2,691 results match your criteria Octopus Envenomation


One, no-one and a hundred thousand brains: J.C. Eccles, J.Z. Young and the establishment of the neurosciences (1930s-1960s).

Authors:
Fabio De Sio

Prog Brain Res 2018 24;243:257-298. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Department of the History, Philosophy and Ethics of Medicine, Centre for Health and Society, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany. Electronic address:

Contemporary neurosciences have grown beyond the limits of a natural science. To its most vocal advocates, the study of the human brain can provide nothing short of the basis for a new science of man-the link between the "natural" and "human" sciences-as a simple consequence of the growing mass of facts relating to this most marvelous organ, accumulated in the last four decades. This straightforward picture of the growing import of the neurosciences simplifies and obscures the myriad different interpretations and images of "the brain" that have inspired the development of the neurosciences. Read More

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November 2018

A deep learning approach to automatic detection of early glaucoma from visual fields.

PLoS One 2018 28;13(11):e0206081. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Purpose: To investigate the suitability of multi-scale spatial information in 30o visual fields (VF), computed from a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier, for early-glaucoma vs. control discrimination.

Method: Two data sets of VFs acquired with the OCTOPUS 101 G1 program and the Humphrey Field Analyzer 24-2 pattern were subdivided into control and early-glaucomatous groups, and converted into a new image using a novel voronoi representation to train a custom-designed CNN so to discriminate between control and early-glaucomatous eyes. Read More

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November 2018

The evolution and origin of tetrodotoxin acquisition in the blue-ringed octopus (genus Hapalochlaena).

Aquat Toxicol 2018 Oct 24;206:114-122. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Centre for Sustainable Tropical Fisheries and Aquaculture, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, 4811, Australia; Department of Ecology, Environment and Evolution, La Trobe University, Melbourne, 3086, Vic. Australia.

Tetrodotoxin is a potent non-proteinaceous neurotoxin, which is commonly found in the marine environment. Synthesised by bacteria, tetrodotoxin has been isolated from the tissues of several genera including pufferfish, salamanders and octopus. Believed to provide a defensive function, the independent evolution of tetrodotoxin sequestration is poorly understood in most species. Read More

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October 2018

[Niche and interspecific associations of major nekton in northern coastal waters in Yuhuan, Taizhou, China].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2018 Nov;29(11):3867-3875

College of Fishery, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, Zhejiang, China.

Base on the data from fishery resources survey carried out in northern coastal waters in Yuhuan in November 2016 (autumn) and April 2017 (spring), we examined the niche and interspecific associations of major nekton by the methods of index of relative importance (IRI), niche breadth, niche overlap, the variance ratio (VR), X-test, association coefficient (AC), Jaccard index (JI), point correlation coefficient (Φ) and Spearman rank correlation index. The ecological niche breadth of Portunus trituberculatus was the largest, with the absolute competitive advantage. The niche breadths of the important economic species Coilia nasus and Octopus variabilis were the smallest, which was at a weak competitive position. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

GearVision: Smartphone Based Head Mounted Perimeter For Detection Of Visual Field Defects.

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2018 Jul;2018:5402-5405

Automated visual field perimetry is widely used for the evaluation of visual field defects caused by ophthalmological and neurodegenerative diseases. This test is typically performed using the Humphrey Perimeter or Octopus Perimeter. However, their high cost and large footprint limit their use to the clinical setting. Read More

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July 2018
2 Reads

Effect of Different Visual Impairment Levels on the Quality of Life in Glaucoma Patients.

Acta Clin Croat 2018 Jun;57(2):243-250

Department of Ophthalmology, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Centre, Zagreb, Croatia.

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different visual impairment levels on difference in the subjective quality of life estimation. We included 150 patients with glaucoma whose best-corrected visual acuity in the better-seeing eye was 0.5 and less. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Tentacles For Tinies: The Many Arms of the Crocheted Octopus

Ir Med J 2018 Sep 10;111(8):812. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

1. Department of Neonatology, The Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

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September 2018

Clubroot Disease Stimulates Early Steps of Phloem Differentiation and Recruits SWEET Sucrose Transporters within Developing Galls.

