634,022 results match your criteria Nuclear medicine and biology[Journal]


Taxifolin Inhibits Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand-Induced Osteoclastogenesis of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages in vitro and Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Bone Loss in vivo.

Pharmacology 2018 Dec 6;103(1-2):101-109. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

It has been reported that taxifolin inhibit osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. In our research, the inhibition effects of taxifolin on the osteoclastogenesis of human bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) as well as the protection effects in lipopolysaccharide-induced bone lysis mouse model have been demonstrated. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Measurement of absolute γ-ray emission probabilities in the decay of Ac in equilibrium with its progeny.

Appl Radiat Isot 2018 Aug 30;144:34-46. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Directorate for Nuclear Safety and Security, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany. Electronic address:

The emission probabilities of γ rays produced in the Ac decay series were determined by high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry of sources with standardised activity. The sources were prepared quantitatively on glass discs by drop deposition of a solution with Ac in radioactive equilibrium with its daughter nuclides. Their activity was measured by a primary standardisation technique based on alpha-particle counting at a defined low solid angle. Read More

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Hybrid colloidal suspensions tailored as gels to remove radioactive bitumen stains.

J Environ Manage 2018 Dec 3;232:660-665. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

CEA, DEN, Univ Montpellier, DE2D, SEAD, Laboratoire des Procédés Supercritiqueset de Décontamination, Marcoule, F-30207Bagnols-sur-Cèze, France. Electronic address:

Vacuumable gels have been developed in the nuclear industry to decontaminate solid surfaces with little or no mechanical operations and without producing any liquid effluents. These gels can be spread on the contaminated surface and rapidly trap the radio-contaminants by sorption after corroding the substrate down to several tens of microns if necessary. The gel then dries and eventually fractures into a non-powdery solid that is easily removable by brushing or vacuum cleaning. Read More

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December 2018

Synergistic Activity of Paclitaxel, Sorafenib, and Radiation Therapy in advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma and Breast Cancer.

Transl Oncol 2018 Dec 3;12(2):381-388. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752, South Korea; Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1, Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-752, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Advanced cancer has been shown to be associated with a higher percentage of epigenetic changes than with genetic mutations. Preclinical models have shown that the combination of paclitaxel, sorafenib, and radiation therapy (RT) plays a crucial role in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and breast cancer. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of mitochondrial cytochrome c-dependent apoptosis in the mechanism of action of a combination of paclitaxel, sorafenib, and RT in RCC and breast cancer. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Proteomic analysis of olfactory bulb suggests CACNA1E as a promoter of CREB signaling in microbiota-induced depression.

J Proteomics 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China; Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China. Electronic address:

Major depressive disorders impact approximately 17% of the population worldwide, whose high morbidity and considerable adversity have resulted in enormous social and economic burden. In addition, clinically depressed patients often show reduced volume of olfactory bulb (OB) and decreased olfactory sensitivity. Although mounting evidence conveyed that the gut microbiota may implicate the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) via the microbe-gut-brain axis, knowledge about its distinctive molecular mechanism is rudimentary. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Ivabradine abrogates TNF-α-induced degradation of articular cartilage matrix.

Int Immunopharmacol 2018 Dec 3;66:347-353. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of orthopedics, Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital of Dalian University, Dalian 116001, China. Electronic address:

Ivabradine is most commonly used for the treatment of worsening cardiac failure in patients who cannot tolerate the maximum dose of β-blockers or in whom treatment with β-blockers is contraindicated. While ivabradine is regarded as a highly selective "funny current" (I) inhibitor, the molecular mechanism behind the effect of this drug remains poorly understood. In the present study, we applied ivabradine in the context of osteoarthritis by treating primary human chondrocytes with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and measuring degradation of the articular cartilage matrix as well as the expression of various enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Characterization of A dextran-budesonide prodrug for inhalation therapy.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, United States of America. Electronic address:

Reducing the dosing frequency of corticosteroids may increase compliance and increase pulmonary targeting. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a high molecular weight dextran-budesonide conjugate might be suitable for pulmonary slow release of the otherwise fast absorbed budesonide. An array of dextran-spacer-budesonide conjugates was prepared that differed in the molecular weight of dextran (20 kDa or 40 kDa) and the length of the dicarboxylic spacer (succinic, glutaric, and adipic anhydride). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Radiochemical synthesis and preclinical evaluation of Ga-labeled NODAGA-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (Ga-NODAGA-HPBCD).

