401 results match your criteria Normal and Abnormal Puerperium


Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Peripartum Encephalopathy: A Pictorial Review.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2021 Apr 23;12(2):402-409. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Neurology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER) Puducherry, India.

Acute neurological problems are significant disorders of pre- and postpartum period in women. We analyzed the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profile of patients presenting with peripartum encephalopathy over 2 years. Of 51 patients, MRI was abnormal in 40 patients and normal in 11 patients. Read More

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Liver transaminase levels during pregnancy: a Japanese multicenter study.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Feb 28:1-7. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Introduction: There are conflicting reports on the effect of pregnancy on liver transaminase (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) levels. In this study, we sought to investigate the trajectories of AST and ALT levels during normal pregnancy and to compare them with AST and ALT levels of matched nonpregnant controls.

Materials And Methods: Our multicenter retrospective study included 34,396 women who delivered at term at 12 primary maternity care units between January 2011 and December 2018 and 57,152 nonpregnant women younger than 45 years who received a medical checkup between 2016 and 2019. Read More

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February 2021

Postpartum-Specific Vital Sign Reference Ranges.

Obstet Gynecol 2021 02;137(2):295-304

Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, the Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering Science, the Nuffield Department of Women's & Reproductive Health, and the Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; the Department of Anaesthesia, Wellington Hospital, Wellington, New Zealand; and Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and the Department of Women and Children's Health, King's College, London, and the National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit and the Oxford National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Objective: To estimate normal ranges for postpartum maternal vital signs.

Methods: We conducted a multicenter prospective longitudinal cohort study in the United Kingdom. We recruited women before 20 weeks of gestation without significant comorbidities and with accurately dated singleton pregnancies. Read More

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February 2021

Enlarged uterine fibroid forming uterine diverticulum during pregnancy: a case report.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Jan 7;21(1):34. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, 1-757, Asahimachi-dori, Chuo-ku, Niigata, 951-8510, Japan.

Background: Although uterine fibroids are a common gynecologic neoplasm, uterine diverticulum accompanied by a uterine fibroid is unique. In addition, pregnancy complicated with uterine diverticulum is extremely rare. We experienced a case of a uterine fibroid that was associated with a uterine diverticulum that enlarged during pregnancy and puerperium. Read More

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January 2021

Relationship between excess iodine, thyroid function, blood pressure, and blood glucose level in adults, pregnant women, and lactating women: A cross-sectional study.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 10;208:111706. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

High water iodine concentration in drinking water can lead to excessive iodine, which will affect normal thyroid function, blood glucose, and blood pressure, especially among pregnant and lactating women. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between iodine, thyroid function, blood pressure, and blood glucose level among adults, and pregnant and lactating women in areas that are iodine-adequate (IA) and iodine-excess (IE) with respect to iodine concentrations in drinking water. A cross-sectional survey was conducted involving 144 pregnant and 237 lactating women in Shanxi Province, and 828 adults in Shandong Province. Read More

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January 2021

Effect of a subsequent pregnancy on anal sphincter integrity and function after obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI).

Int Urogynecol J 2020 Dec 2. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Croydon Urogynaecology & Pelvic Floor Reconstruction Unit, Croydon University Hospital, Thornton Heath, UK.

Introduction And Hypothesis: Endoanal ultrasound (EAUS) and anal manometry are used in the assessment women with a history of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI), both postpartum and in a subsequent pregnancy, to aid counselling regarding mode of delivery (MOD).

Methods: A prospective observational study between 2012 to 2020 was completed. Women were reviewed 3 months postpartum following OASI and in the second half of a subsequent pregnancy. Read More

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December 2020

Kinetics of placenta-specific 8 (PLAC8) in equine placenta during pregnancy and placentitis.

