335,170 results match your criteria Obesity


Role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of the skeletal muscle response to exercise.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2020 Jun 30;52:52-60. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Exercise is a valuable tool in the prevention and treatment of cardiometabolic diseases like obesity and type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, endocannabinoids (eCBs), involved in a large range of physiological processes, are elevated with both obesity and acute exercise. In this review we outline this paradox overlap in the context of metabolic health and delineate the transcriptomic response of skeletal muscle to acute and chronic aerobic and resistance exercise in relation to the endocannabinoid system by utilizing a meta-analyses tool. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2020.05.003DOI Listing

Maternal obesity modulates both the renin-angiotensin system in mice dams and fetal adiposity.

J Nutr Biochem 2020 May 16;84:108413. Epub 2020 May 16.

Laboratory of Health Science, Montes Claros State University, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Food Engineering College, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Minas Gerais, Brazil, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Obesity is a chronic multifactorial disease and is currently a public health problem. Maternal obesity during pregnancy is more dangerous as it impairs the health of the mother and future generations. Obesity leads to several metabolic disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2020.108413DOI Listing

Not only in my genes: The effects of peers' genotype on obesity.

J Health Econ 2020 Jun 14;72:102349. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

CRES-UPF, Spain. Electronic address:

We use data from three waves of Add Health to study the short- and long-run effects of high school peers' genetic predisposition to high BMI-measured by grade-mates' average BMI polygenic scores-on adolescent and adult obesity in the U.S. We find that, in the short-run, a one standard deviation increase in peers' average BMI polygenic scores raises the probability of obesity for females by 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2020.102349DOI Listing

Gene-gene and gene-lifestyle interactions of AKAP11, KCNMA1, PUM1, SPTBN1, and EPDR1 on osteoporosis risk in middle-aged adults.

Nutrition 2020 May 19;79-80:110859. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan, South Korea.

Objectives: Osteoporosis is associated with genetic and environmental factors. The aim of this article was to determine how the polygenic risk scores (PRS) of genetic variants that affect osteoporosis and its related signaling interact with the lifestyle of middle-aged adults.

Methods: The study examined 8845 participants from Ansan/Ansung cohorts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2020.110859DOI Listing

Associations of Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Regimens with Viral RNA Shedding Duration in Patients with COVID-19.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Urology, the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Objective: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic, but the factors influencing viral RNA shedding remain unclear to inform optimal control strategies.

Methods: The clinical course and viral RNA shedding pattern of 267 consecutive symptomatic COVID-19 patients admitted to the hospital from January 20, 2020 to March 15, 2020 were retrospectively evaluated.

Results: The median viral RNA shedding duration was 12 days (interquartile range, 8-16 d) after the onset of illness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.091DOI Listing

Binding properties of marine bromophenols with human protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B: Molecular docking, surface plasmon resonance and cellular insulin resistance study.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071, China; Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071, China. Electronic address:

Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a highly validated target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Previous studies have shown that bromophenols from marine red alga Rhodomela confervoides can inhibit PTP1B activity. However, traditional in vitro enzymatic assays may result in false positive activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.06.263DOI Listing

The Effect of BMI on Internal Rotation and Function Following Anatomic and Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Orthopaedics, Charleston, SC, USA.

Background: The exact relationship between BMI and IR before and after total shoulder arthroplasty has not been studied to date. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of BMI on the preoperative and postoperative shoulder range of motion and function in anatomic (aTSA) and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA), and specifically how internal rotation (IR) affects patient ability to perform IR-related activities of daily living (ADLs).

Methods: Patients from a prospective multicenter international shoulder arthroplasty registry who underwent primary rTSA (n=1171) and primary aTSA (n=883) were scored preoperatively and at latest follow-up (2-10 years, mean = 3 years) using the SST, UCLA, ASES, Constant, and SPADI patient reported outcome measures (PROM). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.06.008DOI Listing

Agrochemicals and obesity.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2020 Jun 30:110926. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697-2300, USA; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Obesity has become a very large concern worldwide, reaching pandemic proportions over the past several decades. Lifestyle factors, such as excess caloric intake and decreased physical activity, together with genetic predispositions, are well-known factors related to obesity. There is accumulating evidence suggesting that exposure to some environmental chemicals during critical windows of development may contribute to the rapid increase in the incidence of obesity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2020.110926DOI Listing

Is Obesity a Disease of Stem Cells?

