1,971,342 results match your criteria Objective Refractometers and Wavefront Imaging


Leveraging Artificial Intelligence to Improve Chronic Disease Care: Methods and Application to Pharmacotherapy Decision Support for Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Methods Inf Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.

Objectives:  Artificial intelligence (AI), including predictive analytics, has great potential to improve the care of common chronic conditions with high morbidity and mortality. However, there are still many challenges to achieving this vision. The goal of this project was to develop and apply methods for enhancing chronic disease care using AI. Read More

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Efficacy of Handpiece Mounted Continuous Irrigation System for the Removal of Residual Pulpal Debris During Root Canal Preparation.

Eur J Dent 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Implantology, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.

Objective:  The removal of residual pulpal debris (RPD) from the root canal walls, especially in necrotic teeth is important for successful endodontic outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the RPD removal efficacy of handpiece mounted continuous irrigation with simultaneous root canal preparation from the apical third of root canals as compared to conventional syringe irrigation (SI).

Materials And Methods:  Ninety extracted teeth were randomly divided into three groups: SI; handpiece mounted continuous irrigation (CI); and both syringe and continuous irrigation (CI+SI). Read More

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Continuous Analysis of Marathon Running Using Inertial Sensors: Hitting Two Walls?

Int J Sports Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Sport Sciences, University of Lausanne Lausanne, Switzerland.

Marathon running involves complex mechanisms that cannot be measured with objective metrics or laboratory equipment. The emergence of wearable sensors introduced new opportunities, allowing the continuous recording of relevant parameters. The present study aimed to assess the evolution of stride-by-stride spatio-temporal parameters, stiffness, and foot strike angle during a marathon and determine possible abrupt changes in running patterns. Read More

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The Association between Prolonged Antibiotic Use in Culture Negative Infants and Length of Hospital Stay and Total Hospital Costs.

Am J Perinatol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Neonatology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Objective:  This study aimed to determine if prolonged antibiotic use at birth in neonates with a negative blood culture increases the total cost of hospital stay.

Study Design:  This was a retrospective study performed at a 60-bed level IV neonatal intensive care unit. Neonates born <30 weeks of gestation or <1,500 g between 2016 and 2018 who received antibiotics were included. Read More

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Risk Factors and Clinical Characteristics of Metabolic Bone Disease of Prematurity.

Am J Perinatol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine, Trabzon, Turkey.

Objective:  The study aimed to analyze the risk factors and clinical features of metabolic bone disease of prematurity (MBDP) in premature infants compared with infants of similar gestational age and birthweight without MBDP.

Study Design:  This retrospective case-control study was performed by comparing 81 cases of MBDP with 63 controls to identify potential risk factors. Premature infants with a gestational age ≤33 weeks and birthweight <1,500 g were included. Read More

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Pulmonary Support of Infants with Tracheotomies in a Regional Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

Am J Perinatol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Objective:  We evaluate patient characteristics, hospital course, and outcome by type discharge pulmonary support; mechanical ventilation (MV) or with tracheotomy masks (TM).

Study Design:  We reviewed records of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) that underwent tracheotomy within their first year of life between 2006 and 2017. We evaluated patient characteristics, referral pattern, destination of discharge, and outcome by type of pulmonary support at discharge (MV vs. Read More

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Patient Outcomes Significantly Improve When Receiving Treatment by Athletic Therapy Students.

J Athl Train 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Concordia University.

Context: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) should be used in athletic training but are rarely incorporated in athletic training and athletic therapy internships. Student-run clinics are common in other health professions and provide effective treatment and a valuable learning environment.1-3 To our knowledge, no one has evaluated rehabilitation outcomes in patients treated by athletic training/athletic therapy students (ATSs). Read More

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Asset map in a Chilean Health Promoting University: 'a strategy for revitalization'.

Health Promot Int 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Public Health Research Group, University of Alicante, Campus San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante 03690, Spain.

Health Promoting Universities (HPUs) are more likely to perform actions intended to change habits and increase personal empowerment, than they are to develop community actions. The objective of this research is to create an asset map to visualize collective actions in a Chilean HPU. A qualitative study, based on the ABCD model was conducted. Read More

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Age-Related Vestibular and Ocular Motor Outcomes Following a Sport-Related Concussion.

