2,142,655 results match your criteria Objective Refractometers and Wavefront Imaging


Association between sleep duration and hypertension in southwest China: a population-based cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 27;12(6):e052193. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Sichuan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

Objective: Hypertension is a major risk factor and cause of many non-communicable diseases in China. While there have been studies on various diet and lifestyle risk factors, we do not know whether sleep duration has an association to blood pressure in southwest China. This predictor is useful in low-resource rural settings. Read More

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Minimal clinical data sets for spine-related musculoskeletal disorders in primary care and outpatient settings: a scoping review protocol.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 27;12(6):e057677. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Chiropractic Medicine, Balgrist University Hospital and University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Introduction: Lack of standardised clinical data collection may lead to reduced quality in musculoskeletal (MSK)-related clinical care and research. Little is known about the availability and characteristics of minimal clinical data sets for spine-related MSK disorders in primary care and outpatient settings and their utility for improving healthcare quality. Our objective is to undertake a scoping review aiming to identify and map current literature on minimal clinical data sets for measuring and monitoring health status in patients with spine-related MSK disorders in primary and outpatient healthcare settings. Read More

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Comparative end-of-life communication and support in hospitalised decedents before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a retrospective regional cohort study in Ottawa, Canada.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 27;12(6):e062937. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Palliative Care, Bruyere Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: To compare end-of-life in-person family presence, patient-family communication and healthcare team-family communication encounters in hospitalised decedents before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design: In a regional multicentre retrospective cohort study, electronic health record data were abstracted for a prepandemic group (pre-COVID) and two intrapandemic (March-August 2020, wave 1) groups, one COVID-19 free (COVID-ve) and one with COVID-19 infection (COVID+ve). Pre-COVID and COVID-ve groups were matched 2:1 (age, sex and care service) with the COVID+ve group. Read More

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Geospatial clustering and correlates of deaths during the Ebola outbreak in Liberia: a Bayesian geoadditive semiparametric analysis of nationally representative cross-sectional survey data.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 27;12(6):e054095. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Population and Health, Faculty of Social Sciences, College of Humanities and Legal Studies, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana.

Objective: To investigate the extent of geospatial clustering of reported deaths during the Ebola outbreak in Liberia and the covariates associated with the observed clustering.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Participants: Male and female respondents from the 2019-2020 Liberia Demographic and Health Survey. Read More

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Influence of Genetics, Immunity and the Microbiome on the Prognosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD Prognosis Study): the protocol for a Copenhagen IBD Inception Cohort Study.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 27;12(6):e055779. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Periodontology, Malmö Universitet, Malmo, Sweden.

Introduction: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), encompassing Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic, inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. We have initiated a Danish population-based inception cohort study aiming to investigate the underlying mechanisms for the heterogeneous course of IBD, including need for, and response to, treatment.

Methods And Analysis: IBD Prognosis Study is a prospective, population-based inception cohort study of unselected, newly diagnosed adult, adolescent and paediatric patients with IBD within the uptake area of Hvidovre University Hospital and Herlev University Hospital, Denmark, which covers approximately 1 050 000 inhabitants (~20% of the Danish population). Read More

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Role of cash transfers in mitigating food insecurity in India during the COVID-19 pandemic: a longitudinal study in the Bihar state.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 27;12(6):e060624. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Biostatistics, St John's Medical College, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Objective: There are scant empirical data on the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on food security across the globe. India is no exception, with insights into the impacts of lockdown on food insecurity now emerging. We contribute to the empirical evidence on the prevalence of food insecurity in Bihar state before and after lockdown, and whether the government's policy of cash transfer moderated negative effects of food insecurity or not. Read More

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Prevalence of breast fibroadenoma in healthy physical examination population in Guangdong province of China: a cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 27;12(6):e057080. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Breast Center, Department of general surgery, Southern Medical University Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China

Objective: To provide an accurate assessment of the prevalence of breast fibroadenoma in a large population and to confirm the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound for fibroadenoma.

Design: This was a cross-sectional survey.

Setting: This research was conducted at Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. Read More

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Cost of primary care approaches for hypertension management and risk-based cardiovascular disease prevention in Bangladesh: a HEARTS costing tool application.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 27;12(6):e061467. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Epidemiology and Research, National Heart Foundation Hospital & Research Institute, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Objective: To estimate the costs of scaling up the HEARTS pilot project for hypertension management and risk-based cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention at the full population level in the four subdistricts (upazilas) in Bangladesh.