Cell Stem Cell 2020 Jul;27(1):15-18

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA; Shriners Hospitals for Children, St. Louis, MO, USA; Center of Regenerative Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Obesity disrupts physiological homeostasis and alters both systemic and local microenvironments that impact stem cell plasticity and impair regenerative capacity. We present growing evidence that reveals the bidirectionality of obesity-induced stem cell dysfunction and how the molecular changes in stem cells residing in obese environments may accelerate disease severity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.04.019DOI Listing

Altering Dementia Risk: Can Fitness Overcome Obesity in Relation to Cognition?

Can J Cardiol 2020 Mar 12. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.03.008DOI Listing

Obese but Fit: The Benefits of Fitness on Cognition in Obese Older Adults.

Can J Cardiol 2020 Jan 16. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Centre de médecine préventive et d'activité physique (Centre ÉPIC), Montreal Heart Institute, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Research Center, Montreal Heart Institute, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Obesity is associated with an accelerated cognitive decline. Aerobic fitness has a protective effect on cognition in older adults, but no study has investigated this effect in obese individuals. The present study aimed to 1) compare cognitive function in lower-fit (LoFit) and higher-fit (HiFit) obese individuals compared with nonobese individuals, and 2) examine the association between exercise variables (including hemodynamic variables) and cognitive function in obese individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.01.005DOI Listing
January 2020

Arrhythmic Gut Microbiome Signatures Predict Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.

Cell Host Microbe 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

ZIEL - Institute for Food & Health, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany; Chair of Nutrition and Immunology, Technical University of Munich, Gregor-Mendel-Str. 2, 85354 Freising, Germany. Electronic address:

Lifestyle, obesity, and the gut microbiome are important risk factors for metabolic disorders. We demonstrate in 1,976 subjects of a German population cohort (KORA) that specific microbiota members show 24-h oscillations in their relative abundance and identified 13 taxa with disrupted rhythmicity in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Cross-validated prediction models based on this signature similarly classified T2D. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.06.004DOI Listing

COVID-19 rise in Younger adults with Obesity: Visceral Adiposity can predict the Risk.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Inpatient and Acute Care Services, Chief Medical Officer, University of Miami Hospital & Clinics, University of Miami, FL, USA.

A concerning rise in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases has been recently reported, particularly in the USA. The causes of this increase are likely multifactorial and the object of an ongoing health and socio-economic debate. However, preliminary data indicate that the new COVID-19 cases are increasing among younger and obese adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.22951DOI Listing

Is Obesity Related to Processing Speed Impairment in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Results of a Large-Scale, Multicenter Study.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: Obesity is linked to greater physical disability and increased comorbidities among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Its contribution to cognition in this group is unclear. This observational study examines the link between obesity and processing speed in a large sample of patients with MS (PwMS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/arclin/acaa003DOI Listing

Anti-inflammatory functions of the glucocorticoid receptor require DNA binding.

Nucleic Acids Res 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Molecular Endocrinology, Institutes for Diabetes and Obesity & Diabetes and Cancer IDO & IDC, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen (HMGU) and German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Munich 85764, Germany.

The glucocorticoid receptor is an important immunosuppressive drug target and metabolic regulator that acts as a ligand-gated transcription factor. Generally, GR's anti-inflammatory effects are attributed to the silencing of inflammatory genes, while its adverse effects are ascribed to the upregulation of metabolic targets. GR binding directly to DNA is proposed to activate, whereas GR tethering to pro-inflammatory transcription factors is thought to repress transcription. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkaa565DOI Listing

Pharmacological treatment strategies for patients with monogenic obesity.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Institute for Experimental Pediatric Endocrinology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

The leptin melanocortin signaling pathway is playing a pivotal role for body weight regulation. Genetic defects within this cascade are leading to severe hyperphagia and early onset obesity. In most cases, due to persistent hyperphagia the affected patients are not able to stabilize body weight for a longer period of time with conservative treatment strategies based on lifestyle interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2020-0129DOI Listing

Wound With Diabetes: Present Scenario And Future.