Eur J Pharm Sci 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Debrecen, Nagyerdei St. 98, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary. Electronic address:

A new renaissance started in the research and application of cyclodextrins a few years ago. 2-Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) is used in the formulation of drugs and recently orphan designation was granted for the treatment of Niemann-Pick disease, type C. HPBCD is considered to be safe, but the exact mechanism of action and side effects are not completely explained. Read More

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December 2018

Extracellular FABP4 uptake by endothelial cells is dependent on cytokeratin 1 expression.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Lipids and Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Institut d'Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili (IISPV), Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain. Electronic address:

Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the physical and functional interplay between fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) and its membrane receptor-like candidate protein, cytokeratin 1 (CK1), and to determine the effect of hindering CK1-mediated FABP4 cellular uptake on non-disturbed or metabolically stressed endothelial cells.

Methods: We monitored the direct interaction between FABP4 and CK1 using surface plasmon resonance, and the effects of blocking exogenous FABP4 (eFABP4) cellular uptake were determined by using specific siRNA to knock down the expression of CK1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The expression and nuclear translocation of transcription factors involved in oxidative stress (NRF2) and inflammation (p65 subunit of NF-ĸB transcription factor) were determined by Western blotting analysis. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Anticoagulant activity of two novel polysaccharides from flowers of Apocynum venetum L.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

National Center for Research and Development of Edible Fungus Processing Technology, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Food & Medicine Resource Function, Henan Province, Kaifeng 475004, China. Electronic address:

Two novel polysaccharides were obtained from flowers of Apocynum venetum L., and named as Vp2a-II and Vp3. Their average molecular weights were 7 kDa and 9 kDa, respectively. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Ammonium persulphate induced synthesis of polymethyl methacrylate grafted sodium alginate composite films with high strength for food packaging.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

State Key Laboratory of Bio-Fibers and Eco-Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, PR China; College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, PR China. Electronic address:

The graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto alginate was carried out in aqueous media by initiators of ammonium persulphate under a nitrogen gas atmosphere. Then, the grafting of PMMA chains onto the alginate backbone was confirmed through the study of Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At last, a thin and transparent polymethyl methacrylate grafted alginate film with high strength was obtained by the casting method. Read More

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December 2018
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Radiation-mediated molecular weight reduction and structural modification in carrageenan potentiates improved photosynthesis and secondary metabolism in peppermint (Mentha piperita L.).

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India.

In an attempt to gain insights into the possible relationship between the irradiation-mediated molecular weight reduction and structural modification and the growth-promotion activity, characterization of the polysaccharide before and after irradiation was carried out through Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies. Moreover, graded concentrations of irradiated carrageenan (IC) were applied through foliage to assess the performance of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). Read More

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December 2018
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Small Heterodimer Partner and Fibroblast Growth Factor 19 Inhibit Expression of NPC1L1 in Mouse Intestine and Cholesterol Absorption.

Gastroenterology 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The nuclear receptor subfamily 0 group B member 2 (NR0B2, also called SHP) is expressed at high levels in liver and intestine. Postprandial fibroblast growth factor 19 (human FGF19, mouse FGF15) signaling increases the transcriptional activity of SHP. We studied the functions of SHP and FGF19 in intestines of mice, including their regulation of expression of the cholesterol transporter NPC1-like intracellular cholesterol transporter 1 (NPC1L1) and cholesterol absorption. Read More

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December 2018
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Cabazitaxel and Thymoquinone co-loaded Lipospheres as a Synergistic Combination for Breast Cancer.

