158,066 results match your criteria Obesity Research & Clinical Practice [Journal]


Socioeconomic position, lifestyle habits and biomarkers of epigenetic aging: a multi-cohort analysis.

Aging (Albany NY) 2019 Apr;11(7):2045-2070

See ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND FUNDING.

Differences in health status by socioeconomic position (SEP) tend to be more evident at older ages, suggesting the involvement of a biological mechanism responsive to the accumulation of deleterious exposures across the lifespan. DNA methylation (DNAm) has been proposed as a biomarker of biological aging that conserves memory of endogenous and exogenous stress during life.We examined the association of education level, as an indicator of SEP, and lifestyle-related variables with four biomarkers of age-dependent DNAm dysregulation: the total number of stochastic epigenetic mutations (SEMs) and three epigenetic clocks (Horvath, Hannum and Levine), in 18 cohorts spanning 12 countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.101900DOI Listing

Predicting childhood obesity using electronic health records and publicly available data.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(4):e0215571. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

NYU Langone Comprehensive Program on Obesity, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America.

Background: Because of the strong link between childhood obesity and adulthood obesity comorbidities, and the difficulty in decreasing body mass index (BMI) later in life, effective strategies are needed to address this condition in early childhood. The ability to predict obesity before age five could be a useful tool, allowing prevention strategies to focus on high risk children. The few existing prediction models for obesity in childhood have primarily employed data from longitudinal cohort studies, relying on difficult to collect data that are not readily available to all practitioners. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215571PLOS

Cardiovascular disease risk factor burden and cognition: Implications of ethnic diversity within the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(4):e0215378. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Institute for Minority Health Research, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

Objective: Hispanics/Latinos have some of the highest prevalence rates for cardiovascular disease risk factors, but stark differences exist by self-reported background. Cardiovascular disease risk factors negatively impact cognition in Hispanics/Latinos; less is known about these relationships by Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. We investigated cognitive associations with cardiovascular disease risk factor burden in a diverse cohort, the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215378PLOS
April 2019
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Targeting Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Gamma Decreases Host Mortality After Influenza Infection in Obese Mice.

Viral Immunol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

1 Thoracic Diseases Research Unit, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, Minnesota.

Obesity is an independent risk factor for severe influenza infection. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are still incompletely understood. In this study, we have utilized a murine influenza infection model in genetic-induced obese (db/db) mice to explore the mechanisms by which obesity increases host susceptibility to influenza infection. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/vim.2019.0016
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vim.2019.0016DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The evolving obesity paradigm story: from heart failure to atrial fibrillation.

Eur Heart J 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Division of Cardiology and Metabolism at Department of Cardiology (CVK); and Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies (BCRT); German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK) partner site Berlin; Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz082DOI Listing

[Recent progress on obesity-induced myocardial remodeling and its possible mechanism of mitochondrial dyshomeostasis].

Sheng Li Xue Bao 2019 Apr;71(2):216-224

Department of Pharmacology, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an 710061, China.

Obesity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, which can lead to a variety of cardiovascular diseases including myocardial remodeling. Obesity may induce myocardial dysfunction by affecting hemodynamics, inducing autonomic imbalance, adipose tissue dysfunction, and mitochondrial dyshomeostasis. The key necessary biochemical functions for metabolic homeostasis are performed in mitochondria, and mitochondrial homeostasis is considered as one of the key determinants for cell viability. Read More

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Relationship of Socioeconomic Status Indicators to Obesity in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Middle-Aged Women: A Population Study.

Int J Womens Health Wellness 2019 28;5(1). Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Health Services, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.

Background: Obesity rates differ between Hispanic and White (non-Hispanic) women in the United States, with higher rates among Hispanic women. Socioeconomic processes contribute to this disparity both at the individual and the environmental level. Understanding these complex relationships requires multilevel analyses within cohorts of women that have a shared environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23937/2474-1353/1510090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6469717PMC
February 2019

Prediabetes: An emerging public health concern in adolescents.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2019 Apr 1;2(2):e00060. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon Saskatchewan Canada.