Curr Diabetes Rev 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Pharmacology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Pune. India.

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder of endocrine system characterized by increase in blood glucose level. Several factors such as pancreatic damage, oxidative stress, infection, genetic factor, obesity, liver dysfunction play a vital role in pathogenesis of diabetes which further lead to serious diabetic complications. Diabetic wound is one such complication where the wound formation occurs, especially due to pressure and its healing process is disrupted due to factors such as hyperglycemia, neuropathy, nephropathy, peripheral vascular disease, reduction of blood flow, atherosclerosis, impaired fibroblast. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573399816666200703180137DOI Listing

Cosmetic Fat Transplantation: A Review.

Curr Mol Med 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Centre for Diabetes, Obesity and Endocrinology (CDOE), The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, The University of Sydney. Australia.

Aim: To review current techniques used in fat grafting to optimise graft persistence and achieve optimal cosmetic outcomes.

Background: Fat transplantation has been used extensively in the reconstruction and cosmetic industry for many years. However, there is significant adipocyte loss and reabsorption rates; leading to the loss of external cosmetic volume and the need for repeat procedures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1566524020666200703194355DOI Listing

Allicin-induced host-gut microbe interactions improves energy homeostasis.

FASEB J 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Allicin (diallylthiosulfinate) is a natural food compound with multiple biological and pharmacological functions. However, the mechanism of beneficial role of Allicin on energy homeostasis is not well studied. Gut microbiota (GM) profoundly affects host metabolism via microbiota-host interactions and coevolution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202001007RDOI Listing

Regional Adiposity and Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

Eur J Heart Fail 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Division of Cardiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States.

The role of obesity in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF), and in particular HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), has drawn significant attention in recent years. The prevalence of both obesity and HFpEF has increased worldwide over the past decades and when present concomitantly suggests an obese-HFpEF phenotype. Anthropometrics, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-hip-ratio (WHR), are associated with incident HFpEF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.1956DOI Listing

Mechanisms, screening modalities and treatment options for individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes.

Diabet Med 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) exists as a spectrum of disease ranging from excessive accumulation of fat within the liver (simple steatosis), inflammation (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) through to fibrosis, cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. There is also an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The principal risk factor for NAFLD is overweight or obesity, along with type 2 diabetes, and NAFLD itself is also a risk factor for incident type 2 diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dme.14356DOI Listing

Administration of recombinant human placental growth factor decreases blood pressure in obese hypertensive pregnant rats.

J Hypertens 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Surgery, Cardiovascular-Renal Research Center, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi.

Objectives: Although epidemiological studies have shown that obesity is associated with increased incidence of hypertension during pregnancy, the mechanisms linking these two comorbidities are not as well studied. Previous investigations detected lower levels of the anti-hypertensive and pregnancy-related factor, placental growth factor (PlGF), in obese hypertensive pregnancies. Therefore, we examined whether obese hypertensive pregnant rats have reduced PlGF and whether increasing its levels by administering recombinant human (rh)PlGF reduces their blood pressure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002528DOI Listing

Metabolic Syndrome is Associated with Ocular Hypertension and Glaucoma.

Authors:
Gavin W Roddy

J Glaucoma 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Glaucoma remains the world's leading cause of irreversible blindness and though intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most prevalent risk factor and only reliable therapeutic target, a number of systemic disease associations have been reported. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of findings that includes systemic hypertension, abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. MetS is becoming increasingly common world-wide, with prevalence up to 40% in some countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IJG.0000000000001593DOI Listing

Metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes of bariatric surgery.

Curr Opin Lipidol 2020 Jun 28. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester.

Purpose Of Review: Bariatric surgery is an effective therapy for morbid obesity that also improves weight-related metabolic parameters and reduces morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to consolidate our current understanding of metabolic, macrovascular and microvascular benefits of bariatric surgery and to provide an update.