Chem Phys Lipids 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (NIPER), Hyderabad, 500037, India. Electronic address:

Cabazitaxel as microtubule inhibitor and thymoquinone as HDAC inhibitor affects the important genes like p53, STAT3, Bax, BCL-2, p21 and down regulation of NF-κB are reported for potential activity against breast tumors. However, poor aqueous solubility and permeability hinders the delivery of these drugs to target site. To address the delivery challenges cabazitaxel and thymoquinone co-loaded lipospheres were developed. Read More

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December 2018

Factors of local recurrence and organ preservation with transoral laser microsurgery in laryngeal carcinomas; CHAID decision-tree analysis.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Otolaryngology Department, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Indications of transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) are conditioned by the risk of local relapse.

Objective: To evaluate prognostic factors of local relapse and local control with TLM (LC-TLM).

Methods: Local relapse and LC-TLM were evaluated in 1119 patients. Read More

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December 2018

Gene landscape and correlation between B-cell infiltration and programmed death ligand 1 expression in lung adenocarcinoma patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas data set.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208459. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are related to positive clinical prognoses in numerous cancer types. Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), a mediator of the PD-1 receptor, plays an inhibitory role in cancer immune responses. PD-L1 upregulation can impede infiltrating T-cell functions in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), a lung cancer subtype. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Effects of turbulent aggregation on clay floc breakup and implications for the oceanic environment.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0207809. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Remote Sensing Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington D.C., United States of America.

Understanding how turbulence impacts marine floc formation and breakup is key to predicting particulate carbon transport in the ocean. While floc formation and sinking rate has been studied in the laboratory and in-situ, the breakup response to turbulence has attracted less attention. To address this problem, the breakup response of bentonite clay particles flocculated in salt water was studied experimentally. Read More

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December 2018

Doping in sport - attitude and professional experience among physicians in Poland.

Folia Med Cracov 2018 ;58(3):35-47

Department of Food Chemistry and Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmacy Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków; Henryk Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Science, Kraków, Poland.

Introduction: The history of using performance-enhancing substances (PES) is long and it goes back to ancient times. At present, PES are employed at all levels of sport competition, starting from Olympic level contestants to individuals recreationally involved in various sports disciplines.

Purpose: e objective of the study was examining the views on doping in sports in a group of physicians, together with evaluating the frequency of their contacts with this phenomenon, in their professional activities. Read More

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January 2018

Effect of positive carbon-11-choline PET/CT results in the therapeutic management of prostate cancer biochemical relapse.

Nucl Med Commun 2019 Jan;40(1):79-85

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital, Molecular Imaging Group (IDIVAL), University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.

Objective: Carbon-11-(C)-choline PET/computed tomography (CT) has shown good results in re-staging of prostate cancer (PCa) with raised serum levels of prostate-specific antigen. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of positive C-choline PET/CT results in the therapeutic management of patients with PCa with biochemical relapse (BR) after curative intention treatment.

Patients And Methods: A total of 112 patients with PCa BR and positive C-choline PET/CT were retrospectively evaluated. Read More

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January 2019

ATF2 promotes urothelial cancer outgrowth via cooperation with androgen receptor signaling.

Endocr Connect 2018 Dec;7(12):1397-1408

Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA.

We investigated the functional role of ATF2, a transcription factor normally activated via its phosphorylation in response to phospho-ERK/MAPK signals, in the outgrowth of urothelial cancer. In both neoplastic and non-neoplastic urothelial cells, the expression levels of androgen receptor (AR) correlated with those of phospho-ATF2. Dihydrotestosterone treatment in AR-positive bladder cancer cells also induced the expression of phospho-ATF2 and phospho-ERK as well as nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity of ATF2. Read More

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December 2018

Global Tudor-SN transgenic mice are protected from obesity-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance.

FASEB J 2018 Dec 6:fj201801253RR. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Key Laboratory of Immune Microenvironment and Disease, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

In the current study, we explored the impact of Tudor-staphylococcal nuclease (SN) on obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice, because the functional involvement of Tudor-SN in lipid metabolism in vivo is unknown. HFD-transgenic (Tg) mice exhibited reductions in hepatic steatosis and systemic insulin resistance. There was no difference in hepatic lipid accumulation between chow-fed wild-type (WT) and chow-fed Tg mice; consistently, no difference in activation of the lipogenic pathway was detected. Read More

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December 2018

Catalyst-Free Aromatic Radiofluorination via Oxidized Iodoarene Precursors.