Plant Cell 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Institute of Plant Genetics of the Polish Academy of Sciences CITY: Poznań POSTAL_CODE: 60-479 Poland [PL]

Successful biotrophic plant pathogens can divert host nutrition towards infection sites. Here we describe how the protist Plasmodiophora brassicae establishes a long-term feeding relationship with its host by stimulating phloem differentiation and phloem-specific expression of sugar transporters within developing galls. Development of galls in infected Arabidopsis thaliana plants is accompanied by stimulation of host BREVIS RADIX (BRX), COTYLEDON VASCULAR PATTERN 2 (CVP2) and OCTOPUS (OPS) gene expression leading to an increase in phloem complexity. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

From octopus to dendrite-Semiflexible polyelectrolyte brush condensates in trivalent counterion solution.

J Chem Phys 2018 Oct;149(16):163302

Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 02455, South Korea.

Interplay between counterion-mediated interaction and stiffness inherent to polymer chain can bring substantial complexity to the morphology and dynamics of polyelectrolyte brush condensates. Trivalent counterions induce collapse of flexible polyelectrolyte brushes, over a certain range of grafting density, into octopus-like surface micelles; however, if individual chains are rigid enough, the ion-mediated local nematic ordering assembles the brush chains into fractal-like dendritic condensates whose relaxation dynamics is significantly slower than that in the surface micelles. Notably, the trivalent ions condensed in the dendritic condensates are highly mobile displaying quasi-one-dimensional diffusion in parallel along the dendritic branches. Read More

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October 2018
2.952 Impact Factor

Takotsubo syndrome triggered by emotional and physical stress due to coincidental immobilization resembling the experimental model of the disease - a case report.

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2018 Oct;45(268):154-157

Department of Internal Medicine, Józef Struś Hospital.

The term takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is derived from a comparison of left ventricular (LV) appearance in its apical form to the shape of the pot which is a trap used for octopus catching. In the classical animal model on rats, its occurrence can be triggered by experimental immobilization (IMO). Former observations of capture myopathy, seen in animals after extreme exertion, showed coexistence of rhabdomyolysis related to skeletal muscle injury and myocardial damage. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Suction effects of craters under water.

Soft Matter 2018 Oct;14(42):8509-8520

Center for Mechanics of Solids, Structures and Materials, Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, the University of Texas at Austin, 210 E. 24th St, Austin, TX 78712, USA.

Octopus-inspired cratered surfaces have recently emerged as a new class of reusable physical adhesives. Preload-dependent adhesion and enhanced adhesion under water distinguish them from the well-studied gecko-inspired pillared surfaces. Despite growing experimental evidence, modeling frameworks and mechanistic understanding of cratered surfaces are still very limited. Read More

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October 2018

Semi-automated kinetic perimetry: Comparison of the Octopus 900 and Humphrey visual field analyzer 3 versus Goldmann perimetry.

Acta Ophthalmol 2018 Oct 21. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical usefulness and reproducibility of (semi-)automated kinetic perimetry of the Octopus 900 and Humphrey field analyzer 3 (HFA3) compared to Goldmann perimetry as reference technique.

Methods: A prospective interventional study of two study groups, divided into three subgroups. The first study group consisted of 28 patients, performing one visual field examination on each of the three devices. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Revisiting Dscam diversity: lessons from clustered protocadherins.

Authors:
Yongfeng Jin Hao Li

Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Oct 20. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Institute of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, Zhejiang (ZJ), People's Republic of China.

The complexity of neuronal wiring relies on the extraordinary recognition diversity of cell surface molecules. Drosophila Dscam1 and vertebrate clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs) are two classic examples of the striking diversity from a complex genomic locus, wherein the former encodes more than 10,000 distinct isoforms via alternative splicing, while the latter employs alternative promoters to attain isoform diversity. These structurally unrelated families show remarkably striking molecular parallels and even similar functions. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Diabetes, but Not Hypertension and Obesity, Is Associated with Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2018 16;46(3-4):193-206. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Molecular Epidemiology Research Group, Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association (MDC), Berlin, Germany.

Background/aims: Older people undergoing surgery are at risk of developing postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), but little is known of risk factors predisposing patients to POCD. Our objective was to estimate the risk of POCD associated with exposure to preoperative diabetes, hypertension, and obesity.

