1,141 results match your criteria Norwalk Virus

Norovirus: Facts and Reflections from Past, Present, and Future.

Viruses 2021 11 30;13(12). Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Microbiology and Mycology Program, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380453, Chile.

Human Norovirus is currently the main viral cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGEs) in most countries worldwide. Nearly 50 years after the discovery of the "Norwalk virus" by Kapikian and colleagues, the scientific and medical community continue to generate new knowledge on the full biological and disease spectrum of Norovirus infection. Nevertheless, several areas remain incompletely understood due to the serious constraints to effectively replicate and propagate the virus. Read More

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November 2021

Norovirus strains among children aged 0-18 years hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Estonia 2015-2016.

J Med Virol 2022 06 11;94(6):2632-2639. Epub 2021 Dec 11.

Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

Norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in many countries that have introduced universal rotavirus mass vaccination. This is the first study to report data on NoV strains in Estonia. We recruited 2249 children aged 0-18 years hospitalized for AGE in Estonian hospitals from February 1, 2015 to August 31, 2016. Read More

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Generation of Nucleic Acid Aptamer Candidates against a Novel Calicivirus Protein Target.

Viruses 2021 08 29;13(9). Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Department of Food, Bioprocessing, and Nutrition Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.

Human norovirus is the leading cause of foodborne illness globally. One of the challenges in detecting noroviruses is the identification of a completely broadly reactive ligand; however, all detection ligands generated to date target the viral capsid, the outermost of which is the most variable region of the genome. The VPg is a protein covalently linked to the viral genome that is necessary for replication but hitherto remains underexplored as a target for detection or therapeutics. Read More

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Thin-film freeze-drying of a bivalent Norovirus vaccine while maintaining the potency of both antigens.

Int J Pharm 2021 Nov 21;609:121126. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

The University of Texas at Austin, College of Pharmacy, Division of Molecular Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery, Austin, TX, USA. Electronic address:

A bivalent Norovirus vaccine candidate has been developed that contains Norovirus strain GI.1 Norwalk-virus like particles (VLP) and strain GII.4 Consensus VLP adsorbed on aluminum (oxy)hydroxide. Read More

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November 2021

A comprehensive approach for microbiota and health monitoring in mouse colonies using metagenomic shotgun sequencing.

Anim Microbiome 2021 Jul 29;3(1):53. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Laboratorio Per Le Tecnologie Delle Terapie Avanzate (LTTA), University of Ferrara, 44121, Ferrara, Italy.

Background: Health surveillance of murine colonies employed for scientific purposes aim at detecting unwanted infection that can affect the well-being of animals and personnel, and potentially undermine scientific results. In this study, we investigated the use of a next-generation sequencing (NGS) metagenomic approach for monitoring the microbiota composition and uncovering the possible presence of pathogens in mice housed in specific pathogen-free (SPF) or conventional (non-SPF) facilities.

Results: Analysis of metagenomic NGS assay through public and free algorithms and databases allowed to precisely assess the composition of mouse gut microbiome and quantify the contribution of the different microorganisms at the species level. Read More

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Replication in Human Intestinal Enteroids of Infectious Norovirus from Vomit Samples.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 08;27(8):2212-2214

A typical clinical symptom of human norovirus infection is projectile vomiting. Although norovirus RNA and viral particles have been detected in vomitus, infectivity has not yet been reported. We detected replication-competent norovirus in 25% of vomit samples with a 13-fold to 714-fold increase in genomic equivalents, confirming infectious norovirus. Read More

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Secretor Status Strongly Influences the Incidence of Symptomatic Norovirus Infection in a Genotype-Dependent Manner in a Nicaraguan Birth Cohort.

J Infect Dis 2022 01;225(1):105-115

Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, National Autonomous University of Nicaragua-León, León, Nicaragua.

Background: The role of histo-blood group on the burden and severity of norovirus gastroenteritis in young infants has not been well documented.

Methods: Norovirus gastroenteritis was assessed in 443 Nicaraguan children followed from birth until 3 years of age. Stool samples were tested for norovirus by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) were determined by phenotyping of saliva and blood. Read More

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January 2022

Less severe clinical symptoms of Norwalk virus 8fIIb inoculum compared to its precursor 8fIIa from human challenge studies.

J Med Virol 2021 06 30;93(6):3557-3563. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Noroviruses (NoV) are a leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis. Human challenge studies have been used to examine the infectivity, pathogenicity, and host immune response to NoV as well as vaccine efficacy. The goal of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of data from five previously completed human challenge trials and compare the response to the secondary NV inoculum (8fIIb) to its precursor (8fIIa). Read More

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Virucidal activity of three ethanol-based hand rubs against murine norovirus in a hand hygiene clinical simulation study.

Future Microbiol 2020 09 22;15:1335-1341. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Dr. Schumacher GmbH, Am Roggenfeld 3, 34323 Malsfeld, Germany.