Objectives: To identify the presence of risk factors for type 2 diabetes (ethnicity, body mass index, blood glucose tolerance and blood pressure) and to determine the prevalence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in Canadian adolescents attending two multicultural urban high schools.

Methods: A total of 266 multicultural urban high school students who live in a mid-sized Western Canadian city, aged 14-21, were screened for risk factors of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in March-April 2018. Data with respect to demographics, family history of diabetes, anthropometrics, blood pressure and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were collected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/edm2.60DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458462PMC

Occurrence of severe hypoglycaemic events among US youth and young adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2019 Apr 19;2(2):e00057. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

Department of Pediatrics University of Washington Seattle Washington.

Objective: Although severe hypoglycaemia (SH) can lead to adverse health outcomes, little is known about its occurrence and re-occurrence among youth with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

Methods: This study included 2740 participants aged <20 years at diabetes diagnosis and 5-14 years diabetes duration from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Cohort Study. Participants reported SH events in the past 6 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/edm2.57DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458461PMC

The benefits of non-surgical weight management on weight and glycaemic control in people with complex type 2 diabetes: A primary care service evaluation of clinical outcomes at 12 months.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2019 Apr 8;2(2):e00045. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Nutrition, Health & Research team Slimming World Alfreton UK.

Optimizing diabetes management in patients with complex type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and obesity presents challenges. This study evaluates weight and HbA1c at 12 months (primary outcomes) and blood pressure, lipids, medication and lifestyle changes (secondary outcomes) in patients referred by a diabetes specialist (DSN) to the weight management intervention (Slimming World). Patients attended up to 12 or 24 funded weekly group sessions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/edm2.45DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458457PMC

The Association between Dietary Fat Pattern and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.

Prev Nutr Food Sci 2019 Mar 31;24(1):1-7. Epub 2019 Mar 31.

Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 19585-466, Iran.

Despite several studies examining single dietary fats on type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence, little is known about the effects of multiple fatty acids on the risk of T2D. We aimed to address this question in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) population. Dietary intakes of participants without T2D (n=2,139) were assessed using the validated food frequency questionnaire. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2019.24.1.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456237PMC

Perceived risk of colorectal and breast cancers among women who are overweight or with obesity.

Prev Med Rep 2019 Jun 22;14:100845. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Research fellow, Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (ORISE), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, United States of America.

Many overweight women or women with obesity do not acknowledge their high weight status and may be unaware of their elevated cancer risk. We explored the relationship between weight status and women's perceived risk of colorectal (CRC) and breast cancers, overall and by race/ethnicity, in a nationally representative sample. Data was combined from NHIS 2005, 2010, and 2015 sample adult questionnaires and cancer control supplements. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22113355193003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2019.100845DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458496PMC
June 2019
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Asthma and obesity in the Middle East region: An overview.

Ann Thorac Med 2019 Apr-Jun;14(2):116-121

Medical Research Center, Research Affairs, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

This paper aims to cover the current status of asthma and obesity in the Middle East, as well as to introduce the various studies tying the two diseases; further expanding on the proposed mechanisms. Finally, the paper covers recent literature related to sphingolipids and its role in asthma, followed by recommendations and future directions. In preparation of this paper, we searched PubMed and Google Scholar, with no restrictions, using the following terms; asthma, obesity, Middle East, sphingolipids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/atm.ATM_115_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6467016PMC

Association of nuts and unhealthy snacks with subclinical atherosclerosis among children and adolescents with overweight and obesity.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2019 8;16:23. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

1Department of Nutrition, School of Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

Background: The process of atherosclerosis begins early in childhood and usually remains asymptomatic until later in life. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis could identify early vascular alterations. Unhealthy snacks consumption is associated with obesity and other CVD risk factors in children and adolescents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-019-0350-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454780PMC

In BMI We Trust: Reframing the Body Mass Index as a Measure of Health.

Authors:
Iliya Gutin

Soc Theory Health 2018 Aug 25;16(3):256-271. Epub 2017 Oct 25.

The University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, 155 Hamilton Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27514.

