9,506 results match your criteria Nosocomial Pneumonia


Evaluation of screening strategies for pulmonary tuberculosis among hospitalized patients in a low-burden setting: cost-effectiveness of GeneXpert MTB/RIF compared to smear microscopy.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2021 Jun 21:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York.

Objective: Hospitalized patients undergoing evaluation for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) require airborne isolation while testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) to reduce risk of nosocomial transmission. GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is more rapid and accurate than sputum smear microscopy, but it is not routinely used to 'rule out' infectious pulmonary TB among hospitalized patients in the United States. We sought to evaluate the diagnostic performance and cost-effectiveness of Xpert-based TB evaluation. Read More

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Treatment refractory bacteraemia and pneumonia in a COVID-19-positive patient.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 17;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.

is an opportunistic pathogen that most often infects patients requiring mechanical ventilation, indwelling central venous catheters and broad-spectrum antibiotics. The reported incidence of infection has increased over the past two decades, and many of its risk factors are commonly seen in patients with severe COVID-19 infection. Our case regards a patient with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, who subsequently developed disseminated infection, refractory to first-line treatment and optimal medical management. Read More

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Biofilm Formation by Pathogens Causing Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia at Intensive Care Units in a Tertiary Care Hospital: An Armor for Refuge.

Biomed Res Int 2021 28;2021:8817700. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background: Emerging threat of drug resistance among pathogens causing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) has resulted in higher hospital costs, longer hospital stays, and increased hospital mortality. Biofilms in the endotracheal tube of ventilated patients act as protective shield from host immunity. They induce chronic and recurrent infections that defy common antibiotics. Read More

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Characteristics, management, and clinical outcomes of patients with hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia: a multicenter cohort study in Korea.

Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul) 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are significant public health issues in the world, but domestic epidemiological data remain limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics, management and clinical outcomes of HAP/VAP in Korea.

Methods: This study is a multicenter retrospective cohort study. Read More

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Combination of toothbrushing and chlorhexidine compared with exclusive use of chlorhexidine to reduce the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia: A systematic review with meta-analysis.

Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2021;76:e2659. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Area de Patologia, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Uberlandia, MG, BR.

This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of 0.12% chlorhexidine alone and 0.12% chlorhexidine in combination with toothbrushing to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mechanically ventilated patients. Read More

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Anti-flagellin IgY antibodies protect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in both acute pneumonia and burn wound murine models in a non-type-specific mode.

Mol Immunol 2021 Jun 12;136:118-127. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Medicinal Plants Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is one of the most dominant causes of nosocomial infections in burn patients. Increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains highlights the need for novel antimicrobial agents. Flagellin, the main component protein of flagellum, is determined as the major antigen interacting with anti-P. Read More

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An Overview of Cilastatin + Imipenem + Relebactam as a Therapeutic Option for Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia: Evidence to Date.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are prevalent nosocomial infections with a worrisomely increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant causative organisms, including those with resistance to carbapenems. The addition of relebactam, a β-lactamase inhibitor, to imipenem treatment restores the antimicrobial activity against the most of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, including some carrying β-lactamase enzyme-type carbapenemases.: The aim of this article is to summarize the current evidence regarding imipenem/relebactam for the treatment of HAP/VAP. Read More

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Predicting Potential Prevention Effects on Hospital Burden of Nosocomial Infections: A Multistate Modeling Approach.

Value Health 2021 Jun 13;24(6):830-838. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Institute of Medical Biometry and Statistics, Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Objectives: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) place a substantial burden on health systems. Tools are required to quantify the change in this burden as a result of a preventive intervention. We aim to estimate how much a reduction in the rate of hospital-acquired infections translates into a change in hospital mortality and length of stay. Read More

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Predicting ventilator-associated pneumonia with machine learning.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e26246

Dascena, Inc., Houston, TX, United States.

