1,617 results match your criteria Nutrition for the Female Athlete


Measuring the sports nutrition knowledge of elite Australian athletes using the Platform to Evaluate Athlete Knowledge of Sports Nutrition Questionnaire.

Nutr Diet 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, Sydney School of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, Australia.

Aims: To evaluate the nutrition knowledge of elite Australian athletes, and to obtain feedback from sports dietitians on the Platform to Evaluate Athlete Knowledge of Sports Nutrition Questionnaires' (PEAKS-NQ) suitability.

Methods: Sports dietitians from the National Institute Network across Australia recruited athletes to complete the online, 50-item PEAKS-NQ which contained two sections (General Nutrition and Sports Nutrition). Sports dietitians provided feedback on the PEAKS-NQ using a 14-item questionnaire (with two open-ended items). Read More

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Eating disorders in sport. Update and proposal for an integrated approach.

Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Centro de Salud Mental Infanto-Juvenil «Natividad Zubieta», Navarra, España.

Eating disorders are a group of conditions which have a huge impact on the health and performance of athletes. The aetiology of eating disorders is multifactorial, being influenced by genetic and environmental factors, but also involving psychological factors and factors specific to the practising of sport. Eating disorders are highly prevalent in sport, particularly in disciplines involving endurance, those that have weight-categories or those where low weight is a competitive advantage and aesthetics are important. Read More

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Fluid and electrolyte balance considerations for female athletes.

Eur J Sport Sci 2021 Jun 17:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Physiology, Exercise, and Nutrition Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport, University of Stirling, United Kingdom.

This review explores the effects of oestrogen and progesterone fluctuations across the menstrual cycle on fluid and electrolyte balance. The review aims to provide information on this topic for the exercising female but also for researchers working in this field. Beginning with a basic introduction to fluid and electrolyte balance, the review goes on to describe how oestrogen and progesterone have independent and integrated roles to play in the regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance. Read More

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Prevalence of Disordered Eating, Eating Disorders and Risk of Low Energy Availability in Professional, Competitive and Recreational Female Athletes based in the United Kingdom.

Eur J Sport Sci 2021 Jun 13:1-22. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

London Sports Institute, Middlesex University, London, United Kingdom.

Eating disorders (ED), disordered eating (DE) and low energy availability (LEA) can be detrimental to health and performance. Previous studies have independently investigated prevalence of ED, DE or LEA, however few combined methods have identified risk within female athletes. The aim of this study was to identify prevalence of ED, DE and LEA in UK-based female athletes and investigate whether associations exist between age, competition level and primary sport. Read More

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Temporal changes in blood oxidative stress biomarkers across the menstrual cycle and with oral contraceptive use in active women.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Griffith Sports Science, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Gold Coast, QLD, 4222, Australia.

Purpose: To examine the temporal changes in blood oxidative stress biomarkers in recreationally-trained women that were naturally-cycling (WomenNC) or using oral contraceptives (WomenOC) across one month.

Methods: Blood samples were acquired at three timepoints of the menstrual cycle (1: early-follicular, 2: late-follicular and 3: mid-luteal) and oral contraceptive packet (1: InactiveOC, 2: Mid-activeOC and 3: Late-activeOC) for determination of estradiol, progesterone, oxidative stress, C-reactive protein (CRP) and other cardiometabolic biomarkers in plasma and serum.

Results: There was a Group by Time effect on estradiol (p < 0. Read More

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The Effects of Menstrual Cycle Phase on Elite Athlete Performance: A Critical and Systematic Review.

Front Physiol 2021 19;12:654585. Epub 2021 May 19.

Institute for Research in Medicine and Epidemiology of Sports (IRMES, EA7329), INSEP, Paris, France.

: In elite athletes, training individualization is widely recommended to optimize competitive performance. Previous studies have evidenced the impact of hormonal fluctuations on different performance parameters among female athletes. While consideration of menstrual cycle (MC) phases as a parameter in training individualization strategies is necessary, systematic evidence identifying such impacts in elite athletes should be evaluated. Read More

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The Male Athlete Triad-A Consensus Statement From the Female and Male Athlete Triad Coalition Part 1: Definition and Scientific Basis.