Recent Findings: Early resolution of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) varies by type of bariatric surgery and appears to be mediated by changes in secretion of gut hormones, metabolism of bile acids, expression of glucose transporters and the gut microbiome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOL.0000000000000696DOI Listing

Appetite control: hormones or diet strategies?

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2020 Jun 28. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Purpose Of Review: Appetite control results from metabolic, behavioral, and environmental factors that influence hunger and the desire to eat. We summarize the latest advances in the hormonal and nutritional strategies to control appetite and reduce hunger.

Recent Findings: The fed-hunger-state is regulated by central and peripheric hormones, which modulate energy balance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000675DOI Listing

Allogenic Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Improves Abnormal Small Intestinal Permeability: A Randomized Control Trial.

Am J Gastroenterol 2020 Jul;115(7):1055-1065

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an obesity-related disorder that is rapidly increasing in incidence and is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The gut microbiome plays a role in metabolism and maintaining gut barrier integrity. Studies have found differences in the microbiota between NAFLD and healthy patients and increased intestinal permeability in patients with NAFLD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000000661DOI Listing

Mass cytometry and type 1 diabetes research in the age of single-cell data science.

Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2020 Aug;27(4):231-239

Precision Immunology Institute.

Purpose Of Review: New single-cell tec. hnologies developed over the past decade have considerably reshaped the biomedical research landscape, and more recently have found their way into studies probing the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). In this context, the emergence of mass cytometry in 2009 revolutionized immunological research in two fundamental ways that also affect the T1D world: first, its ready embrace by the community and rapid dissemination across academic and private science centers alike established a new standard of analytical complexity for the high-dimensional proteomic stratification of single-cell populations; and second, the somewhat unexpected arrival of mass cytometry awoke the flow cytometry field from its seeming sleeping beauty stupor and precipitated substantial technological advances that by now approach a degree of analytical dimensionality comparable to mass cytometry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MED.0000000000000549DOI Listing

Pharmacological therapies to address obesity in type 1 diabetes.

Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2020 Aug;27(4):194-206

AdventHealth, Translational Research Institute.

Purpose Of Review: Obesity is increasing in prevalence among patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and is associated with insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular risk. The management of obesity in this population is complicated by defects in pancreatic islet hormone secretion and the effects of exogenous insulin treatment. Here, we review the effects of antiobesity medications and adjunct-to-insulin medications on body weight in T1D. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MED.0000000000000555DOI Listing

Cardiovascular and somatic comorbidities and sleep measures using three hypopnea criteria in mild obstructive sleep-disordered breathing: sex, age and body mass index differences in a retrospective sleep clinic cohort.

J Clin Sleep Med 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Medicine, Baystate Medical Center, University of Massachusetts Medical School -Baystate, Springfield, Massachusetts.

Study Objectives: To describe sex, age and body mass index (BMI) differences in comorbidities and polysomnography (PSG) measures, categorized using three different apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) criterion, in sleep clinic patients with mild obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (SDB).

Methods: A retrospective cohort of 305 (64% female) adult sleep clinic patients who underwent full night in-laboratory polysomnography diagnosed with mild SDB and prescribed positive airway pressure (PAP). Effects of sex, age and BMI on comorbidities and PSG measures including rates of AHI defined by ≥3% desaturations (AHI), with arousals (AHI), by ≥4% desaturations (AHI) and by respiratory disturbance index (RDI) were evaluated. Read More

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Influence of pre-schooler and parent nutrition education on carotenoid levels of Mexican-heritage children.

Public Health Nutr 2020 Jun 19:1-9. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

University of California Cooperative Extension, Fresno County, CA, USA.

Objective: To determine the mediating effect of direct preschool and parent nutrition education on changes in skin carotenoids scores over 2 years in children of Mexican heritage.