Recent work in medical sociology has provided critical insights into distinguishing between obesity as a condition with severe individual- and population-level health consequences, and obesity as a socially undesirable, stigmatizing construct opposing thinness as the healthy ideal. Less often considered is the role of Body Mass Index (BMI) as the standard by which obesity and healthy weight are measured and defined. Addressing this issue, I begin by distinguishing between BMI as an empirical, objective measure of health, and BMI as an arbitrary, subjective label for categorizing the population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/s41285-017-0055-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6469873PMC

Awareness of the link between obesity and cancer in UK school curricula.

Lancet 2019 Apr;393(10181):1591-1592

Department of Physiology, Anatomy & Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32765-XDOI Listing

The Mediating Role of Brown Fat and Skeletal Muscle Measured by F-Fluorodeoxyglucose in the Thermoregulatory System in Young Adults.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Promoting Fitness & Health Through Physical Activity Research Group, Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

Objective: This study aimed to examine whether brown adipose tissue (BAT) or skeletal muscle activity mediates the relationship between personal level of environmental temperature (Personal-ET) and wrist skin temperature (WT). Moreover, we examined whether BAT and skeletal muscle have a mediating role between Personal-ET and WT (as a proxy of peripheral vasoconstriction/vasodilation).

Methods: The levels of BAT were quantified by cold-induced F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan and measured the Personal-ET and WT by using iButtons (Maxim Integrated, Dallas, Texas) in 75 participants (74. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.22461DOI Listing

Preclinical Assessment of Leptin Transport into the Cerebrospinal Fluid in Diet-Induced Obese Minipigs.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Translational Research Laboratory for Diabetes, Inserm U1190, Lille, France.

Objective: A minipig model was employed to explore the changes in endogenous leptin transport into the central nervous system and in hypothalamic sensitivity to exogenous leptin when individuals are placed on high-fat diet (HFD) compared with standard diet.

Methods: Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leptin concentrations during 10 weeks of HFD versus standard diet and exogenous leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus of minipigs were assessed, and the hypothalamic leptin-sensitive cells were characterized by immunofluorescence.

Results: The efficiency of the passage of endogenous blood-borne leptin into the CSF (measured as the log [CSF:serum leptin ratio]) decreased over time in minipigs fed a HFD (β = -0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.22465DOI Listing

Bleeding Incidence and Risk Factors among Cancer Patients Treated with Anticoagulation.

Am J Hematol 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH.

Compared to age-matched controls, cancer patients have increased risk of bleeding when treated with anticoagulation. However, there are little data regarding bleeding as it relates to anticoagulant choice and other risk factors. We evaluated the 6-month incidence of bleeding among patients treated with anticoagulation and bleeding risk factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25494DOI Listing

Skin picking in patients with obesity: Associations with impulsiveness and self-harm.

Scand J Psychol 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Previous studies suggest elevated prevalence rates of skin picking and self-harm in patients with obesity compared to individuals in the general population. Hence, further studies should investigate prevalence rates and correlates of skin picking in this population - especially its differentiation to self-harm. Skin picking and obesity are both associated with specific facets of impulsiveness. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/sjop.12536
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12536DOI Listing
April 2019
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Use and interpretation of hemoglobin concentrations for assessing anemia status in individuals and populations: results from a WHO technical meeting.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Evidence and Programme Guidance Unit, Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Anemia is an important public health problem that negatively affects health of individuals and economic potential of populations. An accurate case definition is critical for understanding burden and epidemiology of anemia, for planning public health interventions, and for clinical investigation and treatment of patients. The current threshold hemoglobin concentrations for diagnosis of anemia were proposed in 1968 and based on studies predominantly of Caucasian adult populations in Europe and North America. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14090DOI Listing

Obesity risk in women of childbearing age in New Zealand: a nationally representative cross-sectional study.

Int J Public Health 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

GeoHealth Laboratory (Te Taiwhenua o te Hauora), Geospatial Research Institute (Toi Hangarau), University of Canterbury (Te Whare Wānanga o Waitaha), Christchurch, New Zealand.

