438,402 results match your criteria Nutrition and Cancer[Journal]


Association between Dietary Glycemic Index and Excess Weight in Pregnant Women in the First Trimester of Pregnancy.

Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Group of Research in Nutrition and Chronic Diseases, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.

Objective:  To assess the association between dietary glycemic index (GI) and excess weight in pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy.

Methods:  A cross-sectional study in a sample of 217 pregnant women was conducted at the maternal-fetal outpatient clinic of the Hospital Geral de Fortaleza, Fortaleza, state of Ceará, Brazil, for routine ultrasound examinations in the period between 11 and 13 weeks + 6 days of gestation. Weight and height were measured and the gestational body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Pancreatic Islet Transplantation in Humans: Recent Progress and Future Directions.

Endocr Rev 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA.

Pancreatic islet transplantation has become an established approach to β-cell replacement therapy for the treatment of insulin deficient diabetes. Recent progress in techniques for islet isolation, islet culture, and peri-transplant management of the islet transplant recipient have resulted in substantial improvements in metabolic and safety outcomes for patients. For patients requiring total or sub-total pancreatectomy for benign disease of the pancreas, isolation of islets from the diseased pancreas with intrahepatic transplantation of autologous islets can prevent or ameliorate post-surgical diabetes, and for patients previously experiencing painful recurrent acute or chronic pancreatitis, quality-of-life is substantially improved. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Expression of GHR and downstream signaling genes in human adipose tissue - relation to obesity and weight-change.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Context: Growth hormone (GH) is a strong regulator of metabolism. In obesity, both GH secretion and adipose tissue GHR gene expression are decreased. More detailed information on the regulation of GHR, STAT3/5 and downstream-regulated genes in human adipose tissue during diet-induced weight loss and weight gain is lacking. Read More

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December 2018

Diurnal distribution of carbohydrates and fat affects substrate oxidation and adipokine secretion in humans.

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Dec;108(6):1209-1219

Departments of Clinical Nutrition.

Background: A diet in which fat is mainly eaten in the morning and carbohydrates mainly in the evening (compared with the reverse order) was recently shown to worsen glycemic control in people with prediabetes.

Objective: We investigated the effects of these dietary patterns on energy metabolism, and on the daily profiles of circulating lipids, adipokines, and inflammatory markers.

Design: In a randomized controlled crossover trial, 29 nonobese men (with normal glucose tolerance, n = 18; or impaired fasting glucose/glucose tolerance, n = 11) underwent 2 isocaloric 4-wk diets: 1) carbohydrate-rich meals until 1330 and fat-rich meals between 1630 and 2200 (HC/HF); or 2) the inverse sequence of meals (HF/HC). Read More

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December 2018

Periconceptional intake of folic acid among low-risk women in Canada: summary of a workshop aiming to align prenatal folic acid supplement composition with current expert guidelines.

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Dec;108(6):1357-1368

School of Nutrition Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

The Government of Canada and the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada both recommend a daily multivitamin supplement containing 400 µg folic acid (FA) for the primary prevention of neural tube defects among low-risk women from before conception and throughout lactation. Prenatal supplements marketed and prescribed in Canada typically exceed the recommended dose, usually providing ≥1000 µg FA/d. This high daily dose, coupled with staple-food FA fortification, has resulted in the observation of very high blood folate concentrations among reproductive-aged women consuming FA-containing supplements. Read More

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December 2018

Validated screening tools for the assessment of cachexia, sarcopenia, and malnutrition: a systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Dec;108(6):1196-1208

Clinical Surgery, University of Edinburgh, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Background: There is great overlap between the presentation of cachexia, sarcopenia, and malnutrition. Distinguishing between these conditions would allow for better targeted treatment for patients.

Objectives: The aim was to systematically review validated screening tools for cachexia, sarcopenia, and malnutrition in adults and, if a combined tool is absent, make suggestions for the generation of a novel screening tool. Read More

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December 2018
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The malnutrition overlap syndromes of cachexia and sarcopenia: a malnutrition conundrum.

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Dec;108(6):1157-1158

Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, and Theme Aging, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

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December 2018

Personalized magnesium intervention to improve vitamin D metabolism: applying a systems approach for precision nutrition in large randomized trials of diverse populations.

