1,610 results match your criteria Obesity Reviews [Journal]


Twenty-five years of research about adipogenic adenoviruses: A systematic review.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA.

Infectious etiology is implicated in chronic diseases such as gastric ulcer or atherosclerosis. However, "infection" is a recent term in the field of obesity. Since the first report in 1982 of obesity due to infection, several microbes have been linked to obesity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12808DOI Listing
December 2018

Identifying notions of environment in obesity research using a mixed-methods approach.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Copenhagen Centre for Health Research in the Humanities, The Saxo Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The recent rise of computation-based methods in social science has opened new opportunities for exploring qualitative questions through analysis of large amounts of text. This article uses a mixed-methods design that incorporates machine reading, network analysis, semantic analysis, and qualitative analysis of 414 highly cited publications on obesogenic environments between 2001 and 2015. The method produces an elaborate network map exhibiting five distinct notions of environment, all of which are currently active in the field of obesity research. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/obr.12807
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12807DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Delivering in-school interventions to improve dietary behaviours amongst 11- to 16-year-olds: A systematic review.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

The Staffordshire Centre for Psychological Research and Centre for Health Psychology, Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent, UK.

Childhood obesity is a global health concern, which has both short- and long-term health consequences for the individual, and is a potential burden on health care services and the wider economy. The school environment is a setting where changes can be applied to dietary behaviours, as schools have direct and intensive contact with children. This systematic review evaluated school-based interventions designed to improve dietary behaviours among adolescents (11- to 16-year-olds). Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/obr.12797
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12797DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Structural responses to the obesity and non-communicable diseases epidemic: Update on the Chilean law of food labelling and advertising.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Chile approved the law of food labelling and advertising in 2012; this law aims to address the obesity epidemic, particularly in children. The implementation details were published in 2015, and the law was implemented finally in 2016, as described in the current article. Regulated foods were defined based on a specially developed nutrient profiling, which considered natural foods as gold standard. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12802DOI Listing
December 2018

Preconception management of women with obesity: A systematic review.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Medicine (Austin Health), University of Melbourne, Heidelberg Heights, Victoria, Australia.

The prevalence of women of child-bearing age with obesity continues to rise at an alarming rate. This has significant implications for both the short-term and long-term health of mother and offspring. Given the paucity of evidence-based literature in this field, the preconception management of women with obesity is highly variable both between institutions and around the world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12804DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Do lifestyle interventions during pregnancy have the potential to reduce long-term postpartum weight retention? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Else Kroener-Fresenius Center for Nutritional Medicine, University Hospital Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Reducing postpartum weight retention is a promising strategy for addressing the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in women. This systematic review and meta-analysis explored whether lifestyle interventions during pregnancy have the potential to reduce weight retention at 4 months postpartum and beyond. A search of five electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of weight-related lifestyle interventions beginning in pregnancy on postpartum weight retention to standard prenatal care groups was performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12809DOI Listing
December 2018

Microbes: possible link between modern lifestyle transition and the rise of metabolic syndrome.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

The rapid decrease in infectious diseases globally has coincided with an increase in the prevalence of obesity and other components of metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance is a common feature of metabolic syndrome and can be influenced by genetic and non-genetic/environmental factors. The emergence of metabolic syndrome epidemics over only a few decades suggests a more prominent role of the latter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12784DOI Listing
December 2018

Grey matter alterations in obesity: A meta-analysis of whole-brain studies.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Center of Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Obesity is a major problem in the modern world causing a higher risk for various cerebrovascular diseases causing a profound individual and societal burden. The neurobiological foundation bears potential to understand the complex interaction of individual differences in brain structure and function and ingestive behaviour. This systematic review was performed on the current evidence of structural abnormalities in grey matter volume (GMV) in patients with obesity based on studies published until December 2017, which were selected through search in PubMed, CENTER (Cochrane Library), PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Ovid MEDLINE. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/obr.12799
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12799DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

The effect of prepregnancy body mass index on the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the prepregnancy BMI on the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Five electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, were searched for literature published until 1 January 2018. The two-stage, random effect meta-analysis was performed to compare the dose-response relationship between BMI and GDM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12803DOI Listing
December 2018

A systematic review of neighbourhood economic context on child obesity and obesity-related behaviours.