Objectives: To investigate risk factors for women with obesity of childbearing age.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey of New Zealand women (15-49 years) with measured height and weight was used [unweighted (n = 3625) and weighted analytical sample (n = 1,098,372)] alongside sociodemographic-, behavioural- and environmental-level predictors. Multilevel logistic regression weighted for non-response of height and weight data was used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00038-019-01239-8DOI Listing

Intermittent Energy Restriction Is a Feasible, Effective, and Acceptable Intervention to Treat Adolescents with Obesity.

J Nutr 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Children's Hospital at Westmead Clinical School.

Background: Intermittent energy restriction (IER) is an effective obesity management strategy in adults.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility, effectiveness, and acceptability of IER in adolescents (aged 12-17 y) with obesity [adult equivalent body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) ≥30].

Methods: During weeks 1-12 participants followed an IER dietary plan consisting of a very-low-energy diet (VLED) 3 d/wk (500-600 kcal/d) and an eating plan consistent with national dietary guidelines 4 d/wk. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jn/n
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz049DOI Listing
April 2019
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The effect of obesity on pain and disability in chronic shoulder pain patients.

J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, İzzet Baysal Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Training and Research Hospital, Bolu, Turkey.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between chronic shoulder pain and the increase in BMI.

Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study design was adopted for the study. Two hundred and eighty-five patients with chronic shoulder pain were evaluated for eligibility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/BMR-181384DOI Listing

Pathological ASXL1 Mutations and Protein Variants Impair Neural Crest Development.

Stem Cell Reports 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Institute for Stem Cell Research, Helmholtz Zentrum München GmbH, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany. Electronic address:

The neural crest (NC) gives rise to a multitude of fetal tissues, and its misregulation is implicated in congenital malformations. Here, we investigated molecular mechanisms pertaining to NC-related symptoms in Bohring-Opitz syndrome (BOS), a developmental disorder linked to mutations in the Polycomb group factor Additional sex combs-like 1 (ASXL1). Genetically edited human pluripotent stem cell lines that were differentiated to NC progenitors and then xenotransplanted into chicken embryos demonstrated an impairment of NC delamination and emigration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2019.03.006DOI Listing

Protein and fat intake interacts with the haplotype of PTPN11_rs11066325, RPH3A_rs886477, and OAS3_rs2072134 to modulate serum HDL concentrations in middle-aged people.

Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Institue of Basic Science, Obesity/Diabetes Research Center, Hoseo University, Asan, Chungnam, 31499, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Low serum HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and it is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. We hypothesized that genetic variants that decrease serum HDL-C concentrations may interact with nutrient intakes in ways that increase or decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Methods: Candidate genetic variants that can lower serum HDL-C concentrations were explored by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), after adjusting for covariates, in the Ansan/Ansung cohort (n = 8842) from KoGES. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2019.03.039DOI Listing

Dietary Transition in India: Temporal and Regional Trends, 1993 to 2012.

Food Nutr Bull 2019 Apr 22:379572119833856. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

2 Leverhulme Centre for Integrative Research on Agriculture and Health (LCIRAH), London, United Kingdom.

Background: Rapid economic growth, urbanization, and globalization have resulted in dietary transformation in India. Triple burden of malnutrition remains a significant concern, with high prevalence of undernutrition, widespread micronutrient deficiencies, and rising obesity.

Objective: This article reviews the dietary transition in India by analyzing trends in food consumption across time and space. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0379572119833856DOI Listing
April 2019
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[Body mass index and related attribution to all-cause mortality in adults of Family Cohort of Nutrition and Chronic Diseases in Shanxi province].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2019 Apr;40(4):433-439

Division of Elderly Nutrition of National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

To assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality in adults of Shanxi, China. Baseline data were from the '2002 China Nutrition and Health Survey' in Shanxi province. All the death-related investigation and follow-up visits were carried out from December 2015 to March 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2019.04.012DOI Listing

Association between taste perception and adiposity in overweight or obese older subjects with metabolic syndrome and identification of novel taste-related genes.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Background: The relation between taste perception, diet, and adiposity remains controversial. Additionally, there is a lack of knowledge on the polymorphisms influencing taste given the scarcity of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) published.