Methods: Original data from 3 randomised controlled trials (OCTOPUS, DECS, SuDoCo) were obtained for secondary analysis on diabetes, hypertension, baseline blood pressure, obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2), and BMI as risk factors for POCD in multiple logistic regression models. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Modeling Pitch Perception With an Active Auditory Model Extended by Octopus Cells.

Front Neurosci 2018 25;12:660. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology, Ilmenau, Germany.

Pitch is an essential category for musical sensations. Models of pitch perception are vividly discussed up to date. Most of them rely on definitions of mathematical methods in the spectral or temporal domain. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Animal Behavior: Socializing Octopus.

Curr Biol 2018 Oct;28(19):R1147-R1149

Physics and Biology Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Graduate University, 904 0495 Okinawa, Japan. Electronic address:

Building on the recently published Octopus bimaculoides genome, a new study identifies an evolutionarily conserved neural mechanism for serotonergic regulation of social behaviors. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Octopicola huanghaiensis n. sp. (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Octopicolidae), a new parasitic copepod of the octopuses Amphioctopus fangsiao (d'Orbigny) and Octopus minor (Sasaki) (Octopoda: Octopodidae) in the Yellow Sea.

Syst Parasitol 2018 11 1;95(8-9):905-912. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Institute of Evolution & Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

A new species of parasitic copepod, Octopicola huanghaiensis n. sp., collected from the octopuses Amphioctopus fangsiao (d'Orbigny) and Octopus minor (Sasaki) (Octopoda: Octopodidae) in the Yellow Sea (off Qingdao, Shandong Province, China), is described. Read More

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November 2018

Cytogenetic studies in three octopods, , , and from the coast of China.

Comp Cytogenet 2018 4;12(3):373-386. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Institute of Evolution and Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China Ocean University of China Qingdao China.

To provide markers to identify chromosomes in the genome of octopods, chromosomes of three octopus species were subjected to NOR/C-banding. In addition, we examined their genome size ( value) to submit it to the Animal Genome Size Database. Silver staining revealed that the number of Ag-nucleoli was 2 ( (Sasaki, 1920)), 2 ( (d'Orbigny, 1839)) and 1 ( Zheng et al. Read More

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September 2018

The genome of common long-arm octopus Octopus minor.

Gigascience 2018 11 1;7(11). Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Genetic Resources Research, National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea (MABIK), Janghang-eup, Seochun-gun, Chungchungnam-do 33662, Korea.

Background: The common long-arm octopus (Octopus minor) is found in mudflats of subtidal zones and faces numerous environmental challenges. The ability to adapt its morphology and behavioral repertoire to diverse environmental conditions makes the species a promising model for understanding genomic adaptation and evolution in cephalopods.

Findings: The final genome assembly of O. Read More

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November 2018
29 Reads

Traumatic Optic Neuropathy - Case Report with Discussion on Diagnostic Procedures and Therapy.

Acta Clin Croat 2018 Mar;57(1):166-172

Stubičke Toplice Special Hospital for Medical Rehabilitation, Stubičke Toplice, Croatia.

Traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is a serious vision threatening condition that can be caused by ocular or head trauma. Indirect damage to the optic nerve is the most common form of TON occurring in 0.5% to 5% of all closed head trauma cases. Read More

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A Conserved Role for Serotonergic Neurotransmission in Mediating Social Behavior in Octopus.

Curr Biol 2018 Oct 20;28(19):3136-3142.e4. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Department of Neuroscience, Brain Science Institute, Wendy Klag Institute, Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Human and octopus lineages are separated by over 500 million years of evolution [1, 2] and show divergent anatomical patterns of brain organization [3, 4]. Despite these differences, growing evidence suggests that ancient neurotransmitter systems are shared across vertebrate and invertebrate species and in many cases enable overlapping functions [5]. Sociality is widespread across the animal kingdom, with numerous examples in both invertebrate (e. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Is There a Risk to Humans from Consuming Octopus Species from Sites with High Environmental Levels of Metals?

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2018 Dec 19;101(6):796-802. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional s/n Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, C.P. 23096, La Paz, BCS, Mexico.