Authors:
Y Kim C Cubbin S Oh

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Steve Hicks School of Social Work, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

Childhood obesity is of great importance given a third of children in the USA are overweight or obese. Previous research has examined neighbourhood economic context in relation to children's obesity and obesity-rated behaviours. However, different definitions and measures of neighbourhood context make it difficult to compare findings and make definitive conclusions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12792DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Resveratrol supplementation significantly influences obesity measures: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study aimed to summarize earlier randomized controlled trials on the effects of resveratrol supplementation on body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and fat mass (FM). We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar from inception to April 2018 using relevant keywords. All clinical trials investigating the effects of resveratrol supplementation on BW, BMI, WC and FM in adults were included. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/obr.12775
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12775DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Rationale for novel intermittent dieting strategies to attenuate adaptive responses to energy restriction.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec;19 Suppl 1:47-60

School of Health Sciences, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS, Australia.

Eating patterns involving intermittent energy restriction (IER) include 'intermittent fasting' where energy intake is severely restricted for several 'fasting' days per week, with 'refeeding' days (involving greater energy intake than during fasting days) at other times. Intermittent fasting does not improve weight loss compared to continuous energy restriction (CER), where energy intake is restricted every day. We hypothesize that weight loss from IER could be improved if refeeding phases involved restoration of energy balance (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12787DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Compensation in response to energy deficits induced by exercise or diet.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec;19 Suppl 1:36-46

School of Human Kinetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

Obesity is an extremely resilient condition. Weight loss is most challenging, and weight recidivism is rampant. There is accumulating evidence highlighting that energy deficits meant to produce increased mobilization of energy stores trigger a number of somewhat persistent adaptations that together increase the drive to eat and decrease energy output. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12783DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Physical activity and the human body in the (increasingly smart) built environment.

Authors:
S Ulijaszek

Obes Rev 2018 Dec;19 Suppl 1:84-93

Unit for Biocultural Variation and Obesity, School of Anthropology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Physical activity in the built environment of high income countries may be changing faster than at any time prior to the 2000s, with the engagement of social media, smart devices and increasing urban smartness that has come with the Internet of Things. This article describes the most salient features of built environments that have facilitated physical activity between the 1980s and 2000s (most importantly walkability and active transport with bicycles). It goes on to use the anthropological three bodies framework in association with that of forms of capital, to explore how the use of smart devices and increasing incorporation of smartness and performativity into architecture and urban planning since the 2000s might influence physical activity. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/obr.12790
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12790DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

How much exercise should be promoted to raise total daily energy expenditure and improve health?

Authors:
N M Byrne A P Hills

Obes Rev 2018 Dec;19 Suppl 1:14-23

School of Health Sciences, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania, Australia.

Despite longstanding recognition of the benefits of a physically active lifestyle, there remains ambiguity regarding exactly how much exercise should be promoted to raise total energy expenditure (TEE) and improve health. This review provides a brief summary of the dose-response relationship between physical activity and relative risk of morbidity and mortality; mechanisms through which exercise drives an increase in TEE; the highest reported levels of TEE measured via doubly labelled water; and the potential impact of non-compliance and confounders in moderating the contribution of exercise to increase TEE. Cohort studies provide a compelling argument that 'more is better' regarding the exercise dose for increasing TEE, that increasing TEE is protective for health, and that this is mediated through increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12788DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Regulation of intestinal growth in response to variations in energy supply and demand.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec;19 Suppl 1:61-72

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

The growth of the intestine requires energy, which is known to be met by catabolism of ingested nutrients. Paradoxically, during whole body energy deficit including calorie restriction, the intestine grows in size. To understand how and why this happens, we reviewed data from several animal models of energetic challenge. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/obr.12780
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12780DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Modulation of thermogenesis and metabolic health: a built environment perspective.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec;19 Suppl 1:94-101

Department of Nutrition and Movement Sciences, NUTRIM Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Lifestyle interventions, obviating the increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, generally focus on nutrition and physical activity. Environmental factors are hardly covered. Because we spend on average more that 90% of our time indoors, it is, however, relevant to address these factors. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/obr.12789
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12789DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Hunter-gatherers as models in public health.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec;19 Suppl 1:24-35

School of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Hunter-gatherer populations are remarkable for their excellent metabolic and cardiovascular health and thus are often used as models in public health, in an effort to understand the root, evolutionary causes of non-communicable diseases. Here, we review recent work on health, activity, energetics and diet among hunter-gatherers and other small-scale societies (e.g. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/obr.12785
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12785DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Changes in physical activity over the lifespan: impact on body composition and sarcopenic obesity.

