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    1 OF 5198

    [Prognostic Factors of Open Abdomen Treatment in Visceral Surgery].
    Zentralbl Chir 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Klinik und Poliklinik für Allgemein-, Viszeral-, Thorax- und Gefäßchirurgie, Universitätsklinikum Bonn, Deutschland.
    Introduction In general surgery, open abdomen treatment (OAT) is used to treat abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and sepsis, often after a primary surgical procedure associated with complications. The results achieved in this patient population may depend on factors that are yet unknown. This study evaluates independent patient-related prognostic factors after OAT. Read More

    Phase-plate cryo-EM structure of a class B GPCR-G-protein complex.
    Nature 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Drug Discovery Biology and Department of Pharmacology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, 3052 Victoria, Australia.
    Class B G-protein-coupled receptors are major targets for the treatment of chronic diseases, such as osteoporosis, diabetes and obesity. Here we report the structure of a full-length class B receptor, the calcitonin receptor, in complex with peptide ligand and heterotrimeric Gαsβγ protein determined by Volta phase-plate single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. The peptide agonist engages the receptor by binding to an extended hydrophobic pocket facilitated by the large outward movement of the extracellular ends of transmembrane helices 6 and 7. Read More

    Murine diet-induced obesity remodels cardiac and liver mitochondrial phospholipid acyl chains with differential effects on respiratory enzyme activity.
    J Nutr Biochem 2017 Apr 12;45:94-103. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, 115 Heart Drive, Greenville, NC 27834, USA; East Carolina Diabetes & Obesity Institute, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, 115 Heart Drive, Greenville, NC 27834, USA. Electronic address:
    Cardiac phospholipids, notably cardiolipin, undergo acyl chain remodeling and/or loss of content in aging and cardiovascular diseases, which is postulated to mechanistically impair mitochondrial function. Less is known about how diet-induced obesity influences cardiac phospholipid acyl chain composition and thus mitochondrial responses. Here we first tested if a high fat diet remodeled murine cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid acyl chain composition and consequently disrupted membrane packing, supercomplex formation and respiratory enzyme activity. Read More

    A gene-environment interaction analysis of plasma selenium with prevalent and incident diabetes: The Hortega study.
    Redox Biol 2017 Apr 14;12:798-805. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Area of Cardiometabolic and Renal Risk, Biomedical Research Institute Hospital Clinic of Valencia (INCLIVA), Valencia, Spain; Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Background: Selenium and single-nucleotide-polymorphisms in selenoprotein genes have been associated to diabetes. However, the interaction of selenium with genetic variation in diabetes and oxidative stress-related genes has not been evaluated as a potential determinant of diabetes risk.

    Methods: We evaluated the cross-sectional and prospective associations of plasma selenium concentrations with type 2 diabetes, and the interaction of selenium concentrations with genetic variation in candidate polymorphisms, in a representative sample of 1452 men and women aged 18-85 years from Spain. Read More

    Weight loss in weight watchers online with and without an activity tracking device compared to control: A randomized trial.
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, The Miriam Hospital Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.
    Objective: To evaluate a commercial online weight loss program and activity tracker, which are popular but have unknown efficacy.

    Methods: Two hundred seventy-nine participants with BMI 27 to 40 kg/m(2) were randomized to 12 months of the Weight Watchers Online program alone (WWO) or with the ActiveLink(®) activity tracking device (WWO+AL) or an online newsletter (Control).

    Results: Weight losses at 3 months were significantly greater in WWO (2. Read More

    Chronic intestinal electrical stimulation improves glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity rats.
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Veterans Research and Education Foundation, VA Medical Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA.
    Objective: Obesity is a contributing factor to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to study the therapeutic potential of intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) for obesity and associated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    Methods: DIO rats were divided into two groups to receive sham or IES for 8 weeks. Read More

    Irisin and musculoskeletal health.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.
    Irisin is a hormone-like myokine produced in abundance by skeletal muscle in response to exercise, both in mice and humans. Once released into the circulation, irisin acts on white adipocytes to induce the browning response and subsequently activates nonshivering thermogenesis. We have examined the premise that irisin produced during exercise may subserve further functions in the musculoskeletal system. Read More

    Dietary lactalbumin and lactoferrin interact with inulin to modulate energy balance in obese rats.
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Production Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Gastrointestinal Research Group, Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
    Objective: To determine whether diets enriched with the whey protein components lactalbumin and lactoferrin interact additively with inulin to improve energy balance by decreasing food intake and body weight (BW).