Org Lett 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Nuclear Medicine , Yonsei University College of Medicine , Seoul 03722 , Republic of Korea.

Oxidized iodoarenes (OIAs), prepared via mCPBA-mediated oxidation, have been demonstrated as versatile precursors for the synthesis of [F]fluoroarenes in the absence of catalysts. OIAs have been identified as intermediates in single-pot syntheses of iodonium salts and ylides but have never been recognized as radiofluorination precursors. Here, the isolated OIAs were used without any catalysts to produce functionalized [F]fluoroarenes, regardless of the electronic nature of the arenes. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Supramolecular Polymer Cross-Linked by Discrete Tris-[2]pseudorotaxane Metallacycles and Its Redox-Responsive Behavior.

Inorg Chem 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Processes, School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering , East China Normal University , Shanghai 200062 , P. R. China.

A new discrete hexagonal metallacycle M containing tris-[2]pseudorotaxane moiety has been successfully designed and synthesized via coordination-driven self-assembly. The newly designed tris-[2]pseudorotaxane metallacycle was well characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectra analysis. Such tris-[2]pseudorotaxane metallacycle M and pillar[5]arene dimer (PD) could further form a new family of cross-linked redox-responsive supramolecular polymer M⊃(PD) through a host-guest interaction. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The association between markers of tumor cell metabolism, the tumor microenvironment and outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer.

Int J Cancer 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Unit of Experimental Therapeutics, Institute of Cancer Science, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Tumor cell anaerobic metabolism has been reported to be a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. The present study investigated the association between monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1, MCT 2, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 1 and LDH 5, the tumor microenvironment, and outcome in patients with colorectal cancer. A cohort of 150 patients with stage I-III CRC were utilised to assess tumor cell expression of MCT-1, MCT-2, LDH-1 and LDH5 by immunohistochemistry. Read More

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December 2018

Docosahexaenoic acid promotes cell cycle arrest and decreases proliferation through WNT/β-catenin modulation in colorectal cancer cells exposed to γ-radiation.

Biofactors 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Cellular and Molecular Oncobiology Program, Brazilian National Cancer Institute, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

The effects of radiation are known to be potentiated by N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which modulate several signaling pathways, but the molecular mechanisms through which these fatty acids enhance the anticancer effects of irradiation in colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment remain poorly elucidated. Here, we aimed to ascertain whether the fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) exerts a modulating effect on the response elicited by radiation treatment (RT). Two CRC cell lines, Caco-2 and HT-29, were exposed to RT, DHA, or both (DHA + RT) for various times, and then cell viability, proliferation, and clonogenicity were assessed. Read More

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December 2018

IMAGING URANIUM DISTRIBUTION ON RAT KIDNEY SECTIONS THROUGH DETECTION OF ALPHA TRACKS USING CR-39 PLASTIC NUCLEAR TRACK DETECTOR.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences for Radiation Damages, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Chiba, Japan.

Uranium is renowned as a global contaminant, and attracts major concern with regards to the health risks involved because its nephrotoxicity. This paper discusses the development of a simple method to identify accumulated regions or localized sites of uranium within kidneys using the CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector. To demonstrate the proposed method, renal cryo-sections (5 μm-t) from Wistar male rats, subcutaneously administered with uranyl acetate (2 mg/kg), were prepared on day one after administration. Read More

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December 2018

Inhibition of PTEN activates bovine non-growing follicles in vitro but increases DNA damage and reduces DNA repair response.

Hum Reprod 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute of Cell Biology and Genes and Development Group, CDBS Hugh Robson Building, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Study Question: Does ovarian follicle activation by phosphatase homologue of chromosome-10 (PTEN) inhibition affect DNA damage and repair in bovine oocytes and granulosa cells?