J Athl Train 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Michigan State University,

Context: Vestibular and ocular motor assessment is an emerging clinical assessment for sport-related concussion (SRC). The increased use of these assessments by clinicians calls for examination of outcomes in populations that may impact clinical practice.

Objective: Compare vestibular and ocular motor impairments in high school and collegiate athletes within 72 hours of SRC. Read More

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Work and life in the sport industry - A comparison of work-life interface experiences among athletic employees. A Review.

J Athl Train 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

†University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.

Objective: To review the work-life interface literature from the sport industry, especially focusing on coaches, athletic trainers, athletes, and other sport personnel.

Data Sources: Studies were identified utilizing SPORTDiscus, PsychINFO, and Google Scholar. Sample search terms included "Work-Family Balance," "Work-Life Balance," "Work-Family Conflict," "Work-Life Conflict," "Work-Family Enrichment," and "Work-Life Enrichment. Read More

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Timing of stress fracture in soldiers during the first 6 career months: a retrospective cohort study.

J Athl Train 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

2U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Military Performance Division, Natick, MA 01760.

Context: Stress fractures (SF) are injuries that can result from beginning new or higher volume physical training regimens. The pattern of clinical presentation of SF over time after individuals start a new or more demanding physical training regimen is not well defined in medical literature.

Objective: Report trends in the clinical presentation of stress fractures over the first six month of soldiers' time in the service. Read More

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Proximity to the descending aorta predicts regional fibrosis in the adjacent left atrial wall: aetiopathogenic and prognostic implications.

Europace 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Unitat de Fibril.lació Auricular (UFA), Institut Clínic Cardiovascular (ICCV), Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Aims: Left atrial (LA) fibrosis is present in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and can be visualized by magnetic resonance imaging with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE-MRI). Previous studies have shown that LA fibrosis is not randomly distributed, being more frequent in the area adjacent to the descending aorta (DAo). The objective of this study is to analyse the relationship between fibrosis in the atrial area adjacent to the DAo and the distance to it, as well as the prognostic implications of this fibrosis. Read More

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The Association of High School Sport Participation and Injury History in Collegiate Club Sport Athletes.

J Athl Train 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

1Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI.

Context: Sport specialization during adolescence may affect future injury risk. This association has been demonstrated in some professional sports athletes.

Objective: Determine the association between adolescent sport specialization levels in high school and injuries sustained during collegiate club sports. Read More

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Impact of Protein Intake during Weight Loss on Preservation of Fat-Free Mass, Resting Energy Expenditure, and Physical Function in Overweight Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Obes Facts 2021 May 11:1-12. Epub 2021 May 11.

Fulda University of Applied Sciences, Fulda, Germany.

Introduction: Weight loss in old age increases the risk of sarcopenia caused by the age-related reduction of fat-free mass (FFM). Due to the strong correlation between FFM and resting energy expenditure (REE), the maintenance of this must also be considered. Besides, the physical function (PF) must be maintained. Read More

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The Impact of Platinum-Containing Chemotherapies in Advanced Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Meta-Analytical Approach to Evaluating Its Efficacy and Safety.

Oncol Res Treat 2021 May 11:1-10. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Chinese Traditional Surgery, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), the most common type of breast cancer, is associated with poor patient prognosis. Platinum-containing chemotherapies are commonly used in the treatment and prevention of advanced TNBC.

Objectives And Methods: To systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of platinum-containing chemotherapies in patients with advanced TNBC, we searched several databases, including PubMed, Medline, Embase, ClinicalTrials. Read More

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Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Associated with COVID-19 Infection: An Observational, Multicenter Study.

Cerebrovasc Dis Extra 2021 May 11;11(2):55-60. Epub 2021 May 11.