    Methods: In four experiments, diet-induced obese rats were randomized to diets containing either lactalbumin or lactoferrin at low (20% kcal) or high (40% kcal) doses, and inulin at low (7.5% w/w) or high (15% w/w) doses, alone or in combination. Read More

    Comparison of risk factors and outcomes of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia.
    PLoS One 2017 24;12(4):e0175914. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.
    Background: It remains an enigma whether gestational hypertension (GH) and pre-eclampsia (PE) are distinct entities or different spectrum of the same disease. We aimed to compare the risk factors and outcomes between GH and PE.

    Method: A total of 7,633 pregnant women recruited between 12 and 20 weeks of gestation in the Ottawa and Kingston Birth Cohort from 2002 to 2009 were included in the analysis. Read More

    Carbonic anhydrase III (Car3) is not required for fatty acid synthesis and does not protect against high-fat diet induced obesity in mice.
    PLoS One 2017 24;12(4):e0176502. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Genetics and Molecular Biology Curriculum, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America.
    Carbonic anhydrases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the reversible condensation of water and carbon dioxide to carbonic acid, which spontaneously dissociates to bicarbonate. Carbonic anhydrase III (Car3) is nutritionally regulated at both the mRNA and protein level. It is highly enriched in tissues that synthesize and/or store fat: liver, white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Read More

    Knowledge and perception of cardiovascular disease risk among patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
    PLoS One 2017 24;12(4):e0176291. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Rheumatology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.
    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The prerequisites for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease are adequate levels of knowledge and being aware of the risk. In this study, the levels of knowledge about cardiovascular disease among patients with rheumatoid arthritis and the perception were evaluated in relation to their actual 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease. Read More

    The Effect of Reinforcement Methods with Knotted and Knotless Sutures: Comparison of Burst Pressures.
    J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2016 Sep 22. Epub 2016 Sep 22.
    Department of General Surgery, Kecioren Training and Research Hospital , Ankara, Turkey .
    Sleeve gastrectomy operations have become popular among restrictive obesity surgeons, due to its effectiveness for losing weight and acceptable complication rates. However, leakage is a significant problem in these operations. In this ex vivo study, we tried to understand mechanisms of leakage and to examine the effects of two different types of frequently referred reinforcement techniques using sutures. Read More

    Effects of Dietary Macronutrient Composition on FNDC5 and Irisin in Mice Skeletal Muscle.
    Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2017 Feb 23. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    1 Laboratory of Health Science, Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros (Unimontes) , Montes Claros, Brazil .
    Background: Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) and its protein product Irisin are therapeutic targets for obesity-associated disorders. Irisin plays an important role in energy regulation, inducing browning of white adipocytes, and improving obesity. We aimed to investigate the association between muscle Irisin expression and dietary quality. Read More

    Framingham Risk Score and Estimated 10-Year Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction by a Short-Term Yoga-Based Life-Style Intervention.
    J Altern Complement Med 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences , New Delhi, India .
    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a short-term yoga-based life-style intervention program in lowering Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and estimated 10-year cardiovascular risk.

    Methods: This was a single-arm, pre-post interventional study including data from a historical cohort with low to moderate risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). It was conducted in a tertiary-care hospital. Read More

    4,4'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) inhibit myogenesis in C2C12 myoblasts.
    J Sci Food Agric 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Division of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Most countries have banned the use of 4,4'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). However, due to its extremely high lipophilic characteristics, DDT and its metabolite 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) are ubiquitous in the environment and in many types of food. The positive correlation between exposure to insecticides, including DDT and DDE, and weight gain, resulting in impaired energy metabolism in offspring following perinatal DDT and DDE exposure was previously reported. Read More

    SWELL1 is a regulator of adipocyte size, insulin signalling and glucose homeostasis.
    Nat Cell Biol 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA.
    Adipocytes undergo considerable volumetric expansion in the setting of obesity. It has been proposed that such marked increases in adipocyte size may be sensed via adipocyte-autonomous mechanisms to mediate size-dependent intracellular signalling. Here, we show that SWELL1 (LRRC8a), a member of the Leucine-Rich Repeat Containing protein family, is an essential component of a volume-sensitive ion channel (VRAC) in adipocytes. Read More