Settings: Two intervention scenarios in subdistrict health complexes: hypertension management only, and risk-based integrated hypertension, diabetes, and cholesterol management.

Design: Data obtained during July-August 2020 from subdistrict health complexes on the cost of medications, diagnostic materials, staff salaries and other programme components. Read More

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Preferences and access to community-based HIV testing sites among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Côte d'Ivoire.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 27;12(6):e052536. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Centre Population et Développement, Université Paris Cité, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Inserm, Paris, France

Objective: Measuring access and preferences to Men who have Sex with Men focused community-based HIV testing sites (MSM-CBTS) in Côte d'Ivoire.

Design: A respondent-driven sampling telephone survey.

Setting: National survey conducted in 2018 in Côte d'Ivoire. Read More

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Awake extracorporeal life support and physiotherapy in adult patients: A systematic review of the literature.

Perfusion 2022 Jun 27:2676591221096078. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Department, and Cardiology Department, Heart and Vascular Center, 199236Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC+), Maastricht, Netherlands.

Objective: The Awake Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS) practice combined with physiotherapy is increasing. However, available evidence for this approach is limited, with unclear indications on timing, management, and protocols. This review summarizes available literature regarding Awake ECLS and physiotherapy application rates, practices, and outcomes in adults, providing indications for future investigations. Read More

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Transitioning out of work and metabolic syndrome incidence: a longitudinal study among 13 303 older workers from the Lifelines Cohort Study and Biobank.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI)-KNAW/University of Groningen, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Background: This study investigates (1) whether different employment transition types (ie, unemployment, work disability, early retirement and regular retirement) are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) incidence among older workers (50-64 years) and (2) whether occupational group moderates the association between employment transition type and MetS incidence.

Methods: A sample of 13 303 older Dutch workers from the Lifelines Cohort Study and Biobank was examined using longitudinal data from two comprehensive measurement waves with a mean follow-up time of 3.7 years. Read More

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Biomarker underuse contributes to an inability to phenotype patients with severe uncontrolled asthma.

Allergy Asthma Proc 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Background: Biomarker measurements improve the phenotyping of patients with severe uncontrolled asthma (SUA) and predict therapeutic responses. The use of biomarkers in asthma, however, remains underused.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that biomarker measurements of patients with SUA remain markedly underused and contributes to asthma morbidity and oral corticosteroid use. Read More

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Cannabis use and risks of respiratory and all-cause morbidity and mortality: a population-based, data-linkage, cohort study.

BMJ Open Respir Res 2022 May;9(1)

Airways Disease Group, Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Although cannabis is frequently used worldwide, its impact on respiratory health is characterised by controversy.

Objective: To evaluate the association between cannabis use and respiratory-related emergency room (ER) visits and hospitalisations.

Methods: A retrospective, population-based, cohort study was carried out, linking health survey and health administrative data for residents of Ontario, Canada, aged 12-65 years, between January 2009 and December 2015. Read More

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Temporality of body mass index, blood tests, comorbidities and medication use as early markers for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC): a nested case-control study.

Gut 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Objective: Prior studies identified clinical factors associated with increased risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, little is known regarding their time-varying nature, which could inform earlier diagnosis. This study assessed temporality of body mass index (BMI), blood-based markers, comorbidities and medication use with PDAC risk . Read More

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Double-blinded randomised placebo controlled trial of enterosgel (polymethylsiloxane polyhydrate) for the treatment of IBS with diarrhoea (IBS-D).

Gut 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Gastroenterology, County Durham and Darlington NHS Foundation Trust, Darlington, UK

Objective: Irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea (IBS-D) is a common and challenging condition that significantly reduces quality of life. Enterosgel (polymethylsiloxane polyhydrate) is an intestinal adsorbent which sequesters harmful molecules and is safe and effective in acute infective diarrhoea. This randomised controlled multicentre trial aimed to investigate its safety and efficacy in patients with IBS-D. Read More

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Review on public private mix TB control strategy in India.

