Search our Database of Scientific Publications and Authors

I’m looking for a

    268808 results match your criteria Obesity

    1 OF 5377

    Effects of Zinc Alpha2 Glycoprotein on Lipid Metabolism of Liver in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.
    Horm Metab Res 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology & Biochemistry, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, P. R. China.
    Zinc alpha2 glycoprotein (ZAG) is a new type of adipokine involved in adipose tissue mobilization, however, little is known about its lipid metabolism effect in liver. Therefore, we investigated the effects of ZAG in the regulation of hepatic lipid accumulation. Mice were randomly divided into two groups; one was fed a normal diet and another was fed a high-fat diet for eight weeks to establish obesity model. Read More

    Vigorous Physical Activity is Associated with Regular Aerobic Exercise-Induced Increased Serum Testosterone Levels in Overweight/Obese Men.
    Horm Metab Res 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Testosterone is a male sex hormone and low circulating testosterone levels are associated with various health disorders in men. Obesity results in reduced circulating testosterone levels in men. Previously, we demonstrated that lifestyle modifications (combination of aerobic exercise and dietary modification) increase circulating testosterone levels in overweight/obese men. Read More

    Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children from the Spanish INMA Birth Cohort Study.
    Environ Health Perspect 2017 Sep 20;125(9):097018. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    ISGlobal, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL) , Barcelona, Spain.
    Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may affect body mass index (BMI) and other components of cardiometabolic (CM) risk during childhood, but evidence is scarce and inconsistent.

    Objectives: We estimated associations between prenatal PFAS exposures and outcomes relevant to cardiometabolic risk, including a composite CM-risk score.

    Methods: We measured perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in maternal plasma (first trimester). Read More

    Consumption of foods and beverages in elementary schools: Results of the implementation of the general guidelines for foods and beverages sales in elementary schools in Mexico, stages II and III.
    Eval Program Plann 2017 Aug 25;66:1-6. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    National Institute of Public Health, Av. Universidad No 655, Col. Sta. Ma. Ahuacatitlan, C.P. 62100, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.
    The Mexican government developed the General Guidelines for the dispensing or distribution of foods and beverages at food sales in elementary schools (Guidelines). The objective is to evaluate the consumption of food and beverages during school hours, in two different stages of the implementation of the Guidelines: stages II (2011-2012) and stage III (2012-2013) in 565 elementary school students. We constructed three categories of consumption according to the origin of food: Home, food brought from home; School, food purchased at school and Both, food from home and food purchased at school. Read More

    Carotid Artery Wall Thickness in Obese and Nonobese Adults With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Before and Following Positive Airway Pressure Treatment.
    Sleep 2017 Sep;40(9)
    Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
    Study Objectives: Debate persists as to whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to compare carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), an early sign of atherosclerosis, in obese and nonobese adults with OSA before and following positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment.

    Methods: A total of 206 adults newly diagnosed with OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 15-75 events/hour and 53 controls with AHI <10 were studied. Read More

    Homozygous KIDINS220 loss-of-function variants in fetuses with cerebral ventriculomegaly and limb contractures.
    Hum Mol Genet 2017 Oct;26(19):3792-3796
    Department of Medical Genetics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Heterozygous mutations in KIDINS220 were recently suggested a cause of spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability, nystagmus and obesity. All patients carried terminal nonsense de novo mutations that seemed to escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. The mechanism for pathogenicity is yet unexplained, as it seems that heterozygous loss-of-function variants of KIDINS220 are generally well tolerated. Read More

    The 16p11.2 homologs fam57ba and doc2a generate certain brain and body phenotypes.
    Hum Mol Genet 2017 Oct;26(19):3699-3712
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.
    Deletion of the 16p11.2 CNV affects 25 core genes and is associated with multiple symptoms affecting brain and body, including seizures, hyperactivity, macrocephaly, and obesity. Available data suggest that most symptoms are controlled by haploinsufficiency of two or more 16p11. Read More

    Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya.
    PLoS One 2017 21;12(9):e0185148. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany.
    Background: While undernutrition and related infectious diseases are still pervasive in many developing countries, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD), typically associated with high body mass index (BMI), is rapidly rising. The fast spread of supermarkets and related shifts in diets were identified as possible factors contributing to overweight and obesity in developing countries. Potential effects of supermarkets on people's health have not been analyzed up till now. Read More

    People with the major alleles of ATP2B1 rs17249754 increases the risk of hypertension in high ratio of sodium and potassium, and low calcium intakes.
    J Hum Hypertens 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, Obesity/Diabetes Research Center, Hoseo University, Asan-Si, South Korea.
    It is important to understand what genetic risk factors lead to hypertension and how genotype-specific dietary and lifestyle modification can mitigate the risk of developing hypertension. The ATP2B1 rs17249754 gene, which encodes a calcium pump expressed in vascular smooth muscle was identified as having variants that conferred higher or lower risk of hypertension-with the major allele carriers being increased at risk. However, the effects of dietary intakes on risk of hypertension among carriers of the different alleles have not been fully elucidated. Read More

    The Role of Body Adiposity Index in Determining Body Fat Percentage in Colombian Adults with Overweight or Obesity.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 Sep 21;14(10). Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Grupo CTS-436, Adscrito al Centro de Investigación Mente, Cerebro y Comportamiento (CIMCYC), Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain.
    The aim of this study is to investigate the accuracy of body adiposity index (BAI) as a convenient tool for assessing body fat percentage (BF%) in a sample of adults with overweight/obesity using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The study population was composed of 96 volunteers (60% female, mean age 40.6 ± 7. Read More

    Phyllodulcin, a Natural Sweetener, Regulates Obesity-Related Metabolic Changes and Fat Browning-Related Genes of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.
    Nutrients 2017 Sep 21;9(10). Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea.
    Phyllodulcin is a natural sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii. This study investigated whether phyllodulcin could improve metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Read More

    Isoliquiritigenin Induces Autophagy and Inhibits Ovarian Cancer Cell Growth.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 Sep 21;18(10). Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, College of Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan.
    Ovarian cancer is one of the commonest gynecologic malignancies, which has a poor prognosis for patients at the advanced stage. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), an active flavonoid component of the licorice plant, previously demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tumor suppressive effects. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of ISL on human ovarian cancer in vitro using the human ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR5 and ES-2, as model systems. Read More

    Neuroticism Predicts Subsequent Risk of Major Depression for Whites but Not Blacks.
    Behav Sci (Basel) 2017 Sep 21;7(4). Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
    Cultural and ethnic differences in psychosocial and medical correlates of negative affect are well documented. This study aimed to compare blacks and whites for the predictive role of baseline neuroticism (N) on subsequent risk of major depressive episodes (MDD) 25 years later. Data came from the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) Study, 1986-2011. Read More

    Association between Exposure to p,p'-DDT and Its Metabolite p,p'-DDE with Obesity: Integrated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Environ Health Perspect 2017 Sep 18;125(9):096002. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis , Davis, California, USA.
    Background: The prevalence of obesity is increasing in all countries, becoming a substantial public health concern worldwide. Increasing evidence has associated obesity with persistent pollutants such as the pesticide DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE.

    Objectives: Our objective was to systematically review the literature on the association between exposure to the pesticide DDT and its metabolites and obesity to develop hazard identification conclusions. Read More

    Longitudinal Analysis of Nut-Inclusive Diets and Body Mass Index Among Overweight and Obese African American Women Living in Rural Alabama and Mississippi, 2011-2013.
    Prev Chronic Dis 2017 Sep 21;14:E82. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Division of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.
    Introduction: Nuts, when eaten alongside other nutritionally rich foods, may decrease obesity and related chronic disease risks, which are high among African American women in the rural South. We monitored changes in nut intake, other obesity-related foods (fruits, vegetables, red or processed meats, added sugars), and body mass index (BMI) over a 2-year weight loss intervention among 383 overweight and obese African American women in rural Alabama and Mississippi.