Objectives: We studied the relation between perception of the basic tastes, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz038DOI Listing

Momordica charantia (bitter melon) modulates adipose tissue inflammasome gene expression and adipose-gut inflammatory cross talk in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice.

J Nutr Biochem 2019 Mar 23;68:16-32. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology; Pacific Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases Research, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA.

Systemic and tissue-specific inflammation has a profound influence on regulation of metabolism, and therefore, strategies to reduce inflammation are of special interest in prevention and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Antiobesity and antidiabetic properties of Momordica charantia (bitter melon, BM) have been linked to its protective effects on inflammation and gut microbial dysbiosis. We investigated the mechanisms by which freeze-driedBM juice reduces adipose inflammation in mice fed a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2019.03.003DOI Listing
March 2019
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Exercise-induced anti-inflammatory effects in overweight/obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Cytokine 2019 Apr 18;120:66-70. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Applied Physiology & Nutrition Research Group, Laboratory of Assessment and Conditioning in Rheumatology, School of Physical Education and Sport, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Brazil; Rheumatology Division, Hospital das Clínicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by exacerbated inflammation, which is implicated in cardiometabolic dysfunction. This study aimed to examine the potential effects of acute exercise on inflammatory responses in obese/overweight PCOS women and their controls. Participants underwent a single bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (30 min at ∼65% of VO). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2019.04.006DOI Listing

Sex differences in eating related behaviors and psychopathology among adolescent military dependents at risk for adult obesity and eating disorders.

Eat Behav 2019 Apr 11;33:73-77. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS), 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA; Section on Growth and Obesity, Division of Intramural Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA. Electronic address:

Stressors unique to military families may place dependents of military service members of both sexes at high-risk for disordered-eating. Yet, there are no data examining sex-related differences in eating pathology and distress among this population. Therefore, we examined disordered-eating attitudes and associated psychosocial characteristics in adolescent military dependents at high-risk for both eating disorders and adult obesity (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2019.04.001DOI Listing

Moderators of two dual eating disorder and obesity prevention programs.

Behav Res Ther 2019 Apr 12;118:77-86. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Oregon Research Institute, 1776 Millrace Drive, Eugene, OR, 97403, USA.

Few trials have investigated factors that moderate the effects of eating disorder and obesity prevention programs, which may inform inclusion criteria and intervention refinements. We examined factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of the Healthy Weight eating disorder/obesity prevention program that promotes gradual healthy changes, and Project Health that adds cognitive dissonance activities. College students at risk for both outcomes because of weight concerns (N = 364, 72% female) were randomized to these interventions or an educational video condition, completing pretest, posttest, and 6, 12, and 24-month follow-up assessments. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00057967193006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2019
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The Use of Full Thickness Skin Graft Phalloplasty During Adult Acquired Buried Penis Repair.

Urology 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Urology. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of full thickness penile skin grafting (FTSG) for phalloplasty during acquired buried penis repair.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing complex genital reconstruction for buried penis between January 2013 and April 2018 was performed. Patients undergoing FTSG were identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2019.04.007DOI Listing

Redox control of non-shivering thermogenesis.

Mol Metab 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Thermogenic adipocytes reorganize their metabolism during cold exposure. Metabolic reprogramming requires readily available bioenergetics substrates, such as glucose and fatty acids, to increase mitochondrial respiration and produce heat via the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). This condition generates a finely-tuned production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) that support non-shivering thermogenesis. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22128778193022
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2019
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The role of fibroblast - Cardiomyocyte interaction for atrial dysfunction in HFpEF and hypertensive heart disease.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburgerplatz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany; DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Berlin, Germany; Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Aims: Atrial contractile dysfunction is associated with increased mortality in heart failure (HF). We have shown previously that a metabolic syndrome-based model of HFpEF and a model of hypertensive heart disease (HHD) have impaired left atrial (LA) function in vivo (rat). In this study we postulate, that left atrial cardiomyocyte (CM) and cardiac fibroblast (CF) paracrine interaction related to the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signalling cascade is pivotal for the manifestation of atrial mechanical dysfunction in HF and that quantitative atrial remodeling is highly disease-dependent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2019.04.016DOI Listing