Authors:
K R Westerterp

Obes Rev 2018 Dec;19 Suppl 1:8-13

NUTRIM, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Physical activity and body composition show a typical pattern over the lifecycle. Fat-free mass and physical performance generally peak in early adulthood. Here, evidence for a relation between physical activity changes over the life span and the development of sarcopenic obesity is presented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12781DOI Listing
December 2018

Gender-specific considerations in physical activity, thermogenesis and fat oxidation: implications for obesity management.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec;19 Suppl 1:73-83

Human Nutrition Unit, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

With current 'one-size-fits-all' obesity prevention and management strategies proving largely ineffective, the focus has shifted towards a more tailored, individualized approach. However, investigation of the mechanisms underlying inter-individual variability in metabolic profile and response to intervention often yield conflicting results. Indeed, it is perhaps surprising that despite at least a century of recognition that sex hormones influence metabolism, firm conclusions regarding the effects of the menstrual cycle, hormonal contraception and menopause on many aspects of energy expenditure and substrate utilization remain to be drawn. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12779DOI Listing
December 2018
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Targeting lifestyle energy expenditure in the management of obesity and health: from biology to built environment.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec;19 Suppl 1:3-7

Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Cardiovascular System, Faculty of Sciences and Medicine, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

Increasing lifestyle energy expenditure has long been advocated in the prevention and treatment of obesity, as embodied in the ancient prescription of Hippocrates (the 'father of modern medicine') that people with obesity should eat less and exercise more. However, the long-term outcome of exercise alone or in combination with dieting in obesity management is poor. To understand the reasons underlying these failures and to develop novel strategies that target lifestyle energy expenditure in both prevention and treatment of obesity, research over the past decades has focused on (i) the interactions between physical activity and body weight (and its composition) throughout the lifespan; (ii) the influence of biology and potential compensatory changes in energy expenditure, food intake and food assimilation in response to energy deficits; and (iii) the impact of the built environment (outdoor and indoor) and smart technology on physical activity behaviours, thermoregulatory thermogenesis and metabolic health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12786DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Sarcopenia in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: is it a clinically significant entity?

Obes Rev 2018 Nov 25. Epub 2018 Nov 25.

Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Paediatrics (LEMP), University of Antwerp, Wilrijk (Antwerp), Belgium.

Sarcopenia, described as the loss of muscle mass and/or strength, is gaining importance as it can be increasingly related to many chronic diseases. It is also associated with chronic liver disease, and recently it has been more frequently linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in particular. Both sarcopenia and NAFLD are subject to complex and intermingled pathophysiological processes, of which some are in common. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/obr.12776
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12776DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

The role of mindfulness in physical activity: a systematic review.

Obes Rev 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

Despite continued public health campaigns to promote physical activity, a majority of the population is inactive. In recent years, mindfulness-based approaches have been used in health and lifestyle interventions for physical activity promotion. We conducted a systematic literature review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to investigate the evidence for the potential of mindfulness-based approaches for physical activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12795DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Brief tools to measure obesity-related behaviours in children under 5 years of age: A systematic review.

Obes Rev 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

NHMRC Centre of Research Excellence in the Early Prevention of Obesity in Childhood, Sydney School of Public Health, Level 6, Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Introduction: Valid and reliable tools for measuring obesity-related behaviours in young children that are brief and can be administered quickly and cost-effectively in large-scale population studies are needed. The objectives of this systematic review were to describe brief tools that measure dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep in young children.