Summary Answer: PTEN inhibition promotes bovine non-growing follicle activation but results in increased DNA damage and impaired DNA repair capacity in ovarian follicles in vitro.

What Is Known Already: Inhibition of PTEN is known to activate primordial follicles but may compromise further developmental potential. In breast cancer cells, PTEN inhibition represses nuclear translocation of breast cancer susceptibility 1 (BRCA1) and Rad51; this impairs DNA repair resulting in an accumulation of damaged DNA, which contributes to cell senescence. Read More

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December 2018

N NQR spectroscopy reveals the proton position in N-HN bonds: a case study with proton sponges.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute "JoŽef Stefan", Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. and Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

The position of protons in hydrogen bonds is often uncertain to some degree, as the technique most often used for structure determination, X-ray diffraction, is sensitive to electron density, which is not particularly abundant around protons. In hydrogen bonds, protons introduce an additional problem: the potential for proton motion is inherently anharmonic and thus requires the consideration of nuclear quantum effects (NQEs). Here, we demonstrate that 14N NQR spectroscopy is able to rather accurately determine proton positions in N-HN bonds, in certain cases with an accuracy comparable to that of X-ray and neutron diffraction at room temperature. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

MDM2 RNA In Situ Hybridization for the Diagnosis of Atypical Lipomatous Tumor: A Study Evaluating DNA, RNA, and Protein Expression.

Am J Surg Pathol 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Departments of Pathology.

The distinction of atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma (ALT/WDL) from its benign counterpart, lipoma, may represent a challenge. MDM2 DNA amplification is used as the gold standard as MDM2 immunohistochemistry lacks specificity and sensitivity. Herein, we investigate the diagnostic utility of MDM2 RNA in situ hybridization (RNA-ISH) and compare the test with MDM2 immunohistochemistry and MDM2 DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in benign and malignant lipomatous neoplasms. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Activation of GPR120 promotes the metastasis of breast cancer through the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway.

Anticancer Drugs 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210029, China.

G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) plays an important role in regulating lipid and glucose metabolism as a long-chain unsaturated fatty acid receptor. However, it has been widely accepted that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are not dependent on the activation of GPR120 to exert anti-tumor activity. Therefore, the role of GPR120 in tumor development has not yet been elucidated. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Energy intake, gastrointestinal transit and gut hormone release in response to oral triglycerides and fatty acids in severely obese and non-obese men.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hvidovre University Hospital.

Dietary fat, and particularly fatty acids from hydrolyzed triglycerides, reduce appetite, whereas, paradoxically, a high-fat diet leads to excess calorie intake and weight gain. We therefore hypothesized that the appetite-regulating effects of dietary fat is perturbed in obesity. Ten men with severe obesity (median BMI 51. Read More

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December 2018

Interhemispheric anatomical disconnection in disorders of consciousness patients.

J Neurotrauma 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico "Carlo Besta", Neuroradiology department, Milano, Italy ;

In disorder of consciousness (DOC) patients, corpus callosum (CC) and subcortical white matter (SWM) integrity were showed to discriminate between diagnostic categories. The aims of the study were: 1) to clarify the link between the integrity of CC and of SWM and the clinical status in DOC patients, disentangling the role played by the different brain injuries (traumatic or hemorrhagic brain injury); 2) to investigate the relationship between the CC integrity and the brain metabolism. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the CC and SWM integrity, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), in a sample of DOC individuals, well-balanced for diagnosis and etiology. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Cloning, function, and localization of human, canine and Drosophila Zip10 (Slc39a10), a Zn transporter.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Physiology & Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, United States.

Zinc (Zn) is the second most abundant trace element, but is considered a micronutrient as it is a cofactor for many enzymes and transcription factors. While Zn deficiency can cause cognitive immune or metabolic dysfunction and infertility, excess Zn is nephrotoxic. As for other ions and solutes, Zn is moved into and out of cells by specific membrane transporters: ZnT, Zip, and NRAMP/DMT proteins. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Elucidating the multiple structures of pipecolic acid by rotational spectroscopy.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Grupo de Espectrocopía Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Parque Científico UVa, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011, Valladolid, Spain.