Authors:
Simin Liu Qing Liu

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Dec;108(6):1159-1161

Departments of Epidemiology, Medicine, and Surgery, and Center for Global Cardiometabolic Health, Brown University, Providence, RI.

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December 2018

A 12-wk whole-grain wheat intervention protects against hepatic fat: the Graandioos study, a randomized trial in overweight subjects.

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Dec;108(6):1264-1274

Wageningen University, Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Whole-grain wheat (WGW) is described as nutritionally superior to refined wheat (RW) and thus advocated as the healthy choice, although evidence from intervention studies is often inconsistent. The liver, as the central organ in energy metabolism, might be an important target organ for WGW interventions.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefits of WGW consumption compared with RW consumption on liver health and associated parameters. Read More

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December 2018

Effect of losartan and fish oil on plasma IL-6 and mobility in older persons. The ENRGISE Pilot randomized clinical trial.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Biostatistics and Data Science, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

Background: Low-grade chronic inflammation, characterized by elevations in plasma Interleukin-6 (IL-6), is an independent risk factor of impaired mobility in older persons. Angiotensin receptor blockers and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) may reduce IL-6 and may potentially improve physical function. To assess the main effects of the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan and ω-3 as fish oil on IL-6 and 400 m walking speed, we conducted the ENRGISE Pilot multicenter randomized clinical trial. Read More

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December 2018
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Agnostic Pathway/Gene Set Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Data Identifies Associations for Pancreatic Cancer.

Authors:
Naomi Walsh Han Zhang Paula L Hyland Qi Yang Evelina Mocci Mingfeng Zhang Erica J Childs Irene Collins Zhaoming Wang Alan A Arslan Laura Beane-Freeman Paige M Bracci Paul Brennan Federico Canzian Eric J Duell Steven Gallinger Graham G Giles Michael Goggins Gary E Goodman Phyllis J Goodman Rayjean J Hung Charles Kooperberg Robert C Kurtz Núria Malats Loic LeMarchand Rachel E Neale Sara H Olson Ghislaine Scelo Xiao O Shu Stephen K Van Den Eeden Kala Visvanathan Emily White Wei Zheng Demetrius Albanes Gabriella Andreotti Ana Babic William R Bamlet Sonja I Berndt Ayelet Borgida Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault Lauren Brais Paul Brennan Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita Julie Buring Kari G Chaffee Stephen Chanock Sean Cleary Michelle Cotterchio Lenka Foretova Charles Fuchs J Michael M Gaziano Edward Giovannucci Michael Goggins Thilo Hackert Christopher Haiman Patricia Hartge Manal Hasan Kathy J Helzlsouer Joseph Herman Ivana Holcatova Elizabeth A Holly Robert Hoover Rayjean J Hung Vladimir Janout Eric A Klein Robert C Kurtz Daniel Laheru I-Min Lee Lingeng Lu Núria Malats Satu Mannisto Roger L Milne Ann L Oberg Irene Orlow Alpa V Patel Ulrike Peters Miquel Porta Francisco X Real Nathaniel Rothman Howard D Sesso Gianluca Severi Debra Silverman Oliver Strobel Malin Sund Mark D Thornquist Geoffrey S Tobias Jean Wactawski-Wende Nick Wareham Elisabete Weiderpass Nicolas Wentzensen William Wheeler Herbert Yu Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte Peter Kraft Donghui Li Eric J Jacobs Gloria M Petersen Brian M Wolpin Harvey A Risch Laufey T Amundadottir Kai Yu Alison P Klein Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon

J Natl Cancer Inst 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify associations of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with cancer risk but usually only explain a fraction of the inherited variability. Pathway analysis of genetic variants is a powerful tool to identify networks of susceptibility genes.

Methods: We conducted a large agnostic pathway-based meta-analysis of GWAS data using the summary-based adaptive rank truncated product method to identify gene sets and pathways associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in 9040 cases and 12 496 controls. Read More

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December 2018

Effect modification of FADS2 polymorphisms on the association between breastfeeding and intelligence: results from a collaborative meta-analysis.