    Methods: Two dietary recalls were administered at 4 points over 24 months. Read More

    Panduratin A Prevents Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha-Induced Muscle Atrophy in L6 Rat Skeletal Muscle Cells.
    J Med Food 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University , Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Panduratin A, a prenylated chalcone compound, has anti-obesity, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative activities. However, its preventive effect on muscle atrophy has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of panduratin A on muscle atrophy and to investigate its molecular mechanisms in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-treated L6 rat skeletal muscle cells. Read More

    Geotagged US Tweets as Predictors of County-Level Health Outcomes, 2015-2016.
    Am J Public Health 2017 Sep 21:e1-e7. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Quynh C. Nguyen is with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park. Hsien-wen Meng and Geoffrey Loomis are with the Department of Health, Kinesiology, and Recreation; University of Utah College of Health; Salt Lake City. Matt McCullough and Dapeng Li are with the Department of Geography, University of Utah. Debjyoti Paul, Suraj Kath, and Feifei Li are with the School of Computing, University of Utah. Elaine O. Nsoesie is with Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle. Ming Wen is with the Department of Sociology, University of Utah. Ken R. Smith is with the Department of Family Consumer Studies, University of Utah.
    Objectives: To leverage geotagged Twitter data to create national indicators of the social environment, with small-area indicators of prevalent sentiment and social modeling of health behaviors, and to test associations with county-level health outcomes, while controlling for demographic characteristics.

    Methods: We used Twitter's streaming application programming interface to continuously collect a random 1% subset of publicly available geo-located tweets in the contiguous United States. We collected approximately 80 million geotagged tweets from 603 363 unique Twitter users in a 12-month period (April 2015-March 2016). Read More

    Cardiovascular disease in the Eastern Mediterranean region: epidemiology and risk factor burden.
    Nat Rev Cardiol 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    University Health Network, 585 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2N2, Canada.
    The Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) comprises 22 countries or territories spanning from Morocco in the west to Pakistan in the east, and contains a population of almost 600 million people. Like many other developing regions, the burden of disease in the EMR has shifted in the past 30 years from primarily communicable diseases to noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cardiovascular mortality in the EMR, mostly attributable to ischaemic heart disease, is expected to increase more dramatically in the next decade than in any other region except Africa. Read More

    Growth Hormone's Effect on Adipose Tissue: Quality versus Quantity.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 Jul 26;18(8). Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    The Diabetes Institute at Ohio University, 108 Konneker Research Labs, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA.
    Obesity is an excessive accumulation or expansion of adipose tissue (AT) due to an increase in either the size and/or number of its characteristic cell type, the adipocyte. As one of the most significant public health problems of our time, obesity and its associated metabolic complications have demanded that attention be given to finding effective therapeutic options aimed at reducing adiposity or the metabolic dysfunction associated with its accumulation. Growth hormone (GH) has therapeutic potential due to its potent lipolytic effect and resultant ability to reduce AT mass while preserving lean body mass. Read More

    Longitudinal study of falls among HIV-infected and uninfected women: the role of cognition.
    Antivir Ther 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.
    Background: Although fracture rates are higher in HIV+ than HIV- women, whether HIV infection increases risk of falls is unclear. We determined the longitudinal occurrence and risk factors for falls in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), and explored associations with cognitive complaints.

    Methods: Recent (prior 6 months) self-reported falls were collected in 1816 (1250 HIV+; 566 HIV-) women over 24 months. Read More

    Association Between Health Beliefs and Gestational Weight Gain.
    J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    4 University of Texas Health Science Center , McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas.
    Background: The Institute of Medicine (IOM) provides recommendations for optimal weight gain during pregnancy to minimize complications associated with obesity and excessive weight gain. The Health Belief Model and prior research suggest knowledge of health recommendations and associated risks motivate health behaviors. This study determined whether knowledge of maternal and infant obesity risks during pregnancy (ORDP) and knowledge of IOM gestational weight gain (GWG) recommendations were associated with total GWG and likelihood of adhering to IOM recommendations. Read More

    Sleep Duration and Risk of Liver Cancer in Postmenopausal Women: The Women's Health Initiative Study.
    J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    1 Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine , Houston, Texas.
    Background: Sleep duration has been associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, but its association with liver cancer remains unknown.