Clin J Sport Med 2021 Jul;31(4):335-348

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

Abstract: The Male Athlete Triad is a syndrome of 3 interrelated conditions most common in adolescent and young adult male endurance and weight-class athletes and includes the clinically relevant outcomes of (1) energy deficiency/low energy availability (EA) with or without disordered eating/eating disorders, (2) functional hypothalamic hypogonadism, and (3) osteoporosis or low bone mineral density with or without bone stress injury (BSI). The causal role of low EA in the modulation of reproductive function and skeletal health in the male athlete reinforces the notion that skeletal health and reproductive outcomes are the primary clinical concerns. At present, the specific intermediate subclinical outcomes are less clearly defined in male athletes than those in female athletes and are represented as subtle alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and increased risk for BSI. Read More

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The Applied Sports Science and Medicine of Netball: A Systematic Scoping Review.

Sports Med 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Carnegie Applied Rugby Research (CARR) Centre, Carnegie School of Sport, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, LS6 3QS, UK.

Background: Netball is the one of the most popular women's sports in the world. Since gaining professional status in 2008 there has been a rapid growth in research in the applied sports science and medicine of the sport. A scoping review of the area would provide practitioners and researchers with an overview of the current scientific literature to support on-court performance, player welfare and reduce injury. Read More

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Hypovitaminosis D in Young Basketball Players: Association with Jumping and Hopping Performance Considering Gender.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 19;18(10). Epub 2021 May 19.

Sport Performance and Physical Fitness Research Group (UIRFIDE), Physical Education and Sports Department, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain.

This study aimed to verify whether a group of young well-trained basketball players presented deficiencies in vitamin D concentration, and to analyze whether there was an association between vitamin D concentration and jumping and hopping performance. Gender differences were considered. Twenty-seven players from an international high-level basketball club (14 female, 16. Read More

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Contribution of Solid Food to Achieve Individual Nutritional Requirement during a Continuous 438 km Mountain Ultramarathon in Female Athlete.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 13;18(10). Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Food Sciences and Human Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Ryukoku University, Shiga 520-2194, Japan.

Background: Races and competitions over 100 miles have recently increased. Limited information exists about the effect of multiday continuous endurance exercise on blood glucose control and appropriate intake of food and drink in a female athlete. The present study aimed to examine the variation of blood glucose control and its relationship with nutritional intake and running performance in a professional female athlete during a 155. Read More

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Nutrition Knowledge Is Associated with Energy Availability and Carbohydrate Intake in Young Female Cross-Country Skiers.

Nutrients 2021 May 22;13(6). Epub 2021 May 22.

Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Rautpohjankatu 8, 40014 Jyväskylä, Finland.

The aim of this study was to provide information on energy availability (EA), macronutrient intake, nutritional periodization practices, and nutrition knowledge in young female cross-country skiers. A total of 19 skiers filled in weighted food and training logs before and during a training camp. Nutrition knowledge was assessed via a validated questionnaire. Read More

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From Athens to Sparta-37 Years of Spartathlon.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 5;18(9). Epub 2021 May 5.

Bouve College of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

(1) Background: Recent studies analyzed the participation and performance trends of historic races such as the oldest ultra-marathon (Comrades) or the oldest 100-km ultra-marathon (Biel). One of the toughest and historic ultra-marathons in the world is the 'Spartathlon' (246-km ultra-marathon from Athens to Sparta). The present study aimed to analyze the trends in participation and performance of this race. Read More

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Performance and Health Decrements Associated With Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport for Division I Women Athletes During a Collegiate Cross-Country Season: A Case Series.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 12;12:524762. Epub 2021 May 12.

Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

The purpose of this case series was to evaluate the presence of low Energy Availability (EA) and its impact on components of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) in a population of female collegiate runners. Seven female NCAA Division I athletes (age: 22.3 ± 1. Read More

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Nutritional Considerations for Female Athletes in Weight Category Sports.

Eur J Sport Sci 2021 Jun 17:1-13. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences (RISES), Liverpool John Moores University, England, UK.