Int J Epidemiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Population Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that breastfeeding benefits children's intelligence, possibly due to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) present in breast milk. Under a nutritional adequacy hypothesis, an interaction between breastfeeding and genetic variants associated with endogenous LC-PUFAs synthesis might be expected. However, the literature on this topic is controversial. Read More

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December 2018
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Management of paediatric patients with medically-refractory Crohn's disease using Ustekinumab: A multi-centred cohort study.

J Crohns Colitis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Gastroenterology, Montreal Children's Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Ustekinumab (UST) is effective in the treatment of adults with moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD). There is a paucity of data on its use in children.

Aim: To evaluate the response to UST in children with moderate to severe CD. Read More

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December 2018
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Redefining the practical utility of blood transcriptome biomarkers in inflammatory bowel diseases.

J Crohns Colitis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Genetics, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute - Oncology Centre, Warsaw, Poland.

Background And Aims: The study investigates the practical utility of whole blood gene expression profiling to diagnose inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs).

Methods: The discovery cohorts included 102 and 51 pediatric IBD patients and controls, and 95 and 46 adult IBD patients and controls, respectively. The replication cohorts included 447 and 76 pediatric IBD patients and controls, and 271 and 108 adult IBD patients and controls, respectively. Read More

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December 2018
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Mucosal healing and bacterial composition in response to enteral nutrition versus steroid based induction therapy - a randomized prospective clinical trial in children with Crohn's disease.

J Crohns Colitis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, APHP.

Exclusive Enteral Nutrition (EEN) is as efficacious as corticosteroids (CS) to induce remission in Crohn's disease (CD), without their adverse effects. EEN seems to be more efficient than steroids to induce mucosal healing, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are only sparsely understood. We aimed in the present work to study the anti-inflammatory effects of EEN with Modulen IBD® versus CS in active pediatric CD and to assess its modulatory effects on the intestinal microbiota as compared to steroids. Read More

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December 2018

Influence of Nutritional Management and Rehabilitation on Physical Outcome in Japanese Intensive Care Unit Patients: A Multicenter Observational Study.

Ann Nutr Metab 2018 Dec 12;74(1):35-43. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan.

Background: There is lack of evidence regarding nutritional management among intensive care unit (ICU) patients in a population with relatively low body mass index. Therefore, we conducted an observational study to assess the nutritional management in Japanese ICUs. Also, we investigated the impact of nutritional management and rehabilitation on physical outcome. Read More

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December 2018

Association of Circulating Adipsin, Visfatin, and Adiponectin with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Adults: A Case-Control Study.

Ann Nutr Metab 2018 Dec 12;74(1):44-52. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou,

Background/aims: Some adipokines, such as adiponectin and leptin, have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), while the association of adipsin and visfatin with NAFLD still remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the association of circulating adipsin, visfatin, and adiponectin with NAFLD in Chinese adults.

Methods: We recruited a total of 211 eligible subjects, including 100 NAFLD cases and 111 age and sex frequency-matched controls. Read More

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December 2018
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Additional Effect of Perioperative, Compared with Preoperative, Immunonutrition After Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

Int J Surg 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

From the Department of General Surgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, Chiba, 260-0856, Japan.

Background: We have reported that perioperative and preoperative immunonutrition reduced infectious complications in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy; however, it is unclear whether perioperative immunonutrition has additional effects compared with preoperative immunonutrition. The present study evaluated whether perioperative, compared with preoperative, immunonutrition has additional effects on cell-mediated immunity and the infection rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

Materials And Methods: This was a prospective, randomized clinical trial conducted in our institution. Read More

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December 2018

[Aspects of nutrition therapy of an infant with central nervous system tumour].

Magy Onkol 2018 Dec 22;62(4):237-241. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

II. Sz. Gyermekgyógyászati Klinika, Semmelweis Egyetem, Budapest, Hungary.

The atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour (ATRT) is a rare type of central nervous system tumour appearing usually under 2 years of age. The survival of patients is insufficient despite the combined treatment (neurosurgical removal, intensive chemo- and radiotherapy). ATRT recurs one year after completion of treatment in 60% of cases. Read More

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December 2018

Impacts and interactions of organic compounds with chlorine sanitizer in recirculated and reused produce processing water.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208945. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Environmental Microbiology and Food Safety Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland, United States of America.

