43 results match your criteria Ocular Manifestations of Albinism
J Hum Genet 2016 Sep 26;61(9):839-42. Epub 2016 May 26.
Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, platelet dysfunction and ceroid deposition. We report suspected ocular albinism in two Japanese sisters, caused by mutations in the HPS6 (Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 6) gene. Trio-based whole-exome sequencing (WES) identified novel compound heterozygous mutations in HPS6 (c. Read More
Br J Ophthalmol 2016 May 25;100(5):704-7. Epub 2015 Aug 25.
Division of Neuro-ophthalmology, Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.
Background: The classic form of Chédiak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), an autosomal recessive disorder of lysosomal trafficking with childhood onset caused by mutations in ITALIC! LYST, is typified ophthalmologically by ocular albinism with vision loss attributed to foveal hypoplasia or nystagmus. Optic nerve involvement and ophthalmological manifestations of the late-onset neurodegenerative form of CHS are rarely reported and poorly detailed.
Methods: Case series detailing ophthalmological and neurological findings in three adult siblings with the late-onset form of CHS. Read More
PLoS One 2015 28;10(4):e0125651. Epub 2015 Apr 28.
Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Shenzhen Eye Hospital, Jinan University, Shenzhen, P. R. China.
Background: Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder. The most common type OCA1 and OCA2 are caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the tyrosinase gene (TYR) and OCA2 gene, respectively.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the molecular basis of oculocutaneous albinism in four Chinese families. Read More
Can J Neurol Sci 2014 Sep;41(5):626-31
Departments of Paediatrics,Western University,London,Ontario,Canada.
Background: Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of lysosomal metabolism. The clinical phenotypic spectrum encompasses overlapping features of variable severity and is suggestive of individual single sulfatase deficiencies (i.e. Read More
Semin Ophthalmol 2013 Sep-Nov;28(5-6):387-91
Department of Ophthalmology, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston , Massachusetts , USA.
The Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS) is a rare, autosomal recessive condition comprising nine genetically heterogeneous entities that feature oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and bleeding tendency as their principal clinical manifestations. The pathogenesis of HPS involves disturbances in the biogenesis and trafficking of lysosome-related organelles. While the ophthalmologist is trained to address the ocular manifestations of OCA, it is critical for the provider to consider HPS when examining OCA patients as its systemic sequelae may be associated with morbidity and mortality. Read More
Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2013 Sep;24(5):389-97
Wills Eye Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.
Purpose Of Review: To describe the entity of Lyonization in ocular eye diseases, along with its clinical and counseling implications.
Recent Findings: Several X-linked ocular diseases such as choroideremia, X-linked retinitis pigmentosa, and X-linked ocular albinism may have signs of Lyonization on ocular examination and diagnostic testing. These findings may aid in the proper diagnosis of ocular disease in both female carriers and their affected male relatives. Read More
J Korean Med Sci 2012 Oct 2;27(10):1273-7. Epub 2012 Oct 2.
Greencross Reference Laboratory, Seoul, Korea.
Terminal or interstitial deletions of Xp (Xp22.2→Xpter) in males have been recognized as a cause of contiguous gene syndromes showing variable association of apparently unrelated clinical manifestations such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (SHOX), chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX1), mental retardation (NLGN4), ichthyosis (STS), Kallmann syndrome (KAL1), and ocular albinism (GPR143). Here we present a case of a 13. Read More
J AAPOS 2011 Feb;15(1):59-66
Wills Eye Institute, Pediatric Ophthalmology and Ocular Genetics, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.
Albinism is a group of disorders characterized principally by its ophthalmic features with or without systemic manifestations. Persons with albinism manifest a wide variety of phenotypes and limited number of genotypes. Modern molecular genetics has encouraged a new classification and understanding of the subtypes of these disorders. Read More
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011 Mar 14;52(3):1281-9. Epub 2011 Mar 14.
Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine (TIGEM), Naples, Italy.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the molecular basis of albinism in a large cohort of Italian patients showing typical ocular landmarks of the disease and to provide a full characterization of the clinical ophthalmic manifestations.
Methods: DNA samples from 45 patients with ocular manifestations of albinism were analyzed by direct sequencing analysis of five genes responsible for albinism: TYR, P, TYRP1, SLC45A2 (MATP), and OA1. All patients studied showed a variable degree of skin and hair hypopigmentation. Read More
Am J Med Genet A 2010 Jul;152A(7):1730-4
Genetica Medica, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Università degli Studi di Foggia, Foggia, Italy.
X;Y translocation is a relatively rare event in humans. Analyzed cytogenetically, the majority of these aberrations have breakpoints at Xp22 and Yq11. Females with t(X;Y)(p22;q11) are phenotypically normal except for short stature, while the males may have abnormalities. Read More
Insight 2009 Apr-Jun;34(2):13-6
Professional Eye Center, P.O. Box 10122, Mackay, Queensland, Australia 4740.
Albinism is an inherited disorder characterized by a reduction or absence of melanin in the hair, skin, and/or eyes. Tyrosinase, a major enzyme required in the production of melanin, is deficient to varying degrees in albinism. Albinism can be divided into one of two broad categories, oculocutaneous and ocular albinism, based on the involvement of hair, skin and the eyes versus only the eyes, respectively. Read More
Dermatol Online J 2008 Nov 15;14(11):13. Epub 2008 Nov 15.