Metabolic Targets in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Internal Medicine Research Unit, Pfizer World Wide Research, Development, and Medical, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address:

The prevalence and diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is on the rise worldwide and currently has no FDA-approved pharmacotherapy. The increase in disease burden of NAFLD and a more severe form of this progressive liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), largely mirrors the increase in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and reflects the hepatic manifestation of an altered metabolic state. Indeed, metabolic syndrome, defined as a constellation of obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension, is the major risk factor predisposing the NAFLD and NASH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmgh.2019.04.007DOI Listing

BDNF Val66Met genetic variation and its plasma level in patients with morbid obesity: A case-control study.

Gene 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Obesity is a major public health concern worldwide. Genetic, behavioral, and environmental factors contribute to the multifactorial etiology of obesity. Evidence suggests an association between human Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66Met single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and obesity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2019.04.045DOI Listing

Sulforaphane ameliorates high-fat diet-induced spermatogenic deficiency in mice.

Biol Reprod 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Reproductive Medicine Center, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Hubei Clinic Research Center for Assisted Reproductive Technology and Embryonic Development, Wuhan 430060, China.

Sulforaphane (SFN), a dietary isothiocyanate that is mainly found in cruciferous vegetables, possesses anti-oxidative and anticancer activity and modulates inflammation. However, little is known about the role of SFN in obesity-related male reproductive defects. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of SFN on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced male spermatogenic impairment and further clarify the possible underlying mechanisms. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/biolreprod/advance-article/doi/10.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz067DOI Listing
April 2019
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Role of Leptin in the Association Between Body Adiposity and Persistent Asthma: A Longitudinal Study.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

VIMA: Aging and Chronic Diseases, Epidemiological and Public Health Approaches, INSERM U1168, Villejuif, France.

Objective: Obesity is a likely risk factor for asthma. However, underlying mechanisms by which obesity affects asthma activity remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of leptin, an adipocyte-derived proinflammatory protein, as a mediator in the association between body adiposity (assessed using BMI, waist circumference, and body fat percentage) and persistent asthma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.22466DOI Listing
April 2019
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Adipose Tissue CTGF Expression is Associated with Adiposity and Insulin Resistance in Humans.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Objective: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an important regulator of fibrogenesis in many organs. This study evaluated the interrelationship among adipose tissue CTGF expression, fat mass, and insulin resistance in humans.

Methods: This study examined (1) CTGF gene expression in human subcutaneous preadipocytes before and after inducing adipogenesis; (2) relationships among abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue CTGF gene expression, body fat mass, and indices of insulin sensitivity, including the hepatic insulin sensitivity index and the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure in conjunction with stable isotope glucose tracer infusion, in 72 people who had marked differences in adiposity and insulin sensitivity; (3) localization of CTGF protein in subcutaneous adipose tissue; and (4) effect of progressive (5%, 11%, and 16%) weight loss on adipose tissue CTGF gene expression. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/oby.22463
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.22463DOI Listing
April 2019
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Physiological Predictors of Weight Regain at 1-Year Follow-Up in Weight-Reduced Adults with Obesity.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Obesity Research Group, Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.

Objective: This study aimed to assess whether changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR), exercise-induced energy expenditure (EIEE), and appetite following weight loss (WL) are associated with weight regain at 1 year.

Methods: Thirty-six adults with obesity underwent 8 weeks of a very-low-energy diet, followed by 4 weeks of refeeding and a 1-year maintenance program. RMR, EIEE, appetite ratings, and active ghrelin, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1, cholecystokinin, and insulin concentrations were measured at baseline, week 13, and 1 year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.22476DOI Listing

Metabolic Risk Factors Associated with Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in a Sex-Specific Manner in Seven-Year-Olds.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate how visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volumes were associated with metabolic risk factors in 7-year-old children.

Methods: A total of 81 children (52% girls) from a Swedish birth cohort were studied. At 6 years of age, anthropometric data, fasting insulin, glucose, cholesterol, and blood pressure were collected on 53 children with normal weight and 28 children with overweight or obesity, and insulin resistance was estimated. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/oby.22453
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.22453DOI Listing
April 2019
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Longitudinal Impacts of Gastric Bypass Surgery on Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics of Statins.