Water conservation and economics dictate that fresh produce processors reuse/recirculate the process water. However, the ensuing accumulation of organic matter in water depletes the chlorine sanitizer required for food safety. In this study, we comprehensively investigated chemical compounds that are responsible for water quality in relation to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and chlorine demand (CLD), the two most critical factors associated with water treatment and chlorine replenishment. Read More

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December 2018
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Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) among candidates for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery: Emphasis to possible beneficial role of TAC on serum vitamin D.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208806. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Research, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aims: Recently, the clinical importance of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and its protective role against several chronic diseases like cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and several types of cancers has been reported. However, its association with cardio-metabolic risk factors among patients candidate for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) has not been evaluated yet. CABG is associated with increased oxidative stress and free radicals; so, the current study was aimed to evaluate the potential association of TAC with cardiovascular risk factors among patients candidate for CABG. Read More

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December 2018
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Cardiovascular disease risk in patients with hepatitis C infection: Results from two general population health surveys in Canada and the United States (2007-2017).

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208839. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is controversial. The objective of the present study is to estimate the 10-year risk of CVD in HCV- positive subjects and describe their profile of cardiometabolic risk markers compared to HCV-negative subjects. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate 10-year CVD risk, calculated using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), in participants from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS; 2007-2015, n = 10,115) and the US-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; 2007-2016, n = 16,668). Read More

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December 2018
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Chitosan-based nanodelivery systems applied to the development of novel triclabendazole formulations.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207625. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology (IBBP), Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany.

Triclabendazole is a poorly-water soluble (0.24 μg/mL) compound classified into the Class II/IV of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System. It is the drug of choice to treat fascioliasis, a neglected parasitic disease worldwide disseminated. Read More

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December 2018
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Lower circulating levels of CTRP12 and CTRP13 in polycystic ovarian syndrome: Irrespective of obesity.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208059. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Altered production of adipokines is suggested to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRPs) play diverse roles in regulation of metabolism in physiologic and pathologic conditions. In the present study, we assessed serum concentrations of adiponectin, CTRP12, and CTRP13 in individuals with PCOS and those without PCOS. Read More

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December 2018

Validation of a single factor representing the indicators of metabolic syndrome as a continuous measure of metabolic load and its association with health and cognitive function.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208231. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Lipid Clinic at the Interdisciplinary Metabolism Center, Berlin, Germany.

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease associated with reduced physical fitness, higher disease burden, and impaired cognitive functions. Little is known about the operation of these risk factors in older adults when considered comprehensively without relying on the cut-off values of the single MetS components. The three main aims of the current study were to: (i) establish a latent metabolic load factor (MetL), using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and representing a continuous measure of MetL, defined by indicators that are commonly used to separate MetS groups from healthy individuals; (ii) examine the associations of this MetL factor with objective health, and cognitive function in men and women; (iii) compare the magnitude of these associations to those observed for the individual indicators used to define the MetL factor as well to the classical categorized MetS vs. Read More

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December 2018

Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are more prevalent in Canadians of South Asian than European ancestry inhabiting the National Capital Region of Canada.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207429. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Bureau of Nutritional Sciences, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

The US Institute of Medicine defined serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) cut point values of 30 nmol/L and 40 nmol/L were used to assess the vitamin D status of South Asian and European Canadians of self-identified ancestry living in the National Capital Region of Canada. Serum 25OHD values were measured in the spring and fall of 2012 to represent status during the winter and summer months, respectively. A total of 1238 measurements were obtained from 669 participants (49% South Asian ancestry): some participants were measured only once (spring or fall). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Results of the European Retrospective Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Registry (RetroPEER).

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institute of Gastroenterology, Nutrition, and Liver Disease, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Objectives: Recommendations for diagnosing and treating eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) are evolving; however, information on real world clinical practice is lacking. To assess the practices of pediatric gastroenterologists diagnosing and treating EoE and to identify the triggering allergens in European children.

Methods: Retrospective anonymized data were collected from 26 European pediatric gastroenterology centers in 13 countries. Read More

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December 2018

Clinical Management of Pediatric Achalasia: A Survey of Current Practice.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Pediatric Gastroenterology.