We evaluated the efficacy of three ethanol-based hand rubs against murine norovirus in a proposed clinical simulation test (prEN 17430). Virucidal activity was determined in 18 volunteers using three hand rubs: ethanol 72.4 and 89. Read More

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September 2020

Human norovirus exhibits strain-specific sensitivity to host interferon pathways in human intestinal enteroids.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 09 9;117(38):23782-23793. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030;

Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide; yet currently, no vaccines or FDA-approved antiviral drugs are available to counter these pathogens. To understand HuNoV biology and the epithelial response to infection, we performed transcriptomic analyses, RT-qPCR, CRISPR-Cas9 modification of human intestinal enteroid (HIE) cultures, and functional studies with two virus strains (a pandemic GII.4 and a bile acid-dependent GII. Read More

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September 2020

Detection of norovirus infections in Denmark, 2011-2018.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 02 17;148:e52. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Prevention, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Norovirus (NoV) infections occur very frequently yet are rarely diagnosed. In Denmark, NoV infections are not under surveillance. We aimed to collect and describe existing laboratory-based NoV data. Read More

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February 2020

Norovirus Seroprevalence among Adults in the United States: Analysis of NHANES Serum Specimens from 1999-2000 and 2003-2004.

Viruses 2020 02 5;12(2). Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Norovirus is the most common cause of epidemic and endemic acute gastroenteritis. However, national estimates of the infection burden are challenging. This study used a nationally representative serum bank to estimate the seroprevalence to five norovirus genotypes including three GII variants: GI. Read More

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February 2020

Bile acids and ceramide overcome the entry restriction for GII.3 human norovirus replication in human intestinal enteroids.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 01 2;117(3):1700-1710. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030;

Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) cause sporadic and epidemic outbreaks of gastroenteritis in all age groups worldwide. We previously reported that stem cell-derived human intestinal enteroid (HIE) cultures support replication of multiple HuNoV strains and that some strains (e.g. Read More

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January 2020

HBGA binding modes and selectivity in noroviruses upon mutation: a docking and molecular dynamics study.

Abdulkadir Kocak

J Mol Model 2019 Nov 28;25(12):369. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Department of Chemistry, Gebze Technical University, 41400, Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey.

Norovirus, also called winter vomiting bug, is the most common cause for gastroenteritis and severe childhood diarrhea disease. High mutation rates cause drug resistance and thus complicate the development of an effective therapeutics against virus infection. The virus protein enters the host cell via the interaction with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), formed by oligosaccharides. Read More

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November 2019

Production and Clinical Evaluation of Norwalk GI.1 Virus Lot 001-09NV in Norovirus Vaccine Development.

J Infect Dis 2020 03;221(6):919-926

Vaxart, Inc., South San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the leading cause of gastroenteritis. No vaccine is currently available to prevent norovirus illness or infection. Safe, infectious challenge strains are needed to assess vaccine efficacy in the controlled human infection model (CHIM). Read More

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Human Norovirus Histo-Blood Group Antigen (HBGA) Binding Sites Mediate the Virus Specific Interactions with Lettuce Carbohydrates.

Viruses 2019 09 8;11(9). Epub 2019 Sep 8.

Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA.

Lettuce is often implicated in human norovirus (HuNoV) foodborne outbreaks. We identified H-like histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) on lettuce leaves as specific binding moieties for virus-like particles (VLPs) of HuNoV GII.4/HS194/2009 strain. Read More

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September 2019

Systematic review and meta-analysis of decay rates of waterborne mammalian viruses and coliphages in surface waters.

Water Res 2019 Nov 23;164:114898. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (stationed at NOAA/NMFS/SWFSC, La Jolla, CA), Miami, FL, USA.

Surface waters are essential natural resources. They are also receiving waters for a variety of anthropogenic waste streams that carry a myriad of pollutants including pathogens. Watershed and fate and transport models can help inform the spatial and temporal extent of microbial pollution from point and non-point sources and thus provide useful information for managing surface waters. Read More

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November 2019

Bile Salts Alter the Mouse Norovirus Capsid Conformation: Possible Implications for Cell Attachment and Immune Evasion.

J Virol 2019 10 12;93(19). Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA

Caliciviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses with 180 copies of capsid protein comprising the T=3 icosahedral capsids. The main capsid feature is a pronounced protruding (P) domain dimer formed by adjacent subunits on the icosahedral surface while the shell domain forms a tight icosahedral sphere around the genome. While the P domain in the crystal structure of human Norwalk virus (genotype I. Read More

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October 2019

Immunoinformatics approaches for designing a novel multi epitope peptide vaccine against human norovirus (Norwalk virus).

Infect Genet Evol 2019 10 21;74:103936. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Faculty of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet 3100, Bangladesh.

Norovirus is known as a major cause of several acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks each year. A study was conducted to develop a unique multi epitope subunit vaccine against human norovirus by adopting reverse vaccinology approach. The entire viral proteome of Norwalk virus was retrieved and allowed for further in silico study to predict highly antigenic epitopes through antigenicity, transmembrane topology screening, allergenicity assessment, toxicity analysis, population coverage analysis and molecular docking approach. Read More

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October 2019

The Adenosine Analogue NITD008 has Potent Antiviral Activity against Human and Animal Caliciviruses.