Indian J Tuberc 2022 Jul 15;69(3):277-281. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

KSPH, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

In India, around 70% of health care services are offered by the private sector. National strategic plan (NSP) has emphasized private sector engagement to TB program. Public private mix strategy along with web based mandatory notification of TB cases were established in 2002. Read More

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The global health workforce stock and distribution in 2020 and 2030: a threat to equity and 'universal' health coverage?

BMJ Glob Health 2022 Jun;7(6)

Health Workforce department, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Objective: The 2016 Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030 projected a global shortage of 18 million health workers by 2030. This article provides an assessment of the health workforce stock in 2020 and presents a revised estimate of the projected shortage by 2030.

Methods: Latest data reported through WHO's National Health Workforce Accounts (NHWA) were extracted to assess health workforce stock for 2020. Read More

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User centered clinical decision support to implement initiation of buprenorphine for opioid use disorder in the emergency department: EMBED pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial.

BMJ 2022 Jun 27;377:e069271. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Objective: To determine the effect of a user centered clinical decision support tool versus usual care on rates of initiation of buprenorphine in the routine emergency care of individuals with opioid use disorder.

Design: Pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (EMBED).

Setting: 18 emergency department clusters across five healthcare systems in five states representing the north east, south east, and western regions of the US, ranging from community hospitals to tertiary care centers, using either the Epic or Cerner electronic health record platform. Read More

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Net energy and its establishment of prediction equations for wheat bran in growing pigs.

Anim Biosci 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Objective: The objective of this experiment was to determine the net energy (NE) value of 6 wheat bran and 1 wheat shorts by indirect calorimetry and establish the NE prediction equations of wheat bran fed to growing barrows.

Methods: Forty-eight growing barrows (28.5±2. Read More

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Effect of feeding fermented soybean meal on broiler chickens' performance: A meta-analysis.

Anim Biosci 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Nutrition and Feed Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia.

Objective: The present study aimed to quantify the effects of fermented soybean meal (FSBM) on broiler chickens' performance by employing a meta-analysis approach.

Methods: A total of 16 studies were included in the database after being systematically selected using a PRISMA protocol. Hedges' g effect size was used to quantify pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) using random-effects models at 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Read More

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Effect of xylo-oligosaccharides on reproducibility, lipid metabolism, and adipokines of hens during the late egg-laying period.

Anim Biosci 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Animal Science, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, China.

Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) administration on egg production, reproductive hormones, serum lipids and adipokines of hens at the late cycle of reproduction.

Methods: Four treatments included control (basal diet) and XOS addition at 2.0 (XOS-2), 4. Read More

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Position of Hungarian Merino among other Merinos, within-breed genetic similarity network and markers associated with daily weight gain.

Anim Biosci 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Animal Breeding, Institute of Animal Science, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kaposvár Campus, Herceghalom, 2053, Hungary.

Objective: In this study, we aimed to position the Hungarian Merino among other Merino-derived sheep breeds, explore the characteristics of our sampled animals' genetic similarity network within the breed, and highlight SNPs associated with daily weight-gain.

Methods: Hungarian Merino (n=138) was genotyped on Ovine SNP50 Bead Chip (Illumina, San Diego, CA) and positioned among 30 Merino and Merino-derived breeds (n=555). Population characteristics were obtained via PLINK, SVS, Admixture, and Treemix software, within-breed network was analysed with python networkx 2. Read More

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Genome-wide association analysis of nine reproduction and morphological traits in three goat breeds from Southern China.

Anim Biosci 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Chongqing Academy of Animal Sciences, Chongqing, 402460, China.

Objective: This study aimed in investigating the significant SNPs and genes associated with nine reproduction and morphological traits in three breed populations of Chinese goats.

Methods: The genome-wide association of nine reproduction and morphological traits (litter size, nipple number, wattle, skin color, coat color, black dorsal line, beard, beard length, and hind leg hair) were analyzed in three Chinese native goat breeds(n = 336) using an Illumina GoatSNP54K Beadchip.

Results: A total of 17 genome-wide or chromosome-wide significant SNPs associated with one reproduction trait (litter size) and six morphological traits (wattle, coat color, black dorsal line, beard, beard length, and hind leg hair) were identified in three Chinese native goat breeds, and the candidate genes were annotated. Read More

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Effects of intracerebroventricular injection of corticotrophin releasing factor on the gene expression of ghrelin and corticotrophin releasing factor receptors in broiler chickens.