    Androgen and Estrogen Shifts in Men Before and After Bariatric Surgery and Links to Vitamins and Trace Elements.
    Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2017 Apr 24:1-17. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    1 Department of Gastronenterology, Hospital de Clinicas, ICHC, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Androgens and estrogens play a key role regarding sexual life and reproduction. Along with hypotestosteronemia, obese men exhibit a 2-fold increase in estradiol concentration, adversely infl uencing these parameters. Estrogens and adipokines also infl uence bone metabolism, exerting a direct effect on vitamin D, calcium homeostasis and bone health. Read More

    Diabetes Management by Probiotics: Current Knowledge and Future Pespective.
    Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2017 Apr 24:1-13. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    5 Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I. R. Iran.
    Diabetes mellitus, a multifactorial disorder, is related to the intestinal microbiota via numerous molecular mechanisms. The vast increase in the prevalence of diabetes and its associated complications requires a natural and safe solution. There is a growing evidence of gut microbiota effi ciency in improving insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, and metabolic complications in diabetic patients. Read More

    Difructose anhydride III decreases body fat as a low-energy substitute or by decreasing energy intake in non-ovariectomized and ovariectomized female rats.
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2017 Apr 24:1-8. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    b Central Research and Development Laboratory , FANCL Co. Ltd. , Yokohama , Japan.
    We evaluated the effects of difructose anhydride III (DFAIII) on body weights of ovariectomized rats, which are a good model for obesity by estrogen deficiency-induced overeating. Female rats (10 weeks old) were subjected to ovariectomy or sham operation and then fed with or without a diet containing 3% or 6% DFAIII for 33 days or pair-fed control diet during the same period. Rats fed DFAIII showed significantly decreased food intake, energy intake, body weight gain, body energy accumulation, and fat tissue weight than control group, regardless of ovariectomy. Read More

    Impact of physical activity on the association of overweight and obesity with cardiovascular disease: The Rotterdam Study.
    Eur J Prev Cardiol 2017 Jan 1:2047487317693952. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, The Netherlands.
    Background Being overweight or obese is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical activity might reduce the risk associated with overweight and obesity. We examined the association between overweight and obesity and CVD risk as a function of physical activity levels in a middle-aged and elderly population. Read More

    CONTROLLED INVASIVE MECHANICAL VENTILATION STRATEGIES IN OBESE PATIENTS UNDERGOING SURGERY.
    Expert Rev Respir Med 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    a Laboratory of Pulmonary Investigation, Carlos Chagas Filho Biophysics Institute , Federal University of Rio de Janeiro , Rio de Janeiro , Brazil .
    Introduction: The obesity prevalence is increasing in surgical population. As the number of obese surgical patients increases, so does the demand for mechanical ventilation. Nevertheless, ventilatory strategies in this population are challenging, since obesity results in pathophysiological changes in respiratory function. Read More

    Metformin as Targeted Treatment in Fragile X Syndrome.
    Clin Genet 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Medical Investigation of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (MIND) Institute, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA.
    Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) may be affected by several comorbid conditions, both behavioral and medical. Growth findings suggest that they are at an increased risk for obesity and overeating. The Prader-Willi phenotype (PWP) of FXS occurs in less than 10% of patients but it is associated with severe hyperphagia, lack of satiation and morbid obesity. Read More

    Association of waist circumference with outcomes in an acute general surgical unit.
    ANZ J Surg 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    School of Medicine Sydney, Wagga Wagga Clinical School, The University of Notre Dame Australia, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    Background: Obesity prevalence is increasing in Australia, particularly in non-metropolitan areas. The effect of obesity on acute surgical outcomes is not known. We aimed to record waist circumference (WC) (surrogate for obesity) amongst acute surgical unit (ASU) patients in a New South Wales regional hospital, and compare outcome measures (length of stay (LOS), unplanned return to theatre, readmission rates, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality). Read More

    Hemodynamics as Measured With Color Doppler Sonography in Early-Stage Obesity-Related Nephropathy in Children.
    J Ultrasound Med 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Ultrasonography, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
    Objectives: We retrospectively studied hemodynamic changes in the interlobar artery to assess the clinical value of color Doppler sonography for detecting preclinical obesity-related nephropathy.