Rashid Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Background And Purpose: Coronavirus disease 2019 (CO-VID-19) has an increased propensity for systemic hypercoagulability and thromboembolism. An association with cerebrovascular diseases, especially cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), has been reported among these patients. The objective of the present study was to identify risk factors for CVT as well as its presentation and outcome in COVID-19 patients. Read More

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On the estimate of music appraisal from surface EEG: a dynamic-network approach based on cross-sensor PAC measurements.

J Neural Eng 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Informatics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Sciences, Aristotle University Campus: Biology building, Thessaloniki, 54124, GREECE.

Objective: The aesthetic evaluation of music is strongly dependent on the listener and reflects manifold brain processes that go well beyond the perception of incident sound. Being a high-level cognitive reaction, it is difficult to predict merely from the acoustic features of the audio signal and this poses serious challenges to contemporary music recommendation systems. We attempted to decode music appraisal from brain activity, recorded via wearable EEG, during music listening. Read More

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Methodology applied to ensure compliance with the remediation goals of an old rare earth production plant contaminated with radionuclides in Brazil.

J Radiol Prot 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry, Rio de Janeiro, BRAZIL.

In the past, Brazil has already exploited its immense mineral reserves of rare earth elements. The industrial plants that processed these rare earth ores were contaminated with radionuclides, this happened because at that time there was no legal framework to prevent it. When it was necessary to close these sites, the areas contaminated with radionuclides were remedied during the decommissioning process. Read More

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A descriptive analysis of the impact of public health and social measures on COVID-19: How the U.S. compares to other countries.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, US.

Background: The United States of America (US) has the highest global number of COVID-19 cases and deaths, which may be due in part to delays and inconsistencies in implementing public health and social measures (PHSMs).

Objective: In this descriptive analysis, we analyzed the epidemiological evidence for PHSM impact on COVID-19 transmission in the US compared to that in ten other countries of varying income levels, population sizes, and geographies.

Methods: We compared PHSM implementation timing and stringency against COVID-19 daily case counts in the US to that in Canada, China, Ethiopia, Japan, Kazakhstan, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe from January 1 to November 25, 2020. Read More

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Physicians' perceptions about narrative note sections format and content: A multi-specialty survey.

Int J Med Inform 2021 May 7;151:104475. Epub 2021 May 7.

Informatics Institute, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, USA.

Objective: To assess physicians' perceptions about narrative note sections format and content commonly reported in visit notes to inform future research and EHR development.

Methods: We conducted two online surveys with a multi-specialty panel of outpatient physicians from a large health system to collect their perceptions of the usefulness of three narrative formats and the relevance of content reported in the note sections history of present illness (HPI) and assessment and plan (AP). Survey questions were responded with a 7-point Likert scale and include two open-ended questions for comments on challenges and suggestions related to electronic clinical documentation. Read More

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Sexual aggression against males: Differences between acts by males and females - Results from the German Health and Sexuality Survey (GeSiD).

Child Abuse Negl 2021 May 8;117:105071. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute for Sex Research, Sexual Medicine and Forensic Psychiatry University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Current research examining sexual aggression against males is rare and representative studies often do not sufficiently differentiate between male and female affected persons, male and female offending person, as well as between different types of sexual aggression.

Objective: We investigated the prevalence of sexual aggression against males perpetrated by males and females distinguished by the type of sexual aggression and examined differences between sexual aggression against males committed by males and females in characteristics of the sexual aggression.

Participants And Setting: We examined representative self-report data collected in the German Health and Sexuality Survey (GeSiD; n = 4,955). Read More

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Stress, alcohol use, and punitive parenting during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Apr 30;117:105090. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

College of Social Work, The Ohio State University, 1947 College Road N, Columbus, OH, 43210, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Emerging research suggests that parents are experiencing heightened stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Parental stress is a risk factor for harsh or punitive parenting, and this association may be exacerbated by the use of alcohol.

Objective: We examine whether parental stress is associated with use of punitive parenting, as well as whether this association is modified by drinking pattern. Read More

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Tomographic similarity scan with a computed modified absolute mandibular midsagittal plane for precise and objective localization of mandibular asymmetry.