Methods: A systematic review of studies published in English in six databases (CINAHL, Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, HaPI, and Cochrane) prior to April 2018 was undertaken using the PROSPERO protocol and PRISMA guidelines. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/obr.12801
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12801DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads
7.995 Impact Factor

Low glycaemic index diets as an intervention for obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Obes Rev 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Endocrinology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Objectives: Low glycaemic index (GI) diets may aid in weight loss by reducing postprandial blood glucose excursions, leading to more stable blood glucose concentrations and therefore a reduction in hunger. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing low GI diets with other diet types.

Methods: We included 101 studies involving 109 study arms and 8,527 participants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12791DOI Listing
November 2018
74 Reads
8.000 Impact Factor

The influence of high-intensity interval training on anthropometric variables of adults with overweight or obesity: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Obes Rev 2019 Jan 18;20(1):142-155. Epub 2018 Nov 18.

Sciences Center of Health and Sport, State University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.

Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on anthropometric variables in adults afflicted with overweight or obesity and to compare the effects with those of moderate-intensity continuous training.

Methods: A computer literature search was performed for HIIT intervention studies that evaluated anthropometric variables in adults afflicted with overweight or obesity.

Results: Of the 857 articles retrieved in the electronic search, 48 met the inclusion criteria. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/obr.12766
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12766DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Systematic review of olfactory shifts related to obesity.

Obes Rev 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Objective: The modern food environment is a key driver of rising levels of obesity. While olfaction is known to play a major role in food choice; however, its relationship to obesity is yet to be understood. This review assesses current knowledge of the interaction between obesity and olfaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12800DOI Listing
November 2018

Mechanisms underlying Ucp1 dependent and independent adipocyte thermogenesis.

Obes Rev 2018 Nov 18. Epub 2018 Nov 18.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, South Korea.

The growing focus on brown adipocytes has spurred an interest in their potential benefits for metabolic diseases. Brown and beige (or brite) adipocytes express high levels of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) to dissipate heat instead of generating ATP. Ucp1 induction by stimuli including cold, exercise, and diet increases nonshivering thermogenesis, leading to increased energy expenditure and prevention of obesity. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/obr.12796
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12796DOI Listing
November 2018
5 Reads

Vitamin D and cardiometabolic disorders: a review of current evidence, genetic determinants and pathomechanisms.

Obes Rev 2018 Nov 18. Epub 2018 Nov 18.

Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation (MCHRI), School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiometabolic disorders including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and polycystic ovary syndrome. Despite a large number of experimental and observational studies supporting a role for vitamin D in these pathologies, randomized controlled trials have reported little to no effect of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention or treatment of these disorders, although some results remain ambiguous. Polymorphisms in genes related to vitamin D metabolism, particularly in the vitamin D receptor and binding protein and the metabolizing enzyme 1-α-hydroxylase, have emerged as potential contributors to these divergent results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12793DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Viewpoints of adolescents with overweight and obesity attending lifestyle obesity treatment interventions: a qualitative systematic review.

Obes Rev 2019 Jan 29;20(1):156-169. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Background: Current UK guidance recommends that adolescents with obesity attend a family-based multi-component obesity intervention. However, these programmes suffer from low recruitment and high rates of attrition. Understanding the views of adolescents is necessary for developing future interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12771DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Should metabolically healthy obesity be defined as the total absence of metabolic risk factors?

Obes Rev 2018 Oct 24. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research Group, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/obr.12794
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12794DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Homeostatic and neurocognitive control of energy intake in response to exercise in pediatric obesity: a psychobiological framework.

Obes Rev 2018 Oct 24. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Institute of Psychological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

While energy intake and energy expenditure have long been studied independently, the alarming progression of obesity has led to a more integrative approach to energy balance considering their potential interactions. Although the available literature concerned with the effect of chronic and acute exercise on energy intake and appetite control in adults is considerable, these questions remain less explored among children and adolescents. Based on the search of four databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library; articles published until May 2018), the objective of this review is to summarize and discuss the effect of acute and chronic physical exercise on energy intake and appetite control in children and adolescents with obesity, and to identify the physiological and neurocognitive signals and pathways involved. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/obr.12782
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12782DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

The impact of multicomponent weight management interventions on quality of life in adolescents affected by overweight or obesity: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Obes Rev 2018 Oct 24. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Adolescents affected by overweight or obesity report similar quality of life to adolescents with cancer. While weight management is important for physiological outcomes, it is unclear whether weight management improves quality of life in this age group. This meta-analysis assessed the impact of multicomponent weight management interventions on quality of life in adolescents affected by overweight or obesity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12774DOI Listing
October 2018

Established and emerging strategies to crack the genetic code of obesity.