Abstract: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common and fatal nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICUs). Existing methods for identifying VAP display low accuracy, and their use may delay antimicrobial therapy. VAP diagnostics derived from machine learning (ML) methods that utilize electronic health record (EHR) data have not yet been explored. Read More

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Mortality review as a tool to assess the contribution of healthcare-associated infections to death: results of a multicentre validity and reproducibility study, 11 European Union countries, 2017 to 2018.

Euro Surveill 2021 06;26(23)

The members of the study group are listed under Investigators.

IntroductionThe contribution of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) to mortality can be estimated using statistical methods, but mortality review (MR) is better suited for routine use in clinical settings. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control recently introduced MR into its HAI surveillance.AimWe evaluate validity and reproducibility of three MR measures. Read More

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COVID-19 in the Context of Inborn Errors of Immunity: a Case Series of 31 Patients from Mexico.

J Clin Immunol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Immune Deficiencies Lab., National Institute of Pediatrics, Av Iman 1, Torre de Investigacion Piso 9, Insurgentes Cuicuilco, Coyoacan, 04530, Mexico City, Mexico.

Introduction: Patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) have a compromised or inappropriate immune response. Although they might be considered a high-risk group for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, the reported impact of COVID-19 in these patients has been reassuring, while the differential susceptibility of distinct types of IEI remains unclear.

Objective: We aimed to describe the findings and outcomes of our known patients with IEI who were diagnosed with COVID-19. Read More

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Aerosolized plus intravenous colistin versus intravenous colistin alone for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria: A retrospective cohort study.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of aerosolized (AER) plus intravenous (IV) colistin to IV colistin alone in patients with nosocomial pneumonia (NP) due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria.

Method: This was a retrospective cohort study of adults with NP who received IV colistin alone or in combination with adjunctive AER colistin. The primary endpoint was clinical cure at end of therapy. Read More

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Nonventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia: A call to action.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2021 Jun 9:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston.

In 2020 a group of U.S. healthcare leaders formed the National Organization to Prevent Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (NOHAP) to issue a call to action to address non-ventilator-associated hospital-acquired pneumonia (NVHAP). Read More

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Staphylococcus aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with COVID-19: clinical features and potential inference with lung dysbiosis.

Crit Care 2021 06 7;25(1):197. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Dipartimento Di Scienze Biotecnologiche Di Base, Cliniche Intensivologiche E Perioperatorie, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.

Background: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and requiring mechanical ventilation are at risk of ventilator-associated bacterial infections secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study aimed to investigate clinical features of Staphylococcus aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia (SA-VAP) and, if bronchoalveolar lavage samples were available, lung bacterial community features in ICU patients with or without COVID-19.

Methods: We prospectively included hospitalized patients with COVID-19 across two medical ICUs of the Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Read More

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Eosinophilic pneumonia caused by cefepime: A case report and review.

IDCases 2021 19;25:e01166. Epub 2021 May 19.

St. Joseph's/Candler Health System, Inc., 5353 Reynolds Street, Savannah, GA, 31405, USA.

Eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) is characterized by accumulation of eosinophils in the lungs and has been associated with several medications, including antimicrobials. Cefepime is a commonly used broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent for the treatment of nosocomial infections but to date has not been associated with EP. We report the first documented case of EP secondary to cefepime for the treatment of pneumonia. Read More

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One Hundred Twenty-Day Mortality Rates for Hip Fracture Patients with COVID-19 Infection.

Clin Orthop Surg 2021 Jun 18;13(2):135-143. Epub 2021 May 18.

Lancashire Teaching Hospitals, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston, UK.

Background: Increased 30-day mortality rates have been reported for patients with hip fractures and a concurrent diagnosis of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) infection. Due to nosocomial spread of infection and the variable incubation period with the virus, follow-up past 30 days after injury is required to evaluate the true mortality amongst these patients. We aim to assess 120-day mortality rates in hip fracture patients with COVID-19 infection and compare this to hip fracture patients without COVID-19 infection presenting during the same time period. Read More

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Incidence of Device Associated-Healthcare Associated Infections from a Neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Care Center: A Retrospective Analysis.