Objectives: Pediatric achalasia is a rare neurodegenerative disorder of the esophagus that requires treatment. Different diagnostic and treatment modalities are available, but there are no data that show how children can best be diagnosed and treated. We aimed to identify current practices regarding the diagnostic and therapeutic approach toward children with achalasia. Read More

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December 2018

Association of Maternal Secretor Status and Human Milk Oligosaccharides With Milk Microbiota: An Observational Pilot Study.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), Valencia, Spain.

Background And Objectives: Breast milk contains several bioactive factors including human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and microbes that shape the infant gut microbiota. HMO profile is determined by secretor status; however, their influence on milk microbiota is still uncovered. This study is aimed to determine the impact of the FUT2 genotype on the milk microbiota during the first month of lactation and the association with HMO. Read More

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December 2018
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Decreased Fecal Bacterial Diversity and Altered Microbiome in Children Colonized With Clostridium difficile.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

Objectives: The gut microbiome is believed to play a role in the susceptibility to and treatment of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). It is, however, unknown whether the gut microbiome is also affected by asymptomatic C difficile colonization. Our study aimed to evaluate the fecal microbiome of children based on C difficile colonization, and CDI risk factors, including antibiotic use and comorbid inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Read More

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December 2018

Esophageal IgG4: Clinical, Endoscopic, and Histologic Correlations in Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition.

Objective: Recent studies show increased serum and esophageal IgG4 in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), suggesting a possible IgG4-involved process. The role of IgG4 in pediatric EoE has not been extensively investigated. Our aim was to analyze IgG4 in esophageal tissue in children in parallel to that in adults with EoE. Read More

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December 2018
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Social Stress Affects Colonic Inflammation, the Gut Microbiome, and Short Chain Fatty Acid Levels and Receptors.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, The Research Institute, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, United States.

Objectives: Gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), involve disrupted homeostatic interactions between the microbiota and the host. Both disorders are worsened during stress, and in laboratory mice, stress exposure has been shown to change the composition of the gut microbiome. Stress-induced changes to the microbiome exacerbate intestinal inflammation and alter intestinal motility in mice. Read More

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December 2018

The Frequency of Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency in Children With Unexplained Liver Disease.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Faculty of Medicine, Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Atatürk University, Erzurum, Turkey.

Objectives: Evidence suggests that lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) is often underdiagnosed because symptoms may be nonspecific. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of LAL-D in children with unexplained liver disease and to identify demographic and clinical features with a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study.

Methods: Patients (aged 3 months-18 years) who had unexplained transaminase elevation, unexplained hepatomegaly or hepatosplenomegaly, obesity-unrelated liver steatosis, biopsy-proven cryptogenic fibrosis and cirrhosis, or liver transplantation for cryptogenic cirrhosis were enrolled. Read More

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December 2018
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Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection and Other Conditions in Children: A Joint Position Paper From the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Section of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Children's Nutrition and Research Center, Houston, TX.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is becoming part of the treatment algorithms against recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) both in adult and pediatric gastroenterology practice. With our increasing recognition of the critical role the microbiome plays in human health and disease, FMT is also being considered as a potential therapy for other disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis), graft versus host disease, neuropsychiatric diseases, and metabolic syndrome. Controlled trials with FMT for rCDI have not been performed in children, and numerous clinical and regulatory considerations have to be considered when using this untraditional therapy. Read More

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December 2018

Associations between Job-Strain, Physical Activity, Health Status and Sleep Quality Among Swedish Municipality Workers.

J Occup Environ Med 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Faculty of Health Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Netherlands (Leitaru), Department of Health Promotion, School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, Netherlands (Kremers), Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden (Hagberg, Björklund, Kwak).

Objective: To examine the associations between work-stress and physical activity (PA) with sleep quality while controlling for covariates, including social support.