Comput Biol Med 2021 May 4;134:104465. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Orthodontics, Institute of Craniofacial Deformity, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The application of 3D imaging is at its cusp in craniofacial diagnosis and treatment planning. However, most applications are limited to simple subjective superimposition-based analysis. As the diagnostic accuracy dictates the precision in operability, we propose a novel method that enables objective clinical decision making for patients with mandibular asymmetry. Read More

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Impact of short stature on quality of life: A systematic literature review.

Growth Horm IGF Res 2021 Apr 30;57-58:101392. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

Objective: We sought to obtain a better understanding of the burden of short stature using a systematic literature review.

Methods: Studies of the burden of short stature, of any cause in adults and children, were searched using Embase, MEDLINE and Cochrane databases in April 2020, capturing publications from 2008 onwards. Case series and populations with adult-onset growth hormone deficiency (GHD) were excluded. Read More

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Differential effects of androgens and estrogens over cellular GH sensitivity in HEPG2 cells.

Growth Horm IGF Res 2021 May 4;57-58:101390. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Maternal and Child Research (IDIMI), School of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Testosterone and estrogen concentrations progressively increase during puberty, and in association with growth hormone (GH), lead to the increase in height velocity known as the pubertal growth spurt. Very limited information is available however, regarding the possible effects of sex steroids over GH cellular sensitivity.

Objective: To investigate the effects of different concentrations of testosterone, estradiol and dihydrotestosterone over the GH intracellular signaling pathway. Read More

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Relationship between I-FP-CIT-SPECT and motor severity in drug-naive patients with Parkinson's disease.

J Neurol Sci 2021 May 6;426:117476. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neurology, Tokyo Medical University, 6-7-1 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan.

Introduction: Although functional imaging is useful for the diagnosis and pathophysiological evaluation of Parkinson's disease (PD), little is known about the relationship between functional imaging findings and PD clinical features. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between I-FP-CIT-SPECT findings and motor symptoms, in particular gait disturbance.

Methods: The study included 46 drug-naive patients with early-stage PD. Read More

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Automated psoriasis lesion segmentation from unconstrained environment using residual U-Net with transfer learning.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Apr 23;206:106123. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Psoriasis Clinic and Research Centre, Psoriatreat, Pune, Maharashtra, 411004, India.

Background And Objective: The automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions from digital images is a challenging task due to the unconstrained imaging environment and non-uniform background. Existing conventional or machine learning-based image processing methods for automatic psoriasis lesion segmentation have several limitations, such as dependency on manual features, human intervention, less and unreliable performance with an increase in data, manual pre-processing steps for removal of background or other artifacts, etc. METHODS: In this paper, we propose a fully automatic approach based on a deep learning model using the transfer learning paradigm for the segmentation of psoriasis lesions from the digital images of different body regions of the psoriasis patients. Read More

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Hymenal transections in children found by photocolposcopy in suspected sexual abuse cases is associated with a history of bleeding.

J Forensic Leg Med 2021 May 6;80:102176. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, J.B.Winsløws Vej 17B, 5000 Odense C, Denmark. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the difference in selected variables between children with and without hymenal transection, which is a healed defect that extends through the entire depth of the posterior hymenal membrane to the vaginal wall.

Materials And Methods: All female children from Southern Denmark who were examined by photocolposcopy in a six-year period were included in a retrospective cohort study. Statistical analyses included a chi-square test and a logistic regression analysis. Read More

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Polymorphisms in TNFAIP3, but not in STAT4, BANK1, BLK, and TNFSF4, are associated with susceptibility to Takayasu arteritis.

Cell Immunol 2021 May 4;365:104375. Epub 2021 May 4.

Unidad de Investigación, Hospital Juárez de México, México City, Mexico. Electronic address:

Background: Takayasu arteritis (TAK) is considered a rare disease characterized by nonspecific inflammation of the large arteries, especially the aorta and its major branches. Because TAK is an autoimmune disease (AD), it could share susceptibility loci with other pathologies such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), among others. Widely explored polymorphisms in non-HLA genes, including TNFAIP3, STAT4, TNFSF4, BANK1, and BLK have been consistently associated with both SLE and RA, but they have not been evaluated in TAK. Read More

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