Although octopuses are in high-demand globally and can bioaccumulate high concentrations of metals, the risk associated to its consumption is poorly understood. We compiled literature data from eight locations in Europe, North America and Northern Africa with different environmental levels of metals to evaluate: (1) the risk to human health through consumption of muscle tissues and digestive glands of Octopus hubbsorum, O. vulgaris and Eledone cirrhosa, and (2) the maximum allowable consumption rates (CR). Read More

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December 2018

Study of Optimal Perimetric Testing in Children (OPTIC): evaluation of kinetic approaches in childhood neuro-ophthalmic disease.

Br J Ophthalmol 2018 Sep 19. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Life Course Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK

Aims: We compared feasibility, quality and outcomes of visual field (VF) testing in children with neuro-ophthalmic disease between the discontinued 'gold-standard' Goldmann and Octopus perimeters.

Methods: Children with neuro-ophthalmic disease, attending Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, were assessed using standardised protocols by one examiner in a single sitting, using Goldmann and Octopus kinetic perimetry. Outputs were classified to compare severity of loss and defect type. Read More

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September 2018
6 Reads

Shotgun Proteomics Analysis of Saliva and Salivary Gland Tissue from the Common Octopus Octopus vulgaris.

J Proteome Res 2018 Nov 27;17(11):3866-3876. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology , James Cook University , Townsville , Queensland 4811 , Australia.

The salivary apparatus of the common octopus ( Octopus vulgaris) has been the subject of biochemical study for over a century. A combination of bioassays, behavioral studies and molecular analysis on O. vulgaris and related species suggests that its proteome should contain a mixture of highly potent neurotoxins and degradative proteins. Read More

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November 2018

Commercial octopus species from different geographical origins: Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and potential health risks for consumers.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Nov 10;121:272-282. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

REQUIMTE-LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4249-015, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent pollutants that have been raising global concern due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. A total of 18 PAHs (16 USEPA priority compounds, benzo(j)fluoranthene and dibenzo(a,l)pyrene) were assessed in the edible tissues of raw octopus (Octopus vulgaris, Octopus maya, and Eledone cirrhosa) from six geographical origins available to Portuguese consumers. Inter- and intra-species comparison was statistically performed. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Application of Pattern Recognition Analysis to Optimize Hemifield Asymmetry Patterns for Early Detection of Glaucoma.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2018 4;7(5). Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Centre for Eye Health, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia.

Purpose: To assess the diagnostic utility of a new hemifield asymmetry analysis derived using pattern recognition contrast sensitivity isocontours (CSIs) within the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) 24-2 visual field (VF) test grid. The performance of an optimal CSI-derived map was compared against a commercially available clustering method (Glaucoma Hemifield Test, GHT).

Methods: Five hundred VF results of 116 healthy subjects were used to determine normative distribution limits for comparisons. Read More

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September 2018

Sense and Insensibility - An Appraisal of the Effects of Clinical Anesthetics on Gastropod and Cephalopod Molluscs as a Step to Improved Welfare of Cephalopods.

Front Physiol 2018 24;9:1147. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Recent progress in animal welfare legislation stresses the need to treat cephalopod molluscs, such as , humanely, to have regard for their wellbeing and to reduce their pain and suffering resulting from experimental procedures. Thus, appropriate measures for their sedation and analgesia are being introduced. Clinical anesthetics are renowned for their ability to produce unconsciousness in vertebrate species, but their exact mechanisms of action still elude investigators. Read More

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August 2018
4 Reads

The octopus on a heart.

Eur Heart J 2018 Sep 1. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Department of Rheumatology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, No 1, Shuaifuyuan, Dongdan, Beijing, China.

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September 2018

A Brain Atlas of the Long Arm Octopus, .

Exp Neurobiol 2018 Aug 30;27(4):257-266. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Department of Genetic Resources Research, National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea (MABIK), Seocheon 33662, Korea.

Cephalopods have the most advanced nervous systems and intelligent behavior among all invertebrates. Their brains provide comparative insights for understanding the molecular and functional origins of the human brain. Although brain maps that contain information on the organization of each subregion are necessary for a study on the brain, no whole brain atlas for adult cephalopods has been constructed to date. Read More

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Molecular Characterization of Histamine-Producing Psychrotrophic Bacteria Isolated from Red Octopus () in Refrigerated Storage.

