyelid margin with tap water and/or lid hygiene shampoo. Read More

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December 2018

Alterations in gut bacterial and fungal microbiomes are associated with bacterial Keratitis, an inflammatory disease of the human eye.

J Biosci 2018 Dec;43(5):835-856

Jhaveri Microbiology Centre, Prof. Brien Holden Eye Research Centre, L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Kallam Anji Reddy campus, Hyderabad 500 034, India.

Dysbiosis, or imbalance in the gut microbiome, has been implicated in auto-immune, inflammatory, neurological diseases as well as in cancers. More recently it has also been shown to be associated with ocular diseases. In the present study, the association of gut microbiome dysbiosis with bacterial Keratitis, an inflammatory eye disease which significantly contributes to corneal blindness, was investigated. Read More

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December 2018

Activation of 5-HT1A receptors promotes retinal ganglion cell function by inhibiting the cAMP-PKA pathway to modulate presynaptic GABA release in chronic glaucoma.

J Neurosci 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Eye Institute, Eye & ENT Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Institutes of Brain Science and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

Serotonin receptor agonists are neuroprotective in central nervous system (CNS) injury models. However, the neuroprotective functional implications and synaptic mechanism of 8-OH-DPAT, a serotonin receptor (5-HT1A) agonist, in an adult male Wistar rat model of chronic glaucoma model remain unknown. We found that ocular hypertension decreased 5-HT1A receptor expression in rat retinas, as the number of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) was significantly reduced in rats with induced ocular hypertension relative to that in control retinas, and 8-OH-DPAT enhanced the RGC viability. Read More

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December 2018

Microglia Regulate Neuroglia Remodeling in Various Ocular and Retinal Injuries.

J Immunol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114.

Reactive microglia and infiltrating peripheral monocytes have been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases of the retina and CNS. However, their specific contribution in retinal degeneration remains unclear. We recently showed that peripheral monocytes that infiltrate the retina after ocular injury in mice become permanently engrafted into the tissue, establishing a proinflammatory phenotype that promotes neurodegeneration. Read More

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December 2018