Design: In a quasi-experimental, community-based study, two school districts were randomly assigned to either a comparison group (parent workshops unrelated to nutrition) or a childhood obesity prevention intervention group which included nutrition education at family nights for parents and at school for children. Changes in skin carotenoid intensity scores (diffCAROT, year 2015 minus 2013) were measured in children as a proxy for fruit and vegetable consumption using Resonance Raman Spectroscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980019004579DOI Listing

An in vitro model for hypertrophic adipocytes: Time-dependent adipocyte proteome and secretome changes under high glucose and high insulin conditions.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Obesity is the consequence of a positive energy balance and characterized by enlargement of the adipose tissue, which in part is due to hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the adipocytes. Not much is known about the transition of normal mature adipocytes to the hypertrophic state, which in vivo is very hard to study. Here, we have maintained mature human SGBS cells as a surrogate for adipocytes, changes of morphological and molecular metabolism of the adipocytes were monitored over the first 4 days and the last 4 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15497DOI Listing

The effect of referral to an open-group behavioural weight management programme on the relative risk of normoglycaemia, non-diabetic hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes: secondary analysis of the WRAP trial.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge.

Aims: We examined the impact of open-group behavioural weight management programmes on diabetes risk among i) those with BMI ≥28 kg/m and ii) those with non-diabetic hyperglycaemia (NDH).

Methods: This was a secondary analysis of data from the WRAP trial, in which participants (N = 1267; ≥18 years, BMI ≥28 kg/m ) were randomised to: brief intervention (BI; self-help booklet), a weight management programme (WW, formerly Weight Watchers) for 12-weeks, or WW for 52 weeks. We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the effect of intervention group on the risk of hyperglycaemia and diabetes at 12 months in all participants with glycaemic status at both time points (N = 480; 38%) and those with NDH at baseline (N = 387; 31%). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dom.14123DOI Listing

Home gardening and associations with fruit and vegetable intake and BMI.

Public Health Nutr 2020 Jul 3:1-6. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Behavioral, Social and Health Education Sciences, Emory Prevention Research Center, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA30322, USA.

Objective: To understand who engages in home gardening and whether gardening is associated with fruit and vegetable intake and weight status.

Design: A national cross-sectional survey.

Setting: Online survey panel in the USA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980020001329DOI Listing

Optimal cut-off points for waist circumference in the definition of metabolic syndrome in Chile.

Public Health Nutr 2020 Jul 3:1-6. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of European and Mediterranean Cultures: Architecture, Environment and Cultural Heritage (DICEM), University of Basilicata, Matera, Italy.

Objective: To identify sex-specific cut-off points for waist circumference (WC) in the definition of metabolic syndrome (MetS) for the Chilean adult population.

Design: MetS was defined as the presence of at least two out of four of the following criteria: TAG ≥1·7 mmol/l; HDL-cholesterol: <1·3 mmol/l in women and <1·0 mmol/l in men; systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mmHg; and fasting glucose ≥ 5·6 mmol/l or current treatment for diabetes. The receiver operating characteristics curve and the AUC were computed to derive the specificity and sensitivity using bootstrapping (10 000 iterations restricted to have at least between 40 and 60 % of the original population). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980020001469DOI Listing

DNA methylation patterns from peripheral blood separate coronary artery disease patients with and without heart failure.

ESC Heart Fail 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Aims: Natriuretic peptides are useful for diagnosis and prognostication of heart failure of any cause. Now, research aims to discover novel biomarkers that will more specifically define the heart failure phenotype. DNA methylation plays a critical role in the development of cardiovascular disease with the potential to predict fundamental pathogenic processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12810DOI Listing

Grape Powder Supplementation Attenuates Prostate Neoplasia Associated with Pten Haploinsufficiency in Mice Fed High-Fat Diet.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2020 Jul 2:e2000326. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Long Island University, Brookville, NY, 11548, USA.

Scope: Previous studies have identified potent anticancer activities of polyphenols in preventing prostate cancer. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of grape powder (GP) supplemented diets in genetically predisposed and obesity-provoked prostate cancer.

Methods And Results: Prostate-specific Pten heterozygous (Pten ) transgenic mice were fed low- and high-fat diet (LFD and HFD) supplemented with 10% GP for 33 weeks, ad libitum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.202000326DOI Listing

Exogenous Dietary Ketone Ester Decreases Body Weight and Adiposity in Mice Housed at Thermoneutrality.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a ketone ester (KE)-supplemented diet on energy expenditure (EE) and adiposity in mice housed at 23 °C versus thermoneutrality (30 °C), in which sympathetic nervous system activity is diminished.