Methods: A cross-sectional study among employees of a municipality (n = 2765). Data from respondents (n = 1973) with good/poor sleep quality were included. Read More

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December 2018

Voluntary wheel running reveals sex specific nociceptive factors in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Pain 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2E1.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, neurodegenerative autoimmune disease associated with sensory and motor dysfunction. Although estimates vary, ∼50% of patients with MS experience pain during their disease. The mechanisms underlying the development of pain are not fully understood and no effective treatment for MS related pain is available. Read More

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December 2018

Poor Oral Health and Blood Pressure Control Among US Hypertensive Adults: Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2014

Hypertension 2018 10 22;72(6):1365–1373. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of Life, Health, and Environmental Sciences, San Salvatore Hospital, University of L’Aquila, Italy

Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the tissues surrounding the teeth, with evidence of systemic effects. Some studies showed the benefit of periodontal therapy on blood pressure (BP), but the impact of periodontitis on BP control is unknown. We retrospectively analyzed cross-sectional, nationally representative data from treated hypertensive adults aged ≥30 years with and without periodontitis. Read More

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October 2018

Stature, Body Mass, and Body Mass Index in High School American Football Players: Appropriate Determinants of Obesity Prevalence?

J Strength Cond Res 2018 Nov;32(11):3119-3126

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE.

Mendez, AI, Miramonti, AA, Gillen, ZM, McKay, BD, Leutzinger, TJ, and Cramer, JT. Stature, body mass, and BMI in high school american football players: Appropriate determinants of obesity prevalence? J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3119-3126, 2018-The purpose of this study was to evaluate stature (HT), mass (BM), body mass index (BMI), and obesity prevalence based on BMI categories in a large sample (n = 7,175) of high school American football players enrolled as freshmen, sophomores, or juniors. Players were categorized by their positions: offensive linemen (OLs), defensive linemen (DLs), tight end, defensive end, linebacker, running back, quarterback, defensive back, and wide receiver. Read More

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November 2018

Evaluation of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for the detection of mycobacterial species and their potential association with waterborne pathogens.

Authors:
G Aboagye M T Rowe

J Water Health 2018 Dec;16(6):938-946

Food Microbiology Branch, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.

The versatility of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) protocol provides enough grounds for its wide application over an array of microorganisms. This work was designed to evaluate DGGE for the detection and confirmation of mycobacteria and their association, if any, with waterborne pathogens. A total of 76 samples comprising raw untreated water, schmutzdecke, floccules and final treated water obtained from a common water source, and two water treatment works (WTW1 and WTW2), were analysed. Read More

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December 2018

Child Nutrition Programs: Flexibilities for Milk, Whole Grains, and Sodium Requirements. Final rule.

Authors:

Fed Regist 2018 Dec;83(238):63775-91

This final rule will codify, with some extensions, three menu planning flexibilities temporarily established by the interim final rule of the same title published November 30, 2017. First, it will broaden the milk options in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program by allowing local operators to permanently offer flavored, low-fat milk. For consistency across nutrition programs, it will also allow flavored, low-fat milk in the Special Milk Program for Children and in the Child and Adult Care Food Program for participants ages 6 and older. Read More

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December 2018
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[Contributions of master in international health & nutrition policies alumni to African development.]

Sante Publique 2018 July August;30(4):535-544

Objectives: This study aims to analyze how graduates, coming from low income Francophone countries, of the Master in International Health and Nutrition Policies program at the Senghor University are a new human capital bringing an original contribution to the global development of African communities.

Methods: A secondary analysis of qualitative findings responded to the research question about the evidences of the impact of this new human capital over the community development of countries where the graduates worked. Findings also revealed graduates' potential to contribute to future endeavors in global health. Read More

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December 2018

SOCIOECONOMIC AND NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH SICKLE CELL ANEMIA: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

Rev Paul Pediatr 2018 Oct-Dec;36(4):491-499

Departamento de Pediatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Objective: To describe the socioeconomic and nutritional characteristics of children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia.

Data Sources: The present study is a systematic literature review based on published scientific articles. The searches were carried out using the electronic database of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health- PubMed. Read More

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TARGET, PRESCRIPTION AND INFUSION OF ENTERAL NUTRITIONAL THERAPY OF CRITICAL PATIENTS IN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT.

Arq Gastroenterol 2018 Jul-Sep;55(3):283-289

PUC, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Grupo de Pesquisa: Diagnóstico e Terapia Clínica e Cirúrgica, Campinas, SP, Brasil.

Background: Enteral nutritional therapy (ENT) is the best route for the nutrition of critically ill patients with improved impact on the clinical treatment of such patients.

Objective: To investigate the energy and protein supply of ENT in critically ill in-patients of an Intensive Care Unit (ICU).