Department of Medical Genetics, Erzurum Training and Research Hospital, Turkey.
The term, oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), describes a group of inherited disorders of melanin biosynthesis that exhibits congenital hypopigmentation of ocular and cutaneous tissues. The clinical spectrum of OCA ranges from a complete lack of melanin pigmentation to mildly hypopigmented forms. OCA1A is the most severe type with a complete lack of melanin production throughout life; the milder forms OCA1B, OCA2, OCA3 and OCA4 show some pigment accumulation over time. Read More
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Nov 2;2:43. Epub 2007 Nov 2.
Kennedy Center, National Research Center for Genetics, visual Impairment and Mental Retardation, Gl, Landevej 7, 2600 Glostrup, Denmark.
Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a group of inherited disorders of melanin biosynthesis characterized by a generalized reduction in pigmentation of hair, skin and eyes. The prevalence of all forms of albinism varies considerably worldwide and has been estimated at approximately 1/17,000, suggesting that about 1 in 70 people carry a gene for OCA. The clinical spectrum of OCA ranges, with OCA1A being the most severe type with a complete lack of melanin production throughout life, while the milder forms OCA1B, OCA2, OCA3 and OCA4 show some pigment accumulation over time. Read More
Eur J Med Genet 2007 Jul-Aug;50(4):301-8. Epub 2007 May 21.
U.O.C. di Genetica Medica, A.O.R.N. Gaetano Rummo, S.S. di Citogenetica Medica e Genetica Molecolare, Via dell'Angelo, 1, I-82100 Benevento, Italy.
Microdeletions of Xp22.3 can result in contiguous gene syndromes, showing the variable association of apparently unrelated clinical manifestations such as ichthyosis, chondrodysplasia punctata, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, anosmia, ocular albinism, short stature and mental retardation. We report on a boy with ichthyosis, dysmorphic features and mental retardation with ADHD. Read More
Am J Med Genet A 2007 Jan;143A(2):135-41
Department of Pediatrics, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.
Males with deletions of or within Xp22.3-pter display variable contiguous gene syndromes including manifestations of Léri-Weill syndrome, chondrodysplasia punctata, mental retardation, ichthyosis, Kallmann syndrome, and ocular albinism. Herein, we report on a male infant with a large, cytogenetically visible, terminal Xp deletion defined by extensive FISH and STS marker analysis to encompass 9. Read More
Ophthalmology 2004 Aug;111(8):1599-603
Ophthalmic Genetics and Visual Function Branch, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
Purpose: To compare clinically 2 different subtypes of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), type 1 (HPS-1) and type 3 (HPS-3).
Design: Cross-sectional study of a series of patients.
Participants: Sixteen patients with HPS-1 and 14 patients with HPS-3 were studied. Read More
Pediatr Clin North Am 2003 Feb;50(1):241-58, ix
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Section of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1855 W. Taylor, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.
This article briefly describes the ocular manifestations of pediatric systemic diseases and gives practical advice regarding the management of the ocular involvement by the primary health care provider. Read More
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2003 May;17(3):251-6
Department of Dermatology and Paediatrics, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey 07103-2714, USA.
Oculocutaneous albinism represents a group of inherited skin disorders characterized by a generalized reduction of cutaneous, ocular and pilar pigmentation from the time of birth. Oculocutaneous albinism types 1 and 2 are the most common, but several other types have been described. A defect in the melanin synthesis pathway, resulting in reduced formation of melanin, is responsible for oculocutaneous albinism. Read More
Kinderkrankenschwester 1999 Jun;18(6):235-41
Augenklinik und Poliklinik, Universität des Saarlandes, Homburg, Saar.
Exp Eye Res 1998 Feb;66(2):155-62
Helmholtz Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht, GA, NL-3508, The Netherlands.
Earlier we showed that two spectral types of retinal damage occur in the pigmented rat. In the present study we investigated whether the same is true for albino rats. When investigating this issue we implicitly investigated the role of melanin in both damage types. Read More
J Am Optom Assoc 1997 Oct;68(10):623-45
University of Waterloo, School of Optometry, Ontario, Canada.
Background: Albinism can be a diagnostic challenge to the optometrist, with ocular albinism the entity most likely to be overlooked or misdiagnosed. Albinism should be suspect in a child with nystagmus.
Methods: Albinism is best diagnosed by electron microscopy of skin or hair bulbs. Read More
Curr Opin Ophthalmol 1995 Dec;6(6):77-81
National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Major advances in the molecular basis of oculocutaneous and ocular albinism have been published. In addition to mutations of the P gene, some patients, with so-called autosomal recessive ocular albinism, were found to have a tyrosinase gene mutation in one allele and a nucleotide substitution of the same gene, which was considered as a polymorphism, in another allele. This finding has great impact on the diagnosis and genetic counseling of albinism. Read More
Blood 1995 Jun;85(11):3328-33
Unité d'Immuno-Hématologie Pédiatrique, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris, France.