Methods: Thirty-two 10-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to 1 of 4 groups (n = 8 per group): 30% KE diet + 23 °C (KE23), control (CON) diet + 23 °C (CON23), 30% KE diet + 30 °C (KE30), or CON diet + 30 °C (CON30). CON mice were pair-fed to the average intake of mice consuming the KE diet (ad libitum) for 8 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.22855DOI Listing

Carbohydrate-induced weight gain models for diabetes research: contribution of incretins and parasympathetic signal.

J Diabetes Investig 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan.

Carbohydrate includes both fibers and sugars. There are many types of sugars: monosaccharides such as glucose and fructose, disaccharides such as sucrose, and polysaccharides such as starch and dextrin. Excess intake of sugar cause obesity; World Health Organization (WHO) recommends reducing daily intake of free sugars such as glucose, fructose, sucrose and table sugar to less than 10% of total energy since 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdi.13342DOI Listing

Association between access to full-service restaurants and childhood obesity.

Obes Rev 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Health Service Management, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

The lack of access to full-service restaurants (FSRs) is generally thought to be a risk factor for childhood obesity, as it could discourage healthful eating-out behaviours while increasing the exposure to unhealthful food venues as "compensatory" options. However, the association between FSR access and childhood obesity has not been comprehensively reviewed previously. A literature search was conducted on PubMed and Web of Science for articles published before 1 January 2019 that examined the association between FSR access and weight-related behaviours and outcomes among children and adolescents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13076DOI Listing

Intersecting vulnerabilities in human biology: Synergistic interactions between climate change and increasing obesity rates.

Am J Hum Biol 2020 Jul 3:e23460. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Anthropology, Hunter College, New York, New York, USA.

Objectives: Increasing obesity rates and accelerating climate change represent two global health challenges shaped by lifestyle change and human environmental modifications. Yet, few studies have considered how these issues may interact to exacerbate disease risk.

Methods: In this theory article, we explore evidence that obesity-related disease and climatic changes share socio-ecological drivers and may interact to increase human morbidity and mortality risks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23460DOI Listing

Enalapril and treadmill running reduce adiposity, but only the latter causes adipose tissue browning in mice.

J Cell Physiol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Laboratory of Exercise Sciences, Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

This study investigated whether regulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) by enalapril and/or aerobic exercise training (AET) causes browning of the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT). C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard chow or a high-fat (HF) diet for 16 weeks. At Week 8, HF-fed animals were divided into sedentary (HF), enalapril (HF-E), AET (HF-T), and enalapril plus AET (HF-ET) groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29900DOI Listing

Interleukin-17 producing mucosal associated invariant T cells - emerging players in chronic inflammatory diseases?

Eur J Immunol 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Kathleen Lonsdale Institute for Human Health Research, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Kildare, Ireland.

Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a population of evolutionarily conserved T cells, which express an invariant T cell receptor (TCR) and represent a significant subset of innate-like T cells in humans, yet their role in immunity is still emerging. Unlike conventional αβ T cells, MAIT cells are not restricted by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, but instead uniquely recognise microbially-derived vitamin metabolites presented by the MHC-I like molecule MR1. MAIT cells are enriched in mucosal sites and tissues including liver and adipose tissue where they are thought to play an important role in immunosurveillance and immunity against microbial infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.202048645DOI Listing

Safety and Effectiveness of an Intragastric Balloon as an Adjunct to Weight Reduction in a Post-Marketing Clinical Setting.

Obes Surg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Ellner Bariatric, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA.

Background And Objectives: Obesity and its related comorbidities are associated with serious health risks. This trial evaluated the safety and effectiveness of the ORBERA® Intragastric Balloon System (IGB) as an adjunct to lifestyle intervention in a post-marketing clinical setting.

Methods And Materials: In this multicenter study, 258 adults with a body mass index of 30-40 kg/m were treated with the IGB as an adjunct to weight reduction and followed for up to 12 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04798-5DOI Listing

Really Totally Robotic SADI-S in a Patient with Extreme Morbid Obesity and Non-Reducible Umbilical Hernia: Case Report.