High Throughput 2018 Sep 4;7(3). Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Experimental Unit, University Marist of Mérida, Periférico Norte Tablaje Catastral 13941, Carretera Mérida-Progreso, Mérida 97300, Yucatán, México.

The present study aimed at determining the histamine production capacity of Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria isolated from , along with identifying the presence of amino acid decarboxylase genes. Of the total 80 psychrotrophic microorganisms, 32 strains were identified as histamine-forming bacteria. The recombinant DNA technique was used for genotypic identification of histidine (), ornithine (), and lysine decarboxylases () genes. Read More

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September 2018

Gold nanospirals on colloidal gold nanoparticles.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2019 Jan 23;533:304-310. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Institute of Advanced Synthesis, School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, PR China. Electronic address:

Synthesis of asymmetric nanostructures has always been a great challenge. In particular, there are only limited approaches for growing spiral nanowires in solution, and almost all of them require templates. Here, as a step in advancing the synthetic capability at the nanoscale, we report a wet chemistry template-free approach for growing hybrids spiral gold nanowires. Read More

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January 2019
17 Reads

Diagnosis and Treatment of Lower Motor Neuron Disease in Australian Dogs and Cats.

J Vet Med 2018 6;2018:1018230. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

University of Queensland School of Veterinary Science, Gatton, QLD 4350, Australia.

Diseases presenting with lower motor neuron (LMN) signs are frequently seen in small animal veterinary practice in Australia. In addition to the most common causes of LMN disease seen world-wide, such as idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis and myasthenia gravis, there are several conditions presenting with LMN signs that are peculiar to the continent of Australia. These include snake envenomation by tiger ( spp. Read More

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August 2018
7 Reads

Octopus maya parasites off the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. II. Salivary gland damage by cestodes.

Dis Aquat Organ 2018 08;130(1):45-50

Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Campus de Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias, Departamento de Biología Marina, Km. 15.5 Carretera Mérida-Xmatkuil, Apdo. Postal 4-116, Itzimná Mérida, Yucatán, México.

The red octopus Octopus maya Voss et Solís-Ramírez, 1966 is an endemic species and one of the most important fishery resources of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Due to its economic importance and the fact that in recent years interest in farming this species has increased, several initiatives have been implemented to study its biology and requirements for cultivation. Parasites represent an important component of the biology of the red octopus, as they can have an impact on both wild and cultivated populations. Read More

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August 2018
5 Reads

Octopus maya parasites off the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. I. Faunal assemblages.

Dis Aquat Organ 2018 08;130(1):37-43

Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Campus de Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias, Departamento de Biología Marina, Km. 15.5 Carretera Mérida-Xmatkuil, Apdo. Postal 4-116, Itzimná Mérida, Yucatán, México.

The red octopus Octopus maya Voss et Solís-Ramírez, 1966 is an endemic species found exclusively off the coast of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico; its fishery is one of the most important along the Atlantic coast of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. To date, the parasite fauna of Octopus spp. in southern Mexico remains unknown. Read More

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First description of the life cycle of the jellyfish Rhizostoma luteum (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae).

PLoS One 2018 22;13(8):e0202093. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Group Ecosystem Oceanography, Department of Ecology and Coastal Management, Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucía (CSIC), Cádiz, Spain.

Jellyfish blooms are a significant environmental problem that is increasing and may be influenced by anthropocentric practices such as overfishing, pollution, eutrophication, translocation, climate change, and ocean acidification. Many jellyfish have unknown life cycles leading to these blooms. We describe for the first time, the life cycle of scyphozoan jellyfish Rhizostoma luteum from the planula to the young medusa stages, based on laboratory observations. Read More

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Highly Adaptable and Biocompatible Octopus-Like Adhesive Patches with Meniscus-Controlled Unfoldable 3D Microtips for Underwater Surface and Hairy Skin.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2018 Aug 30;5(8):1800100. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

School of Chemical Engineering Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU) Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu Suwon Gyeonggi-do 440-746 Republic of Korea.