The complex conformational space of the non-proteinogenic cyclic amino acid pipecolic acid has been explored in the gas phase for the first time. Solid pipecolic acid samples were vaporized by laser ablation and expanded in a supersonic jet where the rotational spectral signatures owing to nine different conformers were observed by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. All species were identified by comparison of the experimental rotational and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants with those predicted theoretically. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Development of bismuth-functionalized graphene oxide to remove radioactive iodine.

Dalton Trans 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering (DANE), Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), 77 Chongam-ro, Nam-Gu, Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea.

Bismuth-functionalized graphene oxide (Bi-GO) was successfully synthesized and showed both high iodide and iodate removal efficiencies from radioactive wastewater. Batch experiments for kinetic and selectivity tests were performed, respectively. Additional SEM, XRD, FT-IR, and XPS analyses were performed for characterization of a sorbent and bismuth on the GO surface and this confirmed that bismuth on the GO surface reacted with iodine species by surface complexation (or precipitation). Read More

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December 2018

Fingerprint pattern of bone mineralisation on cemented and uncemented femoral stems: analysis by [18F]-fluoride-PET in a randomised clinical trial.

Hip Int 2018 Dec 6:1120700018815404. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

4 Depaetment of Orthopaedics, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.

Purpose:: We present a randomised clinical study using 18F-fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-PET/CT) to analyse the osteoblastic part of bone metabolism (new bone mineralisation) in periprosthetic bone adjacent to femoral stems following total hip arthoplasty (THA) surgery. Patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to THA surgery with cemented or uncemented femoral components.

Patients And Methods:: THA was performed on 26 patients (26 cases) with hip osteoarthritis. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Differences in blood pressure among ethnicities presenting for catecholamine-secreting tumor evaluation.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

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December 2018

The role of BRCA1-associated protein 1 in the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma in effusion and fine-needle aspiration cytology.

Diagn Cytopathol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York.

Background: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a diagnostically challenging entity in cytology specimens due to the lack of architectural context and a cytomorphologic overlap between malignant and reactive mesothelial cells (RMCs). A diagnostic marker with excellent specificity is not currently available in clinical practice. The newly appreciated BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) antibody may help distinguish MM from RMC based on its immunohistochemical (IHC) staining pattern but its role in cytopathology is controversial. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Nuclear compartmentalization, dynamics and function of regulatory DNA sequences.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Biocenter, Department Biology II, Ludwig Maximilians-Universität (LMU Munich), Martinsried, Germany.

Transcription regulatory elements (TREs) have been extensively studied on the biochemical level with respect to their interactions with transcription factors, other DNA segments and larger protein complexes. In this review we describe concepts and preliminary experimental evidence for positional changes of TREs within a dynamic, functional nuclear architecture. We suggest a multi-layered shell-like chromatin organization of chromatin domain clusters with increasing chromatin compaction levels from the periphery toward the interior with a decondensed transcriptionally active peripheral layer and compact repressed chromatin typically located in the interior. Read More

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December 2018

Electronic and nuclear flux analysis on nonadiabatic electron transfer reaction: A view from single-configuration adiabatic born-huang representation.

J Comput Chem 2019 Jan;40(1):148-163

Fukui Institute for Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Sakyou-ku, Kyoto, Japan.

A detailed flux analysis on nonadiabatically coupled electronic and nuclear dynamics in the intramolecular electron transfer of LiF is presented. Full quantum dynamics both of electrons and nuclei within two-state model has uncovered interesting features of the individual fluxes (current of probability density) and correlation between them. In particular, a spatiotemporal oscillatory pattern of electronic flux has been revealed, which reflects the coherence coming from spatiotemporal differential overlap between nuclear wavepackets running on covalent and ionic potential curves. Read More

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January 2019

Ex vivo treatment of prostate tumor tissue recapitulates in vivo therapy response.

Prostate 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: In vitro models of prostate cancer (PCa) are not always reliable to evaluate anticancer treatment efficacy. This limitation may be overcome by using viable tumor slice material. Here we report on the establishment of an optimized ex vivo method to culture tissue slices from patient-derived xenografts (PDX) of prostate cancer (PCa), to assess responses to PCa treatments. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) Activation is Essential for Termination of Liver Regeneration.