    Material And Methods: In the prospective Women's Health Initiative Study, 139,368 postmenopausal women reported sleep habits at baseline (1993-1998). We ascertained 175 incident liver cancer cases during an average 13. Read More

    Male Infertility: The Effect of Natural Antioxidants and Phytocompounds on Seminal Oxidative Stress.
    Diseases 2017 Mar 1;5(1). Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.
    Defective sperm function has been identified as the most common cause of infertility. The objective of this study was to review recent findings on the effects of various antioxidants on male fertility. High amounts of poly unsaturated fatty acid are found in the mammalian spermatozoa membranes, thereby making them susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Read More

    Nutraceuticals and "repurposed" drugs of phytochemical origin in prevention and interception of chronic degenerative disease and cancer.
    Curr Med Chem 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Varese, and Scientific and Technology Park, IRCCS MultiMedica, Milano. Italy.
    Chronic, degenerative diseases are often characterized by inflammation and aberrant angiogenesis. For many of these pathologies, including rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases, cancer, diabetes, and obesity, current therapies have limited efficacy, thus the validation of novel (chemo)preventive and interceptive approaches, of new or repurposed agents, alone or in combination with registered drugs, are urgently required. Phytochemicals (triterpenoids, flavonoids, retinoids) and their derivatives, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin) as well as biguanides (metformin and phenformin) originally developed from phytochemical backbones, are multi-target agents showing anti-angiogenic and anti-anti-inflammatory proprieties. Read More

    Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP1B) and α-glucosidase by geranylated flavonoids from Paulownia tomentosa.
    J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2017 Dec;32(1):1195-1202
    a Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 plus), Institute of Agriculture and Life Science (IALS) , Gyeongsang National University , Jinju , Republic of Korea.
    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and α-glucosidase are important targets to treat obesity and diabetes, due to their deep correlation with insulin and leptin signalling, and glucose regulation. The methanol extract of Paulownia tomentosa fruits showed potent inhibition against both enzymes. Purification of this extract led to eight geranylated flavonoids (1-8) displaying dual inhibition of PTP1B and α-glucosidase. Read More

    Effects of secukinumab on serum adipocytokines: preliminary data.
    Reumatismo 2017 Sep 21;69(3):105-110. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Unit of Rheumatology, University of Verona.
    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects joints, connective tissues and the axial skeleton. Metabolic syndrome is an independent risk factor for psoriasis (Pso) development and is associated with more severe forms of Pso. Adipocytokines are secreted by white adipose tissue and are thought to link obesity with the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Read More

    Functional Neuroimaging in Obesity Research.
    Adv Neurobiol 2017 ;19:239-248
    IBILI-Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Life Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Functional neuroimaging is beginning to yield valuable insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of the effects of obesity on neural circuits. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have been used to identify aberrant activation patterns in regions implicated in reward (e.g. Read More

    Central Modulation of Energy Homeostasis and Cognitive Performance After Bariatric Surgery.
    Adv Neurobiol 2017 ;19:213-236
    Institute of Physiology, Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Life Sciences-IBILI, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    In moderately or morbidly obese patients, bariatric surgery has been proven to be an effective therapeutic approach to control body weight and comorbidities. Surgery-mediated modulation of brain function via modified postoperative secretion of gut peptides and vagal nerve stimulation was identified as an underlying mechanism in weight loss and improvement of weight-related diseases. Increased basal and postprandial plasma levels of gastrointestinal hormones like glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY that act on specific areas of the hypothalamus to reduce food intake, either directly or mediated by the vagus nerve, are observed after surgery while suppression of meal-induced ghrelin release is increased. Read More

    Multiple Sclerosis: Implications of Obesity in Neuroinflammation.
    Adv Neurobiol 2017 ;19:191-210
    Neurology Department, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Since the discovery of the remarkable properties of adipose tissue as a metabolically active organ, several evidences on the possible link between obesity and the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) have been gathered. Obesity in early life, mainly during adolescence, has been proposed as a relevant risk factor for late MS development. Moreover, once MS is initiated, obesity can contribute to increase disease severity by negatively influencing disease progress. Read More