Adhesion capabilities of various skin architectures found in nature can generate remarkable physical interactions with their engaged surfaces. Among them, octopus suckers have unique hierarchical structures for reversible adhesion in dry and wet conditions. Here, highly adaptable, biocompatible, and repeatable adhesive patches with unfoldable, 3D microtips in micropillars inspired by the rim and infundibulum of octopus suction cup are presented. Read More

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Nociceptive Biology of Molluscs and Arthropods: Evolutionary Clues About Functions and Mechanisms Potentially Related to Pain.

Authors:
Edgar T Walters

Front Physiol 2018 3;9:1049. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

Department of Integrative Biology and Pharmacology, McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, United States.

Important insights into the selection pressures and core molecular modules contributing to the evolution of pain-related processes have come from studies of nociceptive systems in several molluscan and arthropod species. These phyla, and the chordates that include humans, last shared a common ancestor approximately 550 million years ago. Since then, animals in these phyla have continued to be subject to traumatic injury, often from predators, which has led to similar adaptive behaviors (e. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

Magnitude Assessment of Adult Neurogenesis in the Brain Using a Flow Cytometry-Based Technique.

Front Physiol 2018 2;9:1050. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Adult neurogenesis is widespread among metazoans, it occurs in animals with a network nervous system, as cnidarians, and in animals with a complex and centralized brain, such as mammals, non-mammalian vertebrates, ecdysozoans, and a lophotrochozoan, . Nevertheless, there are important differences among taxa, especially in the number of the regions involved and in cell proliferation rate during the life-cycle. The comparative evaluation of adult neurogenesis among different brain regions is an arduous task to achieve with only stereological techniques. Read More

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August 2018
7 Reads
1 Citation

Multiple optic gland signaling pathways implicated in octopus maternal behaviors and death.

J Exp Biol 2018 Oct 8;221(Pt 19). Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Neurobiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

Post-reproductive life in the female octopus is characterized by an extreme pattern of maternal care: the mother cares for her clutch of eggs without feeding until her death. These maternal behaviors are eradicated if the optic glands, the octopus analog of the vertebrate pituitary gland, are removed from brooding females. Despite the optic gland's importance in regulating maternal behavior, the molecular features underlying optic gland function are unknown. Read More

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October 2018
9 Reads

Association of obesity, diabetes and hypertension with cognitive impairment in older age.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 25;10:853-862. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Department of Anesthesiology and Operative Intensive Care Medicine (CCM, CVK), Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Age-related cognitive impairment is rising in prevalence but is not yet fully characterized in terms of its epidemiology. Here, we aimed to elucidate the role of obesity, diabetes and hypertension as candidate risk factors.

Methods: Original baseline data from 3 studies (OCTOPUS, DECS, SuDoCo) were obtained for secondary analysis of cross-sectional associations of diabetes, hypertension, blood pressure, obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m) and BMI with presence of cognitive impairment in log-binomial regression analyses. Read More

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July 2018
2 Reads

Visual Field Changes in Professional Wind versus Non-wind Musical Instrument Players in the Philadelphia Orchestra.

J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2018 Jul-Sep;13(3):224-230

Wills Eye Hospital Glaucoma Research Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Purpose: We compare the prevalence of glaucoma in professional wind versus non-wind instrument players in the Philadelphia Orchestra. Visual field changes in individuals with glaucoma and glaucoma suspects were evaluated, and the results were correlated with cumulative practice time.

Methods: In this cross-sectional, observational study, fifty-one Philadelphia Orchestra musicians were enrolled and categorized as wind or non-wind instrument players. Read More

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Octopus vulgaris: An Alternative in Evolution.

Results Probl Cell Differ 2018 ;65:585-598

Department of Biology, University of Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy.

Octopus vulgaris underwent a radical modification to cope with the benthic lifestyle. It diverged from other cephalopods in terms of body plan, anatomy, behavior, and intelligence. It independently evolved the largest and most complex nervous system and sophisticated behaviors among invertebrates in a separate evolutionary lineage. Read More

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January 2018
18 Reads

Cephalopod Brains: An Overview of Current Knowledge to Facilitate Comparison With Vertebrates.

Front Physiol 2018 20;9:952. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Department of Biology and Evolution of Marine Organisms, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Naples, Italy.