Hepatology 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics.

Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) is critical for hepatic differentiation. Recent studies have highlighted its role in inhibition of hepatocyte proliferation and tumor suppression. However, the role of HNF4α in liver regeneration is not known. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Metformin inhibits pro-inflammatory responses via targeting nuclear factor-κB in HaCaT cells.

Cell Biochem Funct 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Dermatology, Chinese PLA General Hospital & Medical School, Beijing, China.

Psoriasis is a prevalent, chronic inflammatory skin disease that arises from rapid and excessive growth of keratinocytes induced by abnormal inflammatory responses. Metformin is the first-line drug in type 2 diabetes and has been proven to possess significant anti-inflammatory effects in various diseases. In the present study, we examined the role of metformin in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory responses in HaCaT cells, a cell line for the keratinocyte. Read More

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December 2018
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CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes in cancer immunotherapy: A review.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are preferred immune cells for targeting cancer. During cancer progression, CTLs encounter dysfunction and exhaustion due to immunerelated tolerance and immunosuppression within the tumor microenvironment (TME), with all favor adaptive immune-resistance. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), macrophage type 2 (M2) cells, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) could make immunologic barriers against CD8 T cell-mediated antitumor immune responses. Read More

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November 2018
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Berberis lycium Royle fruit extract mitigates oxi-inflammatory stress by suppressing NF-κB/MAPK signalling cascade in activated macrophages and Treg proliferation in splenic lymphocytes.

Inflammopharmacology 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Pharmacology and Toxicology Lab, Food and Nutraceutical Division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, HP, 176061, India.

Although Berberis plant species have been advocated as immune modulators, information regarding their mechanism(s) of action is limited. Therefore, in the present study we assessed the efficacy of Berberis lycium Royle fruit extract (BLFE) in the attenuation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxi-inflammatory aggravation and concanavalin A (Con-A)-induced proliferation in murine peritoneal macrophages and lymphocytes, respectively. BLFE strongly suppressed production of the oxidative and inflammatory effector molecules nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α/IL-6/IL-1β/IFN-γ) as well as chemokines (MCP-1 and RANTES), with a concomitant enhancement in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and IL-10 levels. Read More

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December 2018
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Schisandrin B Improves the Renal Function of IgA Nephropathy Rats Through Inhibition of the NF-κB Signalling Pathway.

Inflammation 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Nephrology, Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, No. 25, Tai Ping Street, Jiangyang District, 646000, Luzhou, China.

Schisandrin B (SchB) is an active compound extracted from the Chinese herb Schisandra chinensis and shows excellent anti-inflammatory activity. This study was performed to examine the effects of SchB in a rat model of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). IgAN was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by immunization with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), bovine serum albumin, and carbon tetrachloride. Read More

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December 2018

Italian consensus for the classification and reporting of thyroid cytology: the risk of malignancy between indeterminate lesions at low or high risk. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Endocrine 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Service of Clinical Pathology, Institute of Pathology, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Italian consensus for the classification and reporting of thyroid cytology has proposed to discriminate the cancer prevalence of high (Tir 3B) vs. low (Tir 3A) risk indeterminate nodules. To obtain more robust evidence on this topic, we performed a meta-analysis of the Odds Ratio (OR) of malignancy of Tir 3B vs. Read More

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December 2018
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Spray Dried Smectite Clay Particles as a Novel Treatment against Obesity.

Pharm Res 2018 Dec 5;36(1):21. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, 5001, Australia.

Purpose: To explore the feasibility of spray dried smectite clay particles fabricated from montmorillonite or laponite materials for adsorbing dietary lipids and reducing rodent weight gain in vivo.

Methods: Spray dried montmorillonite (SD-MMT) and spray dried laponite (SD-LAP) particles were prepared via spray drying. Particle morphology, surface area and redispersion/aggregation properties in aqueous media were characterized. Read More

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December 2018
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