    Cerebrovascular Disease: Consequences of Obesity-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction.
    Adv Neurobiol 2017 ;19:163-189
    Institute of Physiology, Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Life Sciences-IBILI, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Despite the well-known global impact of overweight and obesity in the incidence of cerebrovascular disease, many aspects of this association are still inconsistently defined. In this chapter we aim to present a critical review on the links between obesity and both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and discuss its influence on functional outcomes, survival, and current treatments to acute and chronic stroke. The role of cerebrovascular endothelial function and respective modulation is also described as well as its laboratory and clinical assessment. Read More

    The Influence of Adipose Tissue on Brain Development, Cognition, and Risk of Neurodegenerative Disorders.
    Adv Neurobiol 2017 ;19:151-161
    Neurology Department, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    The brain is a highly metabolic organ and thus especially vulnerable to changes in peripheral metabolism, including those induced by obesity-associated adipose tissue dysfunction. In this context, it is likely that the development and maturation of neurocognitive circuits may also be affected and modulated by metabolic environmental factors, beginning in utero. It is currently recognized that maternal obesity, either pre-gestational or gestational, negatively influences fetal brain development and elevates the risk of cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring. Read More

    Diabesity and Brain Energy Metabolism: The Case of Alzheimer's Disease.
    Adv Neurobiol 2017 ;19:117-150
    CNC-Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    It is widely accepted that high calorie diets and a sedentary lifestyle sturdily influence the incidence and outcome of type 2 diabetes and obesity, which can occur simultaneously, a situation called diabesity. Tightly linked with metabolic and energy regulation, a close association between diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been proposed. Among the common pathogenic mechanisms that underpin both conditions, insulin resistance, brain glucose hypometabolism, and metabolic dyshomeostasis appear to have a pivotal role. Read More

    Hypothalamic Dysfunction in Obesity and Metabolic Disorders.
    Adv Neurobiol 2017 ;19:73-116
    CNC-Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    The hypothalamus is the brain region responsible for the maintenance of energetic homeostasis. The regulation of this process arises from the ability of the hypothalamus to orchestrate complex physiological responses such as food intake and energy expenditure, circadian rhythm, stress response, and fertility. Metabolic alterations such as obesity can compromise these hypothalamic regulatory functions. Read More

    Neuroendocrinology of Adipose Tissue and Gut-Brain Axis.
    Adv Neurobiol 2017 ;19:49-70
    Institute of Physiology, Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Life Sciences-IBILI, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Food intake and energy expenditure are closely regulated by several mechanisms which involve peripheral organs and nervous system, in order to maintain energy homeostasis.Short-term and long-term signals express the size and composition of ingested nutrients and the amount of body fat, respectively. Ingested nutrients trigger mechanical forces and gastrointestinal peptide secretion which provide signals to the brain through neuronal and endocrine pathways. Read More

    Toll-like receptor-4 signaling mediates inflammation and tissue injury in diabetic nephropathy.
    J Nephrol 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Universita degli Studi di Genova, DIMI and IRCCS AOU San Martino IST, Genova, Italy.
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of receptors of the innate immune system which detect pathogen-associated and danger-associated molecular patterns in order to initiate an inflammatory response. TLR2 and TLR4 downward signaling causes the production of proinflammatory cytokines that can induce insulin resistance and cardiovascular damage in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In diabetic nephropathy, TLR4, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2), and NLRP3 inflammasome are involved in the production and persistence of inflammation. Read More

    A Prospective Single-Arm Trial of Modified Long Biliopancreatic and Short Alimentary Limbs Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Mild Obesity.
    Obes Surg 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Center for Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery, São Domingos Hospital, São Luís, Brazil.
    Background: Type-2 diabetes (T2D) patients with body mass index (BMI) below 35 kg/m(2) carry lower remission rates than severely obese T2D individuals submitted to "standard limb lengths" Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Mild-obese patients appear to have more severe forms of T2D, where the mechanisms of glycemic control after a standard-RYGB may be insufficient. The elongation of the biliopancreatic limb may lead to greater stimulation of the distal intestine, alterations in bile acids and intestinal microbiota, among other mechanisms, leading to better metabolic outcomes. Read More