    Methods: Color Doppler renal sonography was performed in 52 children with obesity-related nephropathy and 51 control children with simple obesity. The interlobar artery resistive index (RI) was measured and compared with clinical data and laboratory indicators. Read More

    Synthesis and anti-obesity effects in vivo of Crotadihydrofuran C as a novel PPARγ antagonist from Crotalaria albida.
    Sci Rep 2017 Apr 24;7:46735. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    The MOE Key Laboratory for Standardization of Chinese Medicines and SATCM Key Laboratory for New Resources and Quality Evaluation of Chinese Medicines, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Cai Lun Road 1200, Zhangjiang, Shanghai, 201210, People's Republic of China.
    Crotadihydrofuran C (CC) from the herbs of Crotalaria albida is able to inhibit adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation. However, the effects of CC on obesity and metabolic disorders have not yet been elucidated. In our study, the first enantioselective synthesis of the 2-isopropenyl dihydrofuran isoflavone skeleton (CC) is described. Read More

    lep Expression and Its Role in Obesity and Type-2 Diabetes.
    Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 2017 ;27(1):47-51
    Institute of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.
    Obesity is metabolic disorder that increases the risk of diabetes, heart disease, and other metabolic syndromes in human beings. One sign of diabetes is increased blood glucose levels in the body. Glucose levels increase due to problems with insulin secretion or insulin resistance. Read More

    The Identity Threat of Weight Stigma in Adolescents.
    West J Nurs Res 2017 Apr 1:193945917704201. Epub 2017 Apr 1.
    3 University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.
    Obesity remains a serious public health issue in adolescents, who may be subjected to weight stigma leading to increased stress and poor health outcomes. Stigma can be detrimental to adolescents during self-identity formation. The purpose of this study was to examine weight stigma in adolescents in light of the Identity Threat Model of Stigma. Read More

    Modern Methods for Modeling Change in Obesity Research in Nursing.
    West J Nurs Res 2017 Apr 1:193945917697221. Epub 2017 Apr 1.
    1 University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Persons receiving treatment for weight loss often demonstrate heterogeneity in lifestyle behaviors and health outcomes over time. Traditional repeated measures approaches focus on the estimation and testing of an average temporal pattern, ignoring the interindividual variability about the trajectory. An alternate person-centered approach, group-based trajectory modeling, can be used to identify distinct latent classes of individuals following similar trajectories of behavior or outcome change as a function of age or time and can be expanded to include time-invariant and time-dependent covariates and outcomes. Read More

    Exercise decreases Marrow Adipose Tissue though ß-oxidation in Obese Running Mice.
    J Bone Miner Res 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.
    The relationship between marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and bone health is poorly understood. We used running exercise to ask whether obesity-associated-MAT can be attenuated via exercise and whether this correlates with gains in bone quantity and quality. C57BL/6 mice were divided into diet-induced obesity (DIO n = 14) vs. Read More

    Systematic review on evidence-based adolescent nutrition interventions.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Apr;1393(1):34-50
    Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Adolescence is a critical stage in the life cycle, and adequate nutrition is necessary for the proper growth and development of individuals and their offspring. Here, we comprehensively review all published systematic reviews (through October 2016) on adolescents (10-19 years) and women of reproductive age, including pregnant women, which targeted interventions related to nutrition. For interventions where there was no existing systematic review on adolescents, we reviewed primary studies/trials. Read More

    Review of nutrition guidelines relevant for adolescents in low- and middle-income countries.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Apr;1393(1):51-60
    Division of Women and Child Health, Center of Excellence in Women and Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
    The economic and social well-being of any country will one day depend on its current adolescent population. To provide a good foundation for healthy adolescent development, healthy diet, along with physical activity and adequate nutrients, is necessary. Therefore, addressing the nutrition needs of adolescents could be an important step toward breaking the vicious cycle of intergenerational malnutrition, chronic diseases, and poverty. Read More