Anesth Essays Res 2020 Jul-Sep;14(3):454-460. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Neurosurgery, Amrita school of Medicine, AIMS, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala, India.

Background: Deviceassociated infections (DAIs) increase the morbidity and mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). Studies from the neurosurgical ICU in developing countries are sparse.

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of device-associated healthcare associated infections, pathogens isolated, antibiotic resistance, and mortality in neurosurgical ICU. Read More

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Management of infectious complications associated with coronavirus infection in severe patients admitted to ICU.

Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset, Valencia, España.

Infections have become one of the main complications of patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted in ICU. Poor immune status, frequent development of organic failure requiring invasive supportive treatments, and prolonged ICU length of stay in saturated structural areas of patients are risk factors for infection development. The Working Group on Infectious Diseases and Sepsis GTEIS of the Spanish Society of Intensive Medicine and Coronary Units SEMICYUC emphasizes the importance of infection prevention measures related to health care, the detection and early treatment of major infections in the patient with SARS-CoV-2 infections. Read More

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Study of the effect of added bronchoscopic suction to routine treatment of ventilator associated pneumonia patients in surgical ICU.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 May;71(5):1326-1331

Department of Anesthesiology, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Objective: Comparing BAL and antibiotic therapy with antibiotic therapy itself for treating VAP patients in ICU.

Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, the first group was treated using antibiotics and closed-suction was performed daily, using 50 cc of sterile normal saline. The second group was treated with antibiotics and daily closed-suction with 50 cc of sterile normal saline, plus bronchoscopic suction every other day. Read More

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The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare-associated infections in intensive care unit patients: a retrospective cohort study.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2021 06 4;10(1):87. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy.

Background: During the intensive care units' (ICUs) reorganization that was forced by the COVID-19 emergency, attention to traditional infection control measures may have been reduced. Nevertheless, evidence on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) is still limited and mixed. In this study, we estimated the pandemic impact on HAI incidence and investigated the HAI type occurring in COVID-19 patients. Read More

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A severe case of human coronavirus 229E pneumonia in an elderly man with diabetes mellitus: a case report.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 4;21(1):524. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, 100034, China.

Background: With pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have recently attached worldwide attention as essential pathogens in respiratory infection. HCoV-229E has been described as a rare cause of lower respiratory infection in immunocompetent adults.

Case Presentation: We reported a 72-year-old man infected by HCoV-229E with rapid progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome, in conjunction with new onset atrial fibrillation, intensive care unit acquired weakness, and recurrent hospital acquired pneumonia. Read More

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Evaluation of multi-component interventions for prevention of nosocomial pneumonia in older adults: a randomized, controlled trial.

Eur Geriatr Med 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Changi General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.

Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of multi-component interventions for prevention of hospital-acquired pneumonia in older patients hospitalized in geriatric wards.

Methods: A randomized, parallel-group, controlled trial was undertaken in patients aged 65 and above who were admitted to a tertiary hospital geriatric unit from January 1, 2016 to June 30, 2018 for an acute non-respiratory illness. Participants were randomized by to receive either a multi-component intervention (consisting of reverse Trendelenburg position, dysphagia screening, oral care and vaccinations), or usual care. Read More

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An acquired acyltransferase promotes Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 respiratory infection.

Cell Rep 2021 Jun;35(9):109196

Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 is a human pathogen associated with poor outcomes worldwide. We identify a member of the acyltransferase superfamily 3 (atf3), enriched within the ST258 clade, that provides a major competitive advantage for the proliferation of these organisms in vivo. Comparison of a wild-type ST258 strain (KP35) and a Δatf3 isogenic mutant generated by CRISPR-Cas9 targeting reveals greater NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase transcription and ATP generation, fueled by increased glycolysis. Read More

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Neonatal healthcare-associated infections in Brazil: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Arch Public Health 2021 Jun 1;79(1):89. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Núcleo de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasilia, Brazil.

Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are important causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We reviewed the incidence and the pathogens involved in HAI among infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICU) in Brazil.

Methods: A search was conducted in the MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO databases from January 1995 to October 2019. Read More

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Genomic Analysis of a Novel Phage Infecting the Turkey Pathogen APEC O78 and Its Endolysin Activity.

Viruses 2021 May 31;13(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China.

Due to the increasing spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, phage therapy is considered one of the most promising methods for addressing MDR bacteria. lives symbiotically in the intestines of humans and some animals, and most strains are beneficial in terms of maintaining a healthy digestive tract. However, some strains can cause serious zoonotic diseases, including diarrhea, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Read More

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Intra-tracheal administration increases gallium availability in lung: implications for antibacterial chemotherapy.

Pharmacol Res 2021 May 28;170:105698. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Pharmacy, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy.

The emergence of pan-resistant strains in nosocomial settings underscores the urgent need of novel therapies targeting vital bacterial functions. Bacterial iron metabolism is a fascinating target for new antimicrobials. Iron mimetic metal Ga(III) has been repurposed as an antimicrobial drug, in pre-clinical studies and recent clinical studies have raised the possibility of using Ga(III) for the treatment of P. Read More

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[Design and application of Checklist for quality control in intensive care unit].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2021 Apr;33(4):466-471

Department of Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu 233004, Anhui, China.

Objective: To design a Checklist for quality control in intensive care unit and observe the effect of clinical application.

Methods: By consulting guidelines and literature, such as Critical care medicine professional medical quality control index (2015 edition), the quality control Checklist of intensive care unit was designed. It included four parts: quality control data collection, medical record quality verification, special diagnosis and treatment, and hospital infection prevention and control supervision. Read More

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Microbiology of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia in a Tertiary Care Cancer Hospital.

Indian J Crit Care Med 2021 Apr;25(4):421-428

Department of Microbiology, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important cause of healthcare-associated infections, resulting in prolonged hospitalization with increased morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of predominant local pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns helps in selection of appropriate initial antibiotic therapy in these critical cases.

Aim And Objective: The aim and objective of this study is to characterize the microbiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of VAP isolates in a tertiary cancer center. Read More

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Clinical outcomes of ceftazidime-avibactam versus meropenem in Indian patients with nosocomial pneumonia: Subset analysis from the REPROVE study.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Medical Affairs, Pfizer Ltd., The Capital, 18th & 19th Floor, Plot No. C-70, G. Block, Bandra Kurla Complex, Bandra (E), Mumbai, 400051, India.

The efficacy and safety of Ceftazidime-Avibactam (CAZ-AVI) as compared to meropenem for nosocomial pneumonia was established in a randomized, phase-III, non-inferiority trial REPROVE, which included Indian patients. We determined if the results for the Indian patients were in-line with the results of overall population. Descriptive analysis of efficacy and safety demonstrated ceftazidime-avibactam was comparable to meropenem in the management of nosocomial pneumonia in Indian patients and it may be a useful addition to the armamentarium of antibiotics for management of such infections with Enterobacterales and Pseudomonas. Read More

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Cost Effectiveness of Different Initial Antimicrobial Regimens for Elderly Community-Acquired Pneumonia Patients in General Ward.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 18;14:1845-1853. Epub 2021 May 18.

National Clinical Research Center of Respiratory Diseases, Center for Respiratory Diseases, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The cost-effectiveness of different guideline-concordant antimicrobial regimens for elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was rarely discussed. This study attempts to explore the most appropriate cost-effectiveness of guideline-concordant antimicrobial regimen for elderly patients with CAP in general wards.

Patients And Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective, 4:2:1 matched study enrolling 511 elderly patients with CAP hospitalized in general wards. Read More

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