    Enhanced migration of murine fibroblast-like 3T3-L1 preadipocytes on type I collagen-coated dish is reversed by silibinin treatment.
    Mol Cell Biochem 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    China-Japan Research Institute of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, 110016, Liaoning, China.
    Migration of fibroblast-like preadipocytes is important for the development of adipose tissue, whereas excessive migration is often responsible for impaired adipose tissue related with obesity and fibrotic diseases. Type I collagen (collagen I) is the most abundant component of extracellular matrix and has been shown to regulate fibroblast migration in vitro, but its role in adipose tissue is not known. Silibinin is a bioactive natural flavonoid with antioxidant and antimetastasis activities. Read More

    Does iris(in) bring bad news or good news?
    Eat Weight Disord 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica (DIBIMIS), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    Irisin, a novel myokine produced in response to physical activity, promotes white-to-brown fat transdifferentiation. The name irisin referred to the ancient Greek goddess Iris, the messenger who delivered (bad) news from the gods. In mice, it has been demonstrated that irisin plays a key role in metabolic regulation, energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis. Read More

    Predictors of response to glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists: a meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
    Acta Diabetol 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Diabetology, Careggi Teaching Hospital, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Via delle Oblate 4, 50141, Florence, Italy.
    Aims: The aim of the present meta-analysis is the identification of the characteristics of patients, which predict the efficacy on HbA1c of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA).

    Methods: A Medline and Embase search for "exenatide" OR "liraglutide" OR "albiglutide" OR "dulaglutide" OR "lixisenatide" was performed, collecting randomized clinical trials (duration > 12 weeks) up to September 2016, comparing GLP-1 RA at the maximal approved dose with placebo or active drugs. Furthermore, unpublished studies were searched in the www. Read More

    Outcomes in patients with advanced heart failure and small body size undergoing continuous-flow left ventricular assist device implantation.
    J Artif Organs 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Division of Cardiothoracic Transplant and Assist Devices, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.
    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have become a preferred treatment option for patients with end-stage heart failure when used as a bridge to transplant or as a destination therapy. However, the association between small body size and postoperative outcomes for continuous-flow (CF) LVAD recipients is still being studied. We sought to determine whether body surface area (BSA) is associated with patient outcomes after CF-LVAD implantation. Read More

    A review of the relationship between the gut microbiota and amino acid metabolism.
    Amino Acids 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Colorectal Surgery, Nankai University Affiliated Hospital, Tianjin, 801225, China.
    New evidence has emerged in recent years to suggest a strong link between the human gut microbiota, its metabolites, and various physiological aspects of hosts along with important pathophysiological dimensions of diseases. The research indicates that the gut microbiota can facilitate metabolite production in two ways: first, the resident species of the gut microbiota use the amino acids produced from food or the host as elements for protein synthesis, and second, conversion or fermentation are used to drive nutrient metabolism. Additionally, the gut microbiota can synthesize several nutritionally essential amino acids de novo, which is a potential regulatory factor in amino acid homeostasis. Read More

    Ablation of kallikrein 7 (KLK7) in adipose tissue ameliorates metabolic consequences of high fat diet-induced obesity by counteracting adipose tissue inflammation in vivo.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Pharmacy and Psychology, University of Leipzig, Brüderstr. 34, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.
    Vaspin is an adipokine which improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obesity. Kallikrein 7 (KLK7) is the first known protease target inhibited by vaspin and a potential target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of KLK7 in adipose tissue may beneficially affect glucose metabolism and adipose tissue function. Read More

    The Risk Factors of High Blood Pressure among Young Adults in the Tujia-Nationality Settlement of China.
    Biomed Res Int 2017 28;2017:8315603. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    PE Department of Hubei University for Nationalities, Enshi, Hubei, China.
    Demographics questionnaires, and fitness tests were utilized to identify the risk factors of hypertension among younger adults in the years 2005, 2010, and 2014 in China's southwest province of Hubei. The results demonstrated that the prevalence of hypertension was higher between 2011 and 2014 among the young people in this area. The main risk factors of developing hypertension were found to be sex (as man), individuals over 40 years old, blue collar employees who worked in rural areas, overweight/obesity, and those with the low CRF. Read More

    Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery: A Versatile Tool for Colorectal Surgeons.
    Ann Coloproctol 2017 Aug 31;33(4):125-129. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Department of Colorectal Surgery, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, and University of Sydney, Discipline of Surgery, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Purpose: Hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) is a minimally invasive surgical technique with the combined benefits of laparoscopic surgery while allowing the use of the surgeon's hand for better tactile control. Obesity has been associated with higher conversion rates with multiport laparoscopic surgery, but not with HALS. This study aimed to examine the versatility of HALS in various clinical contexts. Read More

    Cohort Profile Update: The Amirkola Health and Ageing Project (AHAP).
    Caspian J Intern Med 2017 ;8(3):205-212
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
    The original cohort study of AHAP started in 2011 on 1616 elderly residents of Amirkola, northern part of Iran near the Caspian Sea. The main goal of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the health of the elderly in the region with the emphasis on chronic diseases such as osteoporosis. The first cohort profile was published in the International Journal of Epidemiology in 2014. Read More

    Melatonin Level Variations with Different Behavioural Risk Factors in Obese Female Patients.
    Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2017 Aug 12;5(5):613-617. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Tbilisi State University - Department of Endocrinology, Lubliana str. 2/6, Tbilisi 0159, Georgia.
    Aim: The role of behavioural factors and sleep duration and quality is important in the pathogenesis of obesity. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of behavioural risk factors on melatonin secretion in women.

    Subjects And Methods: In total, 120 female patients were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups according to the body mass index. Read More

    Role of tissue microenvironment resident adipocytes in colon cancer.
    World J Gastroenterol 2017 Aug;23(32):5829-5835
    Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire, Clifford Bridge Road, Coventry CV2 2DX, United Kingdom.
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multifactorial disease characterized by several genetic and epigenetic alterations occurring in epithelial cells. It is increasingly recognized that tumour progression is also regulated by tumour microenvironment (TME). The bidirectional cross-talk between tumour resident adipocytes and cancer cells within TME has been proposed as active contributor to carcinogenesis. Read More

    The effects of abdominal interferential current therapy on waist circumference and visceral fat distance in obese women.
    J Phys Ther Sci 2017 Sep 15;29(9):1680-1683. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Kyungdong University: Bongpo-ri, Toseong-myeon, Goseong-gun, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea.
    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interferential current therapy on the waist circumference and visceral fat length in obese women. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, we selected 30 patients whose body mass index was over 25 kg/m(2). The subjects were randomly assigned to receive interferential current therapy three times a week for four weeks (n=15) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation three times a week for four weeks (n=15). Read More

    Effect of caloric restriction on gut permeability, inflammation markers, and fecal microbiota in obese women.
    Sci Rep 2017 Sep 20;7(1):11955. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Else Kröner-Fresenius-Center of Nutritional Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany.
    Recent findings suggest an association between obesity, loss of gut barrier function and changes in microbiota profiles. Our primary objective was to examine the effect of caloric restriction and subsequent weight reduction on gut permeability in obese women. The impact on inflammatory markers and fecal microbiota was also investigated. Read More

    A review of sarcopenia: Enhancing awareness of an increasingly prevalent disease.
    Bone 2017 Sep 17. Epub 2017 Sep 17.
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY 10021, United States. Electronic address:
    Sarcopenia is defined as an age associated decline in skeletal muscle mass. The pathophysiology of sarcopenia is multifactorial, with decreased caloric intake, muscle fiber denervation, intracellular oxidative stress, hormonal decline, and enhanced myostatin signaling all thought to contribute. Prevalence rates are as high as 29% and 33% in community dwelling and long-term care populations, respectively, with advanced age, low body mass index, and low physical activity as significant risk factors. Read More

    1 OF 5377