    [GLP-1/GIP/Gcg receptor Triagonist improves the cognitive behaviors in triple-transgenic mice of Alzheimer's disease].
    Sheng Li Xue Bao 2017 Apr;69(2):135-145
    Department of Physiology, Key Laboratory for Cellular Physiology of Ministry of Education, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, China.
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressively neurodegenerative disorder, which seriously affects human health but is still irreversible up to now. Recent studies indicate that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important risk factor for AD, and the drugs used for treatment of T2DM have shown some neuroprotective effects in the treatment of AD. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)/ glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)/glucagon (Gcg) receptor Triagonist is a new monomeric polypeptide equally activating the GLP-1/GIP/Gcg receptors, which is built on the basis of GLP-1/Gcg receptor coagonist core sequence, and incorporated with partial amino acids of GIP. Read More

    Factors predictive of topographical accuracy in spine level localization.
    J Spine Surg 2017 Mar;3(1):23-30
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Background: Pre-operative spine level localization by palpation of anatomical landmarks (ribs, spinous processes) in posterior approaches for surgeries from T4 to L2 is often inaccurate. This can lead to ineffective utilization of procedural time, increased radiation dose, potentially longer skin incision and wrong level surgery. Factors affecting topographical accuracy includes body mass index (BMI) of the patient, congenital or acquired deformity and knowledge of topographical anatomy. Read More

    Brown Adipose Tissue Bioenergetics: A New Methodological Approach.
    Adv Sci (Weinh) 2017 Apr 13;4(4):1600274. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Department of Biochemistry and PhysiologyInstitut de Biomedicina de la Universitat de Barcelona (IBUB)Universitat de BarcelonaE-08028BarcelonaSpain.
    The rediscovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans and its capacity to oxidize fat and dissipate energy as heat has put the spotlight on its potential as a therapeutic target in the treatment of several metabolic conditions including obesity and diabetes. To date the measurement of bioenergetics parameters has required the use of cultured cells or extracted mitochondria with the corresponding loss of information in the tissue context. Herein, we present a method to quantify mitochondrial bioenergetics directly in BAT. Read More

    Beyond the Ability to Pay: The Health Status of Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders in Relationship to Health Insurance.
    Hawaii J Med Public Health 2017 Mar;76(3 Suppl 1):36-41
    Native Hawaiian and Indigenous Health, Office of Public Health Studies, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (AKM, MT).
    Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) suffer from a number of poor health outcomes, such as high rates of overweight status, obesity, hypertension, and high rates of asthma and cancer mortality. In addition to a disproportionate burden of illness, barriers to health care access and utilization also exist. This study examines the effect of health insurance coverage on the health status of NHOPI in comparison to Asians. Read More

    An evaluation of low volume high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) for health risk reduction in overweight and obese men.
    BMC Obes 2017 19;4:17. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT UK.
    : Both sprint interval training (SIT) and high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) have been described as time-efficient strategies for inducing favourable metabolic and cardiorespiratory adaptations in healthy and diseased participants.

    Background: To date, little attention has been given to profiling the potential health benefits of HIIT or modified HIIT training within overweight and obese cohorts with particular focus on inflammation. Within this pilot trial, we tested the hypothesis that 6 sessions of HIIT performed over 2 weeks with 1-2 days' rest would improve aerobic capacity, glucose metabolism and inflammatory profile in an overweight and obese male cohort. Read More

    Skin to Intramuscular Compartment Thigh Measurement by Ultrasound in Pediatric Population.
    West J Emerg Med 2017 Apr 7;18(3):479-486. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Southern Illinois University, School of Medicine, Center for Clinical Research, Springfield, Illinois.
    Introduction: Pediatric obesity threatens the efficacy of medications given intramuscularly. In anaphylactic patients, epinephrine auto-injector needle lengths are potentially too short to reach the muscle compartment in patients with elevated body habitus. The objective of the study was to determine needle-length requirements for intramuscular injections in pediatric patients. Read More

    Cardiometabolic risk factors, metabolic syndrome and pre-diabetes in adolescents in the Sierra region of Ecuador.
    Diabetol Metab Syndr 2017 19;9:24. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    The Diabetes Institute, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Athens, OH USA.
    Background: Excess weight (overweight and obesity) is the major modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other non-communicable diseases. However, excess weight may not be as predictive of diabetes risk as once thought. While excess weight and other obesity-related non-communicable diseases are of growing concern in low-middle income countries in Latin America, there is limited research on risk factors associated with T2DM in adolescents. Read More