Obes Surg 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, 4849 Calhoun Rd., Houston, TX, 77204, USA.

Purpose: Undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is expected to affect orally administered drug absorption. Statins are commonly prescribed to patients with obesity for the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases by lowering cholesterol. This is the first longitudinal prospective study on impacts of RYGB on weight loss, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin, and their active metabolites, up to 1-year post-surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-019-03885-6DOI Listing

Obstetric perineal tears: risk factors, wound infection and dehiscence: a prospective cohort study.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Odense University Hospital, J.B. Winsløws Vej 4, 5000, Odense C, Denmark.

Purpose: To assess risk factors for perineal tears, wound infection and dehiscence among primiparous women.

Methods: A prospective cohort study at four Danish hospitals (Odense, Esbjerg, Aarhus and Kolding) among 603 primiparous women sampled in three groups: 203 with none/labia/1st degree, 200 with 2nd degree, and 200 with 3rd/4th degree tears included between July 2015 and January 2018. Baseline data were obtained and a clinical examination of perineal wound healing was performed 11-21 days postpartum. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00404-019-05165-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-019-05165-1DOI Listing
April 2019
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Dietary calories and lipids synergistically shape adipose tissue cellularity during postnatal growth.

Mol Metab 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

DKFZ Junior Group Metabolism and Stem Cell Plasticity, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany. Electronic address:

Objective: The susceptibility to abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome is determined to a substantial extent during childhood and adolescence, when key adipose tissue characteristics are established. Although the general impact of postnatal nutrition is well known, it is not clear how specific dietary components drive adipose tissue growth and how this relates to the risk of metabolic dysfunction in adulthood.

Methods: Adipose tissue growth including cell proliferation was analyzed in juvenile mice upon dietary manipulation with in vivo nucleotide labeling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2019.03.012DOI Listing

Bone mineral density in patients with longstanding type 1 diabetes: Results from the Canadian Study of Longevity in Type 1 Diabetes.

J Diabetes Complications 2018 Dec 22. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Aim: It is currently unclear if longstanding type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects bone mineral density (BMD).

Methods: BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and history of fragility fracture was determined in 75 T1D participants with ≥50 years of diabetes duration and 75 age- and sex-matched non-diabetic controls. BMD T-scores were determined for the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10568727183108
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2018.12.009DOI Listing
December 2018
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Influence of weight etiology information and trainee characteristics on Physician-trainees' clinical and interpersonal communication.

Patient Educ Couns 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Social and Behavioral Research Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: This analysis explores the effects of relaying information about the genetic and behavioral causes of obesity (vs. control) on physician trainees' verbal communication behavior with a virtual patient with obesity. Moderation by physician trainees' gender and BMI was also assessed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2019.04.011DOI Listing

Peer effects of obesity on child body composition.

Econ Hum Biol 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Yale School of Public Health, Yale University, 60 College St., New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Electronic address:

This study investigates whether peer obesity is a driver of individual weight changes in public school children and whether the impact of peer effects changes as children age. Quantifying peer effects is important for understanding the social determinants of obesity and for planning effective school wellness policies. However, the extant empirical research on peer effects is limited due to difficulties in separating causal influences from confounding factors. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1570677X183022
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ehb.2019.03.003DOI Listing
April 2019
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Differential circulating and visceral fat microRNA expression of non-obese and obese subjects.

Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Nutrition and Metabolism Research Division, Korea Food Research Institute, Wanju-gun, Republic of Korea; Department of Food Biotechnology, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Altered microRNA (miRNA) expression is associated with the pathophysiology of obesity; however, little is known about the miRNAs commonly dysregulated in the blood and visceral fat tissue of obese patients. This study compared the circulating and visceral fat miRNA expression in subjects with and without obesity.

Methods: For the circulating miRNA study, 20 healthy control and 30 obese subjects were recruited. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02615614193014
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2019.03.033DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read