Viruses 2019 05 30;11(6). Epub 2019 May 30.

School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

The widespread nature of calicivirus infections globally has a substantial impact on the health and well-being of humans and animals alike. Currently, the only vaccines approved against caliciviruses are for feline and rabbit-specific members of this group, and thus there is a growing effort towards the development of broad-spectrum antivirals for calicivirus infections. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of the adenosine analogue NITD008 using three calicivirus model systems namely; feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), and the human norovirus replicon. Read More

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Viral species richness and composition in young children with loose or watery stool in Ethiopia.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Jan 14;19(1):53. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, USA.

Background: Stool consistency is an important diagnostic criterion in both research and clinical medicine and is often used to define diarrheal disease.

Methods: We examine the pediatric enteric virome across stool consistencies to evaluate differences in richness and community composition using fecal samples collected from children aged 0 to 5 years participating in a clinical trial in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. The consistency of each sample was graded according to the modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children (mBSFS-C) before a portion of stool was preserved for viral metagenomic analysis. Read More

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January 2019

Genetic Predisposition to Infectious Disease.

Nikolai Klebanov

Cureus 2018 Aug 27;10(8):e3210. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA.

In contemporary medical practice, approaches to infectious disease management have been primarily rooted in a pathogen-centered model. However, host genetics also contribute significantly to infectious disease burden. The fast expansion of bioinformatics techniques and the popularization of the genome-wide association study (GWAS) in recent decades have allowed for rapid and affordable high-throughput genomic analyses. Read More

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Eligibility of Feline Calicivirus for a Surrogate of Human Norovirus in Comparison with Murine Norovirus, Poliovirus and Coxsackievirus.

Biocontrol Sci 2018 ;23(3):145-149

Department of Virology, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University.

Feline calicivirus (FCV) is frequently used as a surrogate of human norovirus. We investigated eligibility of FCV for anti-viral assay by investigating the stability of infectivity and pH sensitivity in comparison with other viruses. We found that infectivities of FCV and murine norovirus (MNV) are relatively unstable in infected cells compared with those of coxsackievirus (CoV) and poliovirus (PoV) , suggesting that FCV and MNV have vulnerability. Read More

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December 2018

Quito's virome: Metagenomic analysis of viral diversity in urban streams of Ecuador's capital city.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Dec 23;645:1334-1343. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Grupo de investigación Biodiversidad, Medio Ambiente y Salud (BIOMAS), Facultad de Ingenierías y Ciencias Aplicadas (FICA), Ingeniería Ambiental, Universidad de las Américas, Quito, Ecuador. Electronic address:

In Quito, the microbiological contamination of surface water represents a public health problem, mainly due to the lack of sewage treatment from urban wastewater. Contaminated water contributes to the transmission of many enteric pathogens through direct consumption, agricultural and recreational use. Among the different pathogens present in urban discharges, viruses play an important role on disease, being causes of gastroenteritis, hepatitis, meningitis, respiratory infections, among others. Read More

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December 2018

Antiviral activity of Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briquet against noroviruses via induction of antiviral interferons.

J Microbiol 2018 Sep 23;56(9):683-689. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Virus-Host Interactions Laboratory, Department of Biosystems and Biotechnology, Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea.

Human noroviruses are the causative agents of non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The rapid onset and resolution of disease symptoms suggest that innate immune responses are critical for controlling norovirus infection; however, no effective antivirals are yet available. The present study was conducted to examine the antiviral activities of Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briquet extract (STE) against noroviruses. Read More

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September 2018

Identification of Feline Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 as an Efficient Antiviral Factor against the Replication of Feline Calicivirus and Other Feline Viruses.

Biomed Res Int 2018 12;2018:2739830. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Division of Zoonosis of Natural Foci, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001, China.

Interferons (IFNs) can inhibit most, if not all, viral infections by eliciting the transcription of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a highly contagious pathogen of cats and a surrogate for Norwalk virus. Interferon efficiently inhibits the replication of FCV, but the mechanism of the antiviral activity is poorly understood. Read More

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January 2019

Development of an infectious clone and replicon system of norovirus GII.4.

J Virol Methods 2018 08 22;258:49-53. Epub 2018 May 22.

Departamento de Biologia Celular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil; Pós-graduação em Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil. Electronic address:

Human norovirus (HuNoV) is one of the main causes of acute gastroenteritis worldwide and is responsible for at least 20% of all cases. The detailed molecular mechanism of this norovirus remains unknown due to the lack of a suitable in vitro culturing system. An infectious clone of HuNoV would be a useful tool for elucidating the processes of viral infection and the mechanisms of replication. Read More

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Expression, Purification and Characterization of a GII.4 Norovirus Protease from Minerva Virus.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2018 ;18(3):224-232

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, United States.

Background: Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Norovirus proteases, which are responsible for cleavage of the viral polyprotein, have become an attractive drug target to treat norovirus infections. Genogroup II (GII) noroviruses are responsible for a majority of outbreaks; however, limited data exists regarding GII norovirus proteases. Read More

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January 2019