    Leptin receptor Q223R polymorphism in Egyptian female patients with breast cancer.
    Contemp Oncol (Pozn) 2017 22;21(1):42-47. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
    Aim Of The Study: Breast cancer is the most common cause of death in women. Obesity has been associated with increased risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women. It induces chronic inflammation, which increases local and systemic levels of cytokines and adipokines such as leptin. Read More

    Genetic factors in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus after kidney transplantation.
    Ther Clin Risk Manag 2017 6;13:439-446. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Department of Periodontology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland.
    Posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is one of the major metabolic complications after transplantation of solid organs including the kidney. This type of diabetes mellitus affects allograft survival, cardiovascular complications and overall patient survival. The modifiable risk factors that contribute to PTDM include obesity, some viral infections (eg, hepatitis C virus, cytomegalovirus) and especially immunosuppressive drugs including corticosteroids, tacrolimus, cyclosporine and sirolimus. Read More

    Self-regulation and household routines at age three and obesity at age eleven: Longitudinal analysis of the UK Millennium cohort study.
    Int J Obes (Lond) 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Objective: To examine, in a population-based cohort of three-year-old children, the association between self-regulation and exposure to the household routines of regular bedtime, regular mealtime, and limits on watching television/video; and to determine whether self-regulation and these routines predict the risk of obesity at age 11.

    Methods: Analyses included 10 955 children in the nationally-representative UK Millennium Cohort Study. When children were age 3, parents reported whether children had a regular bedtime and mealtime and the amount of television/video watched. Read More

    Adolescent Changes in Hindbrain Noradrenergic A2 Neurons in Male Rats.
    Brain Res 2017 Apr 20. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience and Behavior Program, Barnard College of Columbia University, New York, NY 10027. Electronic address:
    During adolescence, the increased susceptibility to stress-related dysfunctions (e.g., anxiety, drug use, obesity) may be influenced by changes in the hormonal stress response mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Read More

    Muramyl Dipeptide-Based Postbiotics Mitigate Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance via IRF4.
    Cell Metab 2017 Apr 6. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5, Canada; Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5, Canada. Electronic address:
    Intestinal dysbiosis contributes to obesity and insulin resistance, but intervening with antibiotics, prebiotics, or probiotics can be limited by specificity or sustained changes in microbial composition. Postbiotics include bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides, which have been shown to promote insulin resistance during metabolic endotoxemia. We found that bacterial cell wall-derived muramyl dipeptide (MDP) is an insulin-sensitizing postbiotic that requires NOD2. Read More

    Metabolic syndrome components and diabetes incidence according to the presence or absence of impaired fasting glucose: The Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.
    J Epidemiol 2017 Apr 20. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Mitsui Chemicals, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.
    Background: We prospectively examined the association of diabetes risk with the number of metabolic abnormalities, as well as their combinations, according to the presence or absence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a large-scale Japanese working population.

    Methods: Participants included 55,271 workers at 11 companies who received periodic health check-ups between 2008 and 2013. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) components were defined using the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. Read More

    Meta-analysis of Results of Testosterone Therapy on Sexual Function Based on International Index of Erectile Function Scores.
    Eur Urol 2017 Apr 20. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Andrology and Sexual Medicine Unit, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy. Electronic address:
    Context: The interpretation of available clinical evidence related to the effect of testosterone (T) treatment (TTh) on sexual function has been inconsistent, in part due to the use of different and self-reported measures to assess outcomes. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) is the most frequently used validated tool to assess male sexual function.

    Objective: To perform a meta-analysis of available data evaluating the effect of TTh on male sexual function using IIEF as the primary outcome. Read More

    Obesity and lower urinary tract dysfunction in children and adolescents: Further research into new relationships.
    J Pediatr Urol 2017 Apr 2. Epub 2017 Apr 2.
    CEDIMI (Center of Micturition Disturbance), Bahiana School of Medicine, Federal University of Bahia, Bahia, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) involves faults in the filling and emptying phases of bladder function in toilet-trained children with no previous infection or any other obvious pathology. Lower urinary tract dysfunction is associated with conditions such as vesicoureteral reflux, recurrent urinary infection, behavioral alterations and decreased quality of life. The literature suggests an association between LUTD and obesity; however, the association between each individual symptom and obesity has yet to be evaluated. Read More

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