Methods: Prospective longitudinal study conducted with 82 critically ill in-patients of an ICU, receiving ENT. Read More

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Evidence on nutritional assessment techniques and parameters used to determine the nutritional status of children and adolescents: systematic review.

Cien Saude Colet 2018 Dec;23(12):4209-4219

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Pediatria e Saúde da Criança, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul. Av. Ipiranga 6690/2º, Partenon. 90610-000 Porto Alegre RS Brasil.

This article aims to review systematically the evidence on nutritional assessment techniques and parameters used to determine the nutritional status of children and adolescents. The literature review and the selection of publications were performed using the Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, Embase, personal files. 17 studies were identified, 7 addressed the anthropometric indices as the main outcome, 7 analyzed the growth and development of children and adolescents through growth curves, and the remainder surveyed body composition. Read More

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December 2018

Health and Food and Nutritional Security Policies: challenges in controlling childhood obesity.

Cien Saude Colet 2018 Dec;23(12):4143-4152

Departamento de Nutrição Social, Faculdade de Nutrição, Universidade Federal Fluminense. R. Mario Santos Braga 30/4º, Centro. 24020-140 Niterói RJ Brasil.

The study analyzed the initiatives of prevention and control of childhood obesity, especially those of Adequate and Healthy Food Promotion (PAAS) which have been part of the policies of the Brazilian federal government for the last 15 years. All documents that feature PAAS initiatives in the food and nutrition security, as well as public health policy fields, were evaluated according to the following criteria: (1) the approach to PAAS initiatives; (2) the aspects of obesitythat they intend to affect and (3) potential interest disputes. The main PAAS initiatives identified are intended to encourage: food and nutrition education; agroecological production systems; family agriculture; food accessibility; healthy environments and regulatory measures. Read More

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December 2018
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Lactose in processed foods: evaluating the availability of information regarding its amount.

Cien Saude Colet 2018 Dec;23(12):4119-4128

Curso de Nutrição e Metabolismo, Departamento de Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo. Ribeirão Preto SP Brasil.

Patients with lactose intolerance, a high prevalence disease, should control the intake of food with lactose to avoid gastrointestinal symptoms. Since tolerance depends on the amount of lactose ingested, it is essential to discuss the availability of the amount of lactose information in processed foods, which is currently not mandatory. The study measured the availability of information on the amount of lactose on the labels of processed food that contained milk or lactose in the ingredient list. Read More

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December 2018
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[Best Practices in School Food and Nutrition Units of a municipality in the state of Rio de Janeiro - Brazil].

Cien Saude Colet 2018 Dec;23(12):4077-4083

Faculdade de Nutrição, Universidade Federal Fluminense. R. Mário Santos Braga 30/4º, Valonguinho. 24020-140 Niterói RJ Brasil.

The scope of this study was to analyze the hygienic-sanitary conditions in nine School Food and Nutrition Units (UANE) of a municipality in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). A Best Practices in School Food Checklist proposed and validated by Stedefeldt et al., containing items scored and grouped into six thematic blocks (BT) was applied. Read More

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December 2018
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Sodium content and food additives in major brands of Brazilian children's foods.

Cien Saude Colet 2018 Dec;23(12):4065-4075

Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Goiás. Av.Universitária Vereador Vagner da Silva Qd 01, Lt 1-A Parque Itatiaia, 74968-755 Aparecida de Goiânia GO Brasil.

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the sodium content and additive usage in packaged food products targeted at Brazilian children. Commercial database and manufactures' websites were used to identify major brands of child-oriented foods. Samples were categorized as "children's foods" (n = 214) and "infant's foods" (n = 86). Read More

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December 2018
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[Challenges facing Food and Nutrition Security in the Amazon: availability and consumption in households with adolescents].

Cien Saude Colet 2018 Dec;23(12):4043-4054

Instituto de Saúde Coletiva, Faculdade de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT). Cuiabá MT Brasil.

Food and nutritional insecurity remains a challenge to the accomplishment of the right to adequate food in the Brazilian scenario. The scope of this study was to analyze the food and nutrition insecurity situation of adolescents both in households and on an individual level. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted with 363 households and 95 adolescents in urban municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon. Read More

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December 2018