Obes Surg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Endocrine, Metabolic and Bariatric Unit, General Surgery Department, Germans Trias i Pujol Hospital, Ctra de Canyet s/n, 08916, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Single anastomosis duodenoileal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy (SADI-s) is a well-known and accepted technique for extreme obesity but technically challenging in this group of patients and so frequently is performed as a laparoscopic staged procedure. Robotic devices such as Da Vinci® system may solve some limitations of laparoscopic surgery. The video shows a really totally robotic SADI-s (RTR-SADI-s) in a single stage on a patient with extreme morbid obesity and a non-reducible umbilical hernia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04802-yDOI Listing

Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy Has Better Weight Evolution and Serum Concentrations of Vitamin D when Compared with Roux-Y Gastric Bypass.

Obes Surg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

ENSP/FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, 21.941-902, Brazil.

Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the weight evolution and serum concentrations of vitamin D in individuals undergoing Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) and Sleeve after 1 follow-up year.

Methodology: Descriptive, prospective, and longitudinal study, with 108 individuals divided into 2 groups: RYGB (55 patients) and Sleeve (53), evaluated preoperatively, and at 6 and 12 postoperatively months. Anthropometric data, serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, calcium, and parathyroid hormone were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04815-7DOI Listing

Bariatric Surgery and Hospitalization for Heart Failure in Morbidly Obese Patients.

Obes Surg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Section of Cardiology, John W. Deming Department of Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA, 70112, USA.

Background: Bariatric surgery may improve heart failure outcome in morbidly obese patients. However, the safety of bariatric surgery has not been investigated in morbidly obese patients hospitalized for heart failure. We evaluated the effects of bariatric surgery on parameters of hospitalization for heart failure in morbidly obese patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04787-8DOI Listing

The -514C>T polymorphism in the LIPC gene modifies type 2 diabetes risk through modulation of HDL-cholesterol levels in Mexicans.

J Endocrinol Invest 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Unit of Molecular Biology and Genomic Medicine, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Vasco de Quiroga #15, Belisario Domínguez, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, 14080, Mexico City, Mexico.

Purpose: Both type 2 diabetes (T2D) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are very prevalent conditions among Mexicans. Genetic variants in the LIPC gene have been associated with both conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the association of the -514C < T (rs1800588) LIPC gene polymorphism with different metabolic traits, particularly the effects of this polymorphism on HDL-C plasma levels and T2D risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40618-020-01346-xDOI Listing

Looking beyond hypogonadism: association between low testosterone and metabolic syndrome in men 20-59 years.

Int Urol Nephrol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Urology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 750 E. Adams Street, Syracuse, NY, 13210, USA.

Purpose: Rates of low testosterone and metabolic syndrome are increasing among adult men in the United States. Both are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. This study aims to assess the association between low testosterone and metabolic syndrome with a population-based contemporary cohort of men aged 20-59 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-020-02557-0DOI Listing

Associations of truncal body composition with cognitive status in patients with dementia.

Neurol Sci 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Neurology, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Konkuk University Medical Center, 120-1 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 05030, South Korea.

Backgound: Central obesity in midlife is a risk factor of cognitive decline and dementia, and also one of the factors that make cognitive functions deteriorate rapidly.

Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between truncal body composition (fat and muscle) and cognitive impairment in patients with dementia.

Methods: A total of 81 female over 60 years of age with probable Alzheimer's disease were recruited between November 2014 and September 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04503-5DOI Listing

Changes in Dietary Intake of Major Nutrients and Food Sources among Costa Rican Adolescents in the Last 20 Years.

J Nutr 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Global Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.

Background: Adolescence offers a window of opportunity to prevent adult obesity and noncommunicable disease risk factors. With the rising prevalence of adolescent obesity over the last 20 y, identifying any changes in dietary risk factors is crucial.

Objectives: We aimed to assess the dietary intake of major nutrients and their food sources in Costa Rican adolescents from 1996 to 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa182DOI Listing