Weight making can be described as the process of reducing body mass in events where aesthetics, propulsion or the requirement to meet a specific weight category limit, are considered to be of competitive importance. Cross sectional research specifically focussed on weight category sports, has highlighted behaviours and practices that are similar in athletes of both sexes. Regardless of this and despite parallel participation in weight category sporting events, females are drastically underrepresented in studies examining body mass loss interventions across both chronic and acute timeframes. Read More

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Combining Anthropometry and Bioelectrical Impedance to Predict Body Fat in Female Athletes.

J Athl Train 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

3Department of Kinesiology & Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago; and.

Context: Accurate methods for predicting percent body fat in female athletes are needed for those who lose weight for competition. Methods mandated by sports-governing bodies for minimal weight determination in such athletes lack validation.

Objective: To determine whether combining anthropometry (skinfolds, SF) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in a 3 component model (3C) would improve the prediction of percentage body fat (%Fat) in female athletes. Read More

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Adolescent Endurance Runners Exhibit Suboptimal Energy Availability and Intakes of Key Nutrients.

J Am Coll Nutr 2021 May 25:1-8. Epub 2021 May 25.

Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

Despite the evidence of an elevated prevalence of low bone mass in adolescent endurance runners, reports on dietary intake in this population is limited. This study aimed to evaluate energy availability (EA) and dietary intake among 72 (n = 60 female, n = 12 male) high school cross-country runners. The sample consisted of a combined dataset of two cohorts. Read More

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Effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise training on cerebrovascular blood flow and reactivity: a systematic review with meta-analyses.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 05 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Physiology and Ultrasound Laboratory in Science and Exercise (PULSE), School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: We address two aims; Aim 1 (Fitness Review) compare the effect of higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) (e.g. endurance athletes) with lower CRF (e. Read More

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Fuelling the female athlete: Carbohydrate and protein recommendations.

Eur J Sport Sci 2021 May 20:1-13. Epub 2021 May 20.

Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Mores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Optimal carbohydrate and protein intakes are vital for modulating training adaptation, recovery, and exercise performance. However, the research base underpinning contemporary sport nutrition guidelines has largely been conducted in male populations with a lack of consensus on whether the menstrual phase and associated changes in sex hormones allow broad application of these principles to female athletes. The present review will summarise our current understanding of carbohydrate and protein requirements in female athletes across the menstrual cycle and provide a critical analysis on how they compare to male athletes. Read More

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Evaluating the effects of oral contraceptive use on biomarkers and body composition during a competitive season in collegiate female soccer players.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 Jun 6;130(6):1971-1982. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Exercise Science, grid.254567.7University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.

High training demands throughout the competitive season in female collegiate soccer players have been shown to induce changes in biomarkers indicative of stress, inflammation, and reproduction, which may be exacerbated in athletes using oral contraceptives (OCs). This study aimed to compare biomarkers and body composition between OC-using and nonusing (CON) female soccer players throughout a competitive season. Female collegiate soccer players were stratified into two groups based on their reported OC use at the start of preseason (OC: = 6; CON: = 17). Read More

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The association of meal glycemic index/load with quantitative and qualitative indicators of sleep: a systematic review.

Minerva Med 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Centre for Intelligent Healthcare, Coventry University, Coventry, UK.

Introduction: We sought to systematically review the association between meal glycemic index or glycemic load and sleep indicators.

Evidence Acquisition: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase were searched up to March 2021. Both observational and clinical trials studies, with both male and female participants of all ages, were included. Read More

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More than a gut feeling: What is the role of the gastrointestinal tract in female athlete health?

Eur J Sport Sci 2021 May 20:1-10. Epub 2021 May 20.

Sport Ireland Institute, Dublin, Ireland.

As with much of science, the female athlete is under researched, particularly in the area of gastrointestinal (GI) physiology. Gut function is of pivotal importance to athletes in that it supports digestion and absorption of nutrients, as well as providing a barrier between the external environment and the circulation. While sex-derived differences in GI structure and function have been well characterised at rest, there remains a paucity of data examining this during exercise. Read More

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Red Clover Isoflavones Influence Estradiol Concentration, Exercise Performance, and Gut Microbiota in Female Mice.