Cephalopod and vertebrate neural-systems are often highlighted as a traditional example of convergent evolution. Their large brains, relative to body size, and complexity of sensory-motor systems and behavioral repertoires offer opportunities for comparative analysis. Despite various attempts, questions on how cephalopod 'brains' evolved and to what extent it is possible to identify a vertebrate-equivalence, assuming it exists, remain unanswered. Read More

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Neural Control of Dynamic 3-Dimensional Skin Papillae for Cuttlefish Camouflage.

iScience 2018 Mar;1:24-34

Marine Biological Laboratory, MBL Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543-1015, USA.

The color and pattern changing abilities of octopus, squid, and cuttlefish via chromatophore neuromuscular organs are unparalleled. Cuttlefish and octopuses also have a unique muscular hydrostat system in their skin. When this system is expressed, dermal bumps called papillae disrupt body shape and imitate the fine texture of surrounding objects, yet the control system is unknown. Read More

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Genetic structure of around Chinese waters as indicated by nuclear DNA variations (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

Zookeys 2018 17(775):1-14. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Department of Animal Science and Aquaculture, Dalhousie University, Canada.

is an economically important resource commonly found in Chinese coastal waters. The nuclear gene (RD and ODH) approach of investigation has not reported in this species. Rhodopsin (RD) and octopine dehydrogenase (ODH) genes were used to elaborate the genetic structure collected from eight localities ranging from the northern to the southern coast of China. Read More

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July 2018
12 Reads

Two-dimensional gel and shotgun proteomics approaches to distinguish fresh and frozen-thawed curled octopus (Eledone cirrhosa).

J Proteomics 2018 Aug 26;186:1-7. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

S.C. Neuroscienze con annesso CEA- S.S. Genetica ed Immunobiochimica - Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d'Aosta, Torino, Italy. Electronic address:

The substitution and sale of frozen-thawed fish labeled as fresh is a widespread, difficult to unmask commercial fraud and a potential risk for consumer health. Proteomics could help to identify markers for the rapid screening of food samples and the identification of frozen-thawed seafood. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and high-resolution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we identified biomarkers that are able to discriminate between fresh and frozen-thawed tissue samples of curled octopus (Eledone cirrhosa). Read More

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Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish, crustaceans, molluscs and echinoderms from the Tuscany coast.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Oct 18;162:554-562. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Institute for Coastal Marine Environment, CNR, Via del Mare, 3 - 91021 Torretta Granitola - Fraz, Campobello di Mazara, TP, Italy.

The concentration of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn were analyzed in the edible part of several species of fish, crustaceans, molluscs and echinoderms collected in sensitive areas of the Tuscany coast (northern Italy). The concentration of As (0.39-78. Read More

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October 2018
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Temporal information in tones, broadband noise, and natural vocalizations is conveyed by differential spiking responses in the superior paraolivary nucleus.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Aug 16;48(4):2030-2049. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Unit of Audiology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Communication sounds across all mammals consist of multiple frequencies repeated in sequence. The onset and offset of vocalizations are potentially important cues for recognizing distinct units, such as phonemes and syllables, which are needed to perceive meaningful communication. The superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON) in the auditory brainstem has been implicated in the processing of rhythmic sounds. Read More

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Self-Adapting Hydrogel to Improve the Therapeutic Effect in Wound-Healing.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Aug 25;10(31):26046-26055. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Beijing Laboratory of Biomedical Materials , Beijing University of Chemical Technology , Beijing 100029 , P. R. China.

Smart materials that can respond to multistimuli have been broadly studied. However, the smart materials that can spontaneously answer the ever-changing inner environment of living bodies have not been reported. Here, we report a strategy based on the dynamic chemistry to develop possible self-adapting solid materials that can automatically change shape without external stimuli, as organisms do. Read More

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August 2018
7 Reads

Saphenous graft atherosclerosis as assessed by optical coherence tomography data for stenotic and non-stenotic lesions from the OCTOPUS registry.

Postepy Kardiol Interwencyjnej 2018 19;14(2):157-166. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Department of Cardiology, School of Health Sciences, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

Introduction: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), although widely used for a long time in diffuse coronary artery disease (CAD), has serious limitations associated with graft aging and its degeneration.

Aim: The relationship between saphenous vein graft (SVG) plaque morphology assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and clinical findings has not been elucidated yet.

Material And Methods: We compared the morphology of SVG in stenotic vs. Read More

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June 2018
10 Reads