Anim Biosci 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Animal Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018, China.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) on the feed intake of broiler chickens and explore its influencing mechanism.

Methods: The study included two trials. In trial 1, 32 male broiler chickens (Arbor Acres, Gallus gallus domesticus) were ventricle buried tubes, and they were allowed to recover for 3 days. Read More

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Seasonal atmospheric characteristics in a swine finishing barn equipped with a continuous pit recirculation system using aerobically treated manure.

Anim Biosci 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Division of Animal Science, Agri-Food Bio Convergence Institute, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52725, Korea.

Objective: This study was conducted to determine the seasonal characteristics of odorous material emissions from a swine finishing barn equipped with a continuous pit recirculation system (CPRS) using aerobically treated manure.

Methods: The CPRS consists of an aerobic manure treatment process and a pit recirculation system, where the solid fraction is separated and composted. The aerated liquid fraction (290. Read More

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Blend of essential oils can reduce diarrheal disorders and improve liver antioxidant status in weaning pigs.

Anim Biosci 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Marechal Cândido Rondon, Brazil.

Objective: The objective was to assess the effects of different doses of an essential oil blend (EOB) on growth performance, diarrhea occurrence (DO), hematological and blood biochemical profile, intestinal morphometry, morphology and microbiology, relative weight and length of organs, digestive content pH, and liver antioxidant status in weaning pigs.

Methods: A total of 135 barrows (7.09±0. Read More

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The effect of equipotent dose of propofol and sevoflurane on endoplasmic reticulum stress during breast cancer surgery.

Korean J Anesthesiol 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Numerous studies suggest a benefit of the use of intravenous propofol over inhalational volatile anesthetic. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress of cancer cells and lymphocytes after propofol- or sevoflurane-based anesthesia during breast cancer surgery.

Methods: A total of 53 patients having breast cancer surgery were randomized and analyzed (28 for propofol, 25 for sevoflurane). Read More

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Can electroencephalography (EEG) identify ADHD subtypes? A systematic review.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2022 Jun 24:104752. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Psychology, McGill University, 1205 Dr. Penfield Ave, Montreal, QC H3A 1B1 Canada. Electronic address:

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been associated with atypical patterns of neural activity measured by electroencephalography (EEG). However, the identification of EEG diagnostic biomarkers has been complicated by the disorder's heterogeneity. The objective of this review was to synthesize the literature investigating EEG variation in patients diagnosed with ADHD, addressing the following questions: 1) Are the diagnostic ADHD subtypes associated with different EEG characteristics? 2) Are EEG measures correlated with ADHD traits and/or symptom severity? and 3) Do classification techniques using EEG measures reveal different clinical presentations of ADHD? Outcomes highlight the potential for electrophysiological measures to provide meaningful insights into the heterogeneity of ADHD, although direct translation of EEG biomarkers for diagnostic purposes is not yet supported. Read More

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Identification and treatment of potentially destabilizing Vancouver B-lesser trochanter periprosthetic fracture ("New B2"): a 33-case series.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2022 Jun 24:103357. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Service de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologie, Centre Hospitalier de Cannes, 15 Avenue des Broussailles, CS 50008, 06414 Cannes Cedex, France.

Introduction: A new type of periprosthetic fracture, between Vancouver-SoFCOT types A and B, was recently described and labeled 'new B2'. It occurs intraoperatively or in the early postoperative period, on cementless implants, and features a posteromedial cortical fragment around the lesser trochanter. The main aim of the present study was to report clinical and radiological results in a series of 33 cases of what is better called Vancouver B-lesser trochanter (VB-LT) fracture. Read More

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BACTERIAL MENINGITIS IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE MYELOMA: A PROSPECTIVE NATIONWIDE COHORT STUDY AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

Int J Infect Dis 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objective: To study the clinical features of bacterial meningitis in myeloma patients.

Methods: We analyzed myeloma patients included in a nationwide cohort of patients >16 years old with community-acquired bacterial meningitis in the Netherlands between 2006 and 2018. Subsequently, we reviewed the literature for articles reporting myeloma patients with bacterial meningitis. Read More

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