Chediak-Higashi syndrome is a rare condition characterized by susceptibility to bacterial infections, defective natural killer activity, and episodes of macrophage activation known as accelerated phases. Chemotherapy can induce transient remission of the accelerated phase, but relapses become less and less sensitive to treatment and ultimately lead to death. Allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been proposed as a curative treatment for Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Read More
Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1995 ;93:191-200; discussion 200-2
Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan.
Background: The Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is defined by the autosomal recessively inherited triad of tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism, bleeding diathesis and accumulation of ceroid in tissues. Late complications include: interstitial pulmonary fibrosis; inflammatory bowel disease; and renal failure.
Patients And Methods: We undertook a non-concurrent prospective study of 55 Puerto Rican patients with HPS (age range 1 to 54 yrs; mean = 19. Read More
Curr Opin Ophthalmol 1994 Dec;5(6):79-83
Ophthalmic Genetics and Clinical Services Branch, National Eye Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Articles published during the past year on the ocular manifestations of metabolic diseases and related issues are reviewed. The focus is on clarifying the genetic or molecular basis of various metabolic disorders. Mutations of the P gene were reported in tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism and autosomal recessive ocular albinism, and were associated with a wide range of clinical phenotypes. Read More
Dermatol Clin 1992 Jul;10(3):609-22
Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston.
Disorders of pigmentation can result from either an abnormal number of melanocytes, as in nevus of Ota and vitiligo, or an abnormal amount of melanin production, as in albinism. Melanin-producing cells are found in the skin, mucous membranes, uveal tract, and retinal pigment epithelium of the eye and the stria vascularis of the inner ear. Thus, many of the hereditary or congenital pigmentary disorders of the skin are associated with similar pigmentary abnormalities in the eye, such as iris heterochromia or changes in pigmentation of the fundus; however, more commonly, the associated eye finding is a defect in ocular motility, i. Read More
Ophthalmic Paediatr Genet 1992 Jun;13(2):77-88
The Netherlands Ophthalmic Research Institute, Amsterdam.
In addition to the genetic heterogeneity in albinism, widespread clinical heterogeneity frequently impedes albino detection and differential diagnosis. Further, several auxiliary ocular and/or cutaneous manifestations of this inherited error of pigmentary metabolism are neither pre-requisite nor specific to the albino condition. However, one feature that is specific to albinism regardless of genotype or phenotype is a unique pattern of abnormal visual pathway organization. Read More
Clin Exp Dermatol 1991 Nov;16(6):436-40
Department of Dermatology, National Yang-Ming Medical College, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.
A 10-year-old Chinese boy with the characteristic skin manifestations of dyschromatosis universalis is described. In addition, the patient had congenital nystagmus with poor visual acuity, and ophthalmological examination revealed foveal hypoplasia and albino-like fundi. Histopathology showed giant pigment granules in the skin. Read More
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 1989 Jan;9(1):3-15
Department of Ophthalmic Optics, UMIST, Manchester, UK.
Albinism is not a single entity but represents a heterogenous group of inherited disorders of pigmentation. Despite a wide variety of manifestations, all forms of albinism are characterized by several ocular features, including: nystagmus, photophobia, reduced visual acuity and a lack of stereopsis. It is the intention of this review to describe and discuss the clinical implications of albinism with particular emphasis placed on these ocular features and their effects on visual performance. Read More
Arch Ophthalmol 1978 Jul;96(7):1193-8
A family had the following manifestations of Waardenburg's syndrome (WS): prominent nasal root, white forelock, premature graying of the hair, freckled pigmentation of pale skin, hypoplastic heterochromia irides, heterochromia of the ocular fundi, congenital sensorineural hearing loss, and autosomal dominant heredity. This family differs from those previously reported in that none of its members showed dystopia of the inner canthi or lower puncta. In addition, four siblings had the combination of hyperopia-estropia-amblyopia, as well as ocular albinism, manifested by foveal hypoplasia and transilluminable irides. Read More
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 1975 Dec;167(6):904-6
A report is given on a family wherein two males showed albinism; of the female members, who all had been light blonde in childhood, two were carriers (one of them with pigment changes in the iris and the fundus), a third had no ocular changes, while the fourth showed the typical phenomenon of bilateral idiopathic pigment dispersion without glaucoma. The occurrence of pigment dispersion in a family with albinism has not yet been described. It is regarded as accidental combination. Read More
Proc R Soc Med 1972 Nov;65(11):953-5
Adv Ophthalmol 1972 ;25:28-103
Monogr Hum Genet 1972 ;6:99-113
Arch Pathol 1971 Sep;92(3):212-8
Can Med Assoc J 1966 Nov;95(21):1055-65
The eye provides unique opportunities for the detection, during life, of deposits of storage substances and other characteristic changes resulting from inborn metabolic defects. The cornea shows the macromolecular polysaccharides of Hurler's disease, the cystine crystals in cystinosis, and the copper deposits of Wilson's disease. The sclera shows characteristic pigmentation in alcaptonuria. Read More
Arch Ophtalmol Rev Gen Ophtalmol 1966 Oct-Nov;26(7):661-76