Obes Rev 2018 Oct 23. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Tremendous progress has been made in the genetic elucidation of obesity over the past two decades, driven largely by technological, methodological and organizational innovations. Current strategies for identifying obesity-predisposing loci/genes, including cytogenetics, linkage analysis, homozygosity mapping, admixture mapping, candidate gene studies, genome-wide association studies, custom genotyping arrays, whole-exome sequencing and targeted exome sequencing, have achieved differing levels of success, and the identified loci in aggregate explain only a modest fraction of the estimated heritability of obesity. This review outlines the successes and limitations of these approaches and proposes novel strategies, including the use of exceptionally large sample sizes, the study of diverse ethnic groups and deep phenotypes and the application of innovative methods and study designs, to identify the remaining obesity-predisposing genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12770DOI Listing
October 2018

'The rollercoaster of follow-up care' after bariatric surgery: a rapid review and qualitative synthesis.

Obes Rev 2019 Jan 21;20(1):88-107. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK.

Benefits of bariatric surgery for obesity related comorbidities are well established. However, in the longer term, patients can become vulnerable to procedure specific problems, experience weight regain and continue to need monitoring and management of comorbidities. Effective longer term follow-up is vital due to these complex needs post-surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12764DOI Listing
January 2019

Metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression.

Obes Rev 2018 Oct 19. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Introduction: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The relative contribution of clinical, demographic or biochemical factors to metabolic syndrome in PCOS is not known. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and clinical trial registries. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/obr.12762
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12762DOI Listing
October 2018
6 Reads

Determinants of weight loss maintenance: a systematic review.

Obes Rev 2018 Oct 16. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Faculty of Science, Department of Health Sciences and Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Discerning the determinants of weight loss maintenance is important in the planning of future interventions and policies regarding overweight and obesity. We have therefore systematically synthesized recent literature on determinants of weight loss maintenance for individuals with overweight and obesity.

Methods: With the use of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement, prospective studies were identified from searches in PubMed and PsycINFO from 2006 to 2016. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/obr.12772
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12772DOI Listing
October 2018
6 Reads

Neighbourhood social capital and obesity: a systematic review of the literature.

Obes Rev 2019 Jan 10;20(1):119-141. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Faculty of Psychology, Education and Sports Sciences, Blanquerna - URL, Barcelona, Spain.

Social capital, defined as the resources accessed by individuals and groups through social connections, has been posited to be a social determinant of obesity. However, empirical evidence for this association has been inconsistent - namely, some studies have found a protective association while others have reported no correlation. We sought to conduct a systematic review on the relation between neighbourhood social capital and obesity, considering potential differences on the results based on the measures used and the covariates and mediators included in the studies. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/obr.12760
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12760DOI Listing
January 2019
11 Reads

Gain-of-function variants in the melanocortin 4 receptor gene confer susceptibility to binge eating disorder in subjects with obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Obes Rev 2019 Jan 10;20(1):13-21. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

The association between coding variants in the melanocortin 4 receptor gene (MC4R) and binge eating disorder (BED) in patients with obesity is controversial. Two independent reviewers systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, BIOSIS Previews, Web of Science Core Collection and Google Scholar up to February 2018, using terms describing the MC4R gene and BED. Six of 103 identified references were included. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/obr.12761
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12761DOI Listing
January 2019
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Network meta-analysis of the relative efficacy of bariatric surgeries for diabetes remission.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 30;19(12):1621-1629. Epub 2018 Sep 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine, Niigata, Japan.

Background: Bariatric surgery leads to a higher remission rate for type 2 diabetes mellitus than non-surgical treatment. However, it remains unsolved which surgical procedure is the most efficacious. This network meta-analysis aimed to rank surgical procedures in terms of diabetes remission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12751DOI Listing
December 2018

The prospective association between objectively measured sedentary time, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and cardiometabolic risk factors in youth: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Obes Rev 2019 Jan 30;20(1):55-74. Epub 2018 Sep 30.

Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

Sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) may be uniquely related to cardiometabolic health. Excessive sedentary time is suggested as an independent cardiometabolic risk factor, while MVPA is favourably associated with cardiometabolic health. This systematic review and meta-analysis summarizes the evidence on a prospective relationship between objectively measured sedentary time, MVPA and cardiometabolic health indicators in youth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12758DOI Listing
January 2019

Effects of health at every size® interventions on health-related outcomes of people with overweight and obesity: a systematic review.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 27;19(12):1659-1666. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

School of Public Health, Department of Nutrition, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Context: The growing use of interventions based on the Health at Every Size® (HAES®) in obesity management.

Objective: This study aimed to summarize the health-related effects of HAES®-based interventions on people with overweight and obesity.

Data Sources: MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane Library, LILACS, Google Scholar, OpenGrey and Grey Literature Report. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12749DOI Listing
December 2018

Revisiting the evolutionary origins of obesity: lazy versus peppy-thrifty genotype hypothesis.

Obes Rev 2018 Nov 27;19(11):1525-1543. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

The recent global obesity epidemic is attributed to major societal and environmental changes, such as excessive energy intake and sedentary lifestyle. However, exposure to 'obesogenic' environments does not necessarily result in obesity at the individual level, as 40-75% of body mass index variation in population is attributed to genetic differences. The thrifty genotype theory posits that genetic variants promoting efficient food sequestering and optimal deposition of fat during periods of food abundance were evolutionarily advantageous for the early hunter-gatherer and were positively selected. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/obr.12742
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12742DOI Listing
November 2018
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Interventions to increase physical activity in children 0-5 years old: a systematic review, meta-analysis and realist synthesis.

Obes Rev 2019 Jan 26;20(1):75-87. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Science, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity (PA) in 0-5 year olds and to determine what works, for whom, in what circumstances.

Design: Systematic review, meta-analysis and realist synthesis.

Data Sources: Embase and EBSCOhost (Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Complete, Global Health, MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus with full text), up to and including April 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12763DOI Listing
January 2019

Built environment and cardio-metabolic health: systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.

Obes Rev 2019 Jan 25;20(1):41-54. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Built environment attributes may be related to cardio-metabolic diseases (e.g. type 2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke) and their risk factors, potentially by influencing residents' physical activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12759DOI Listing
January 2019

Weight loss associated with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibition: a review of evidence and underlying mechanisms.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 25;19(12):1630-1641. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Department of Endocrinology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.

With their novel, insulin-independent mechanism, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a major turning point in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. At present, there are several SGLT2 inhibitors available or in development, and these oral anti-hyperglycaemic agents lower plasma glucose through the inhibition of SGLT2-mediated reuptake of filtered glucose in the kidney. This unique mechanism of action is also expected to result in other beneficial effects, such as weight loss and blood pressure reduction. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/obr.12755
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12755DOI Listing
December 2018
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Oxytocin in metabolic homeostasis: implications for obesity and diabetes management.

Obes Rev 2019 Jan 25;20(1):22-40. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Clinical Nutrition Research Centre (CNRC), Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences (SICS), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) and National University Health System, Singapore.

Oxytocin was once understood solely as a neuropeptide with a central role in social bonding, reproduction, parturition, lactation and appetite regulation. Recent evidence indicates that oxytocin enhances glucose uptake and lipid utilization in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, suggesting that dysfunction of the oxytocin system could underlie the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. Murine studies revealed that deficiencies in oxytocin signalling and oxytocin receptor expression lead to obesity despite normal food intake, motor activity and increased leptin levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12757DOI Listing
January 2019

Adipose may actively delay progression of NAFLD by releasing tumor-suppressing, anti-fibrotic miR-122 into circulation.

Obes Rev 2019 Jan 24;20(1):108-118. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Scientific Research Center Bioclinicum (SRC Bioclinicum), Moscow, Russia.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver pathology. Here we propose tissue-cooperative, homeostatic model of NAFLD. During early stages of NAFLD the intrahepatic production of miR-122 falls, while the secretion of miRNA-containing exosomes by adipose increases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12765DOI Listing
January 2019
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