Front Nutr 2021 14;8:623698. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, College of Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

In red clover ( L.; RC) the main compound is isoflavones, which are selective estrogen receptor modulators for maintaining female health. Isoflavones exert antifatigue effects during exercise in high-temperature environments. Read More

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Discriminant Analysis of Anthropometric and Training Variables among Runners of Different Competitive Levels.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 16;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), São Cristóvão 49100-000, Brazil.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the multivariate profile of different types of Brazilian runners and to identify the discriminant pattern of the distinct types of runners, as a runners' ability to self-classify well. The sample comprised 1235 Brazilian runners of both sexes (492 women; 743 men), with a mean age of 37.94 ± 9. Read More

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Nutrition for Older Athletes: Focus on Sex-Differences.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 22;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

Regular physical exercise and a healthy diet are major determinants of a healthy lifespan. Although aging is associated with declining endurance performance and muscle function, these components can favorably be modified by regular physical activity and especially by exercise training at all ages in both sexes. In addition, age-related changes in body composition and metabolism, which affect even highly trained masters athletes, can in part be compensated for by higher exercise metabolic efficiency in active individuals. Read More

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The Sleep and Recovery Practices of Athletes.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 17;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Northumbria Centre for Sleep Research, Northumbria University, Newcastle NE7 7XA, UK.

Background: Athletes maintain a balance between stress and recovery and adopt recovery modalities that manage fatigue and enhance recovery and performance. Optimal TST is subject to individual variance. However, 7-9 h sleep is recommended for adults, while elite athletes may require more quality sleep than non-athletes. Read More

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How Does the Dietary Intake of Female Field-Based Team Sport Athletes Compare to Dietary Recommendations for Health and Performance? A Systematic Literature Review.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 9;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Athlone Institute of Technology, N37 HD68 Athlone, Ireland.

Field-based team sports present large energetic demands given their intermittent high-intensity nature. Current evidence suggests that the dietary intake of female athletes may be insufficient to meet such demands, resulting in negative consequences for athletic performance and health. The primary aim of this review was to therefore assess the adequacy of dietary intake of female field-based team sport athletes when compared to dietary recommendations. Read More

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Comparison of Energy Expenditure Observed between Scheduled Activities in Collegiate Team-Sport Female Athletes.

Sports (Basel) 2021 Apr 2;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Exercise and Performance Nutrition Laboratory, School of Health Sciences, Lindenwood University, 209 S. Kingshighway, St. Charles, MO 63301, USA.

Energy needs of female team-sport athletes are poorly understood with no evidence highlighting differences present between scheduled activities. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in energy expenditure between NCAA Division II female basketball (BBALL) and lacrosse (LAX) athletes during different scheduled team activities. Female BBALL ( = 13; 19. Read More

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Sex-based limits to running speed in the human, horse and dog: The role of sexual dimorphisms.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21562

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Elite performing men continue to record faster record times in running events compared to women. These sex-based differences in running speed and endurance in humans are expected based on sexual dimorphisms that contribute to differences in the determinants of aerobic performance. Comparatively, the sexual dimorphisms contributing to sex-based differences in elite aerobic performance are not ubiquitous across other species that compete in running events. Read More

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The relationship between the female athlete triad and injury rates in collegiate female athletes.

PeerJ 2021 6;9:e11092. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Athlete Support Research Center, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, Japan, Niigata, Niigata, Japan.

Background: This study aimed to clarify the relationship between the triad risk assessment score and the sports injury rate in 116 female college athletes (average age, 19.8 ± 1.3 years) in seven sports at the national level of competition; 67 were teenagers, and 49 were in their 20s. Read More

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Prospective associations between physical activity and BMI with irregular periods and heavy menstrual bleeding in a large cohort of Australian women.

Hum Reprod 2021 05;36(6):1481-1491

Centre for Research on Exercise, Physical Activity and Health, School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane St Lucia, QLD, Australia.

Study Question: Are physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) associated with irregular periods and heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in Australian women?

Summary Answer: Overweight and obese women have higher odds of both irregular periods and HMB than underweight/normal-weight women, but high levels of PA reduce the odds of HMB.

What Is Known Already: Most studies on relationships between PA and menstrual problems have focused on female athletes, but there have been few population-based studies.

Study Design, Size, Duration: Prospective cohort study, 10618 participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH) who completed mailed surveys in 1996, with follow-ups in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, 2012, and 2015. Read More

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