Theriogenology 2021 Jan 5;160:81-89. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 40546, USA. Electronic address:

Placenta-specific 8 (PLAC8) is one of the placenta-regulatory genes which is highly conserved among eutherian mammals. However, little is known about its expression in equine placenta (chorioallantois; CA and endometrium; EN) during normal and abnormal pregnancy. Therefore, the current study was designed to 1) elucidate the expression of PLAC8 in equine embryonic membranes during the preimplantation period, 2) characterize the expression profile of PLAC8 in equine CA (45d, 4mo, 6mo, 10 mo, 11 mo and postpartum) and EN (14d, 4mo, 6mo, 10 mo, and 11 mo) obtained from pregnant mares (n = 4/timepoint), as well as, d14 non-pregnant EN (n = 4), and 3) investigate the expression profile of PLAC8 in ascending placentitis (n = 5) and in nocardioform placentitis (n = 6) in comparison to normal CA. Read More

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January 2021

A Pictorial Review of Postpartum Complications.

Radiographics 2020 Nov-Dec;40(7):2117-2141. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

From the Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron 119-129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain.

The postpartum period, also known as the puerperium, begins immediately after delivery of the neonate and placenta and ends 6-8 weeks after delivery. The appearance of physiologic uterine changes during puerperium can overlap with that of postpartum complications, which makes imaging interpretation and diagnosis difficult. Obstetric and nonobstetric postpartum complications are a considerable source of morbidity and mortality in women of reproductive age, and the radiologist plays an important role in the assessment of these entities, which often require a multimodality imaging approach. Read More

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October 2020

Utility of in-hospital post-delivery fasting plasma glucose to predict postpartum glucose status in women with hyperglycaemia first detected in pregnancy: A prospective cohort study.

PLoS One 2020 5;15(10):e0239720. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Women with hyperglycaemia first detected in pregnancy (HFDP), including those with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), should undergo a glucose evaluation 4-12 weeks after delivery. Globally, suboptimal postpartum return rates limit the opportunity to intervene in women with sustained hyperglycaemia and pragmatic solutions should be sought to bridge this gap.

Objective: To assess the utility of postpartum in-hospital glucose evaluation to predict the outcome of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed 4-12 weeks after delivery. Read More

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November 2020

Adherence to a follow-up program after gestational diabetes.

Acta Diabetol 2020 Dec 1;57(12):1473-1480. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Diabetology and Dietetics Unit, Department of Medicine DIMED, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani 2, 35128, Padua, Italy.

Aim: The aim of this study was to examine attendance for early postpartum follow-up among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and to identify factors that influenced their likelihood of attending.

Methods: One thousand eight hundred and nineteen women with GDM were retrospectively analyzed. During pregnancy, the following data were collected: age, family history of diabetes, ethnicity, prepregnancy BMI, fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, gestational week of GDM diagnosis, timing and mode of delivery, newborn's birth weight and length. Read More

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December 2020

Magnesium sulfate prophylaxis attenuates the postpartum effects of preeclampsia by promoting M2 macrophage polarization.

Hypertens Res 2021 Jan 27;44(1):13-22. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Preeclampsia is a complex disorder that is characterized by new onset hypertension and proteinuria at or after 20 weeks of gestation. Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. MgSO is commonly used to treat severe preeclampsia, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood, and investigations into the effects of MgSO during the postpartum period are lacking. Read More

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January 2021

Do obesity and low levels of physical activity increase the risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus among women with prior gestational diabetes in rural China?

Res Nurs Health 2020 Aug 9;43(4):387-395. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Family Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and obesity play important roles in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Yet, how MVPA affects the risk of developing T2DM among women with prior GDM across the different categories of obesity indicators is unclear. This study aimed to describe the levels of postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT), obesity indicators (body mass index [BMI] and waist circumference [WC]), and MVPA and to explore the independent effect and joint effect of MVPA and obesity indicators (BMI and WC) on the risk for developing AGT among women with prior GDM in rural China. Read More

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Angiogenic factor abnormalities and risk of peripartum complications and prematurity among urban predominantly obese parturients with chronic hypertension.

Pregnancy Hypertens 2020 Apr 7;20:124-130. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, University of Chicago, IL, United States. Electronic address:

Objective: To compare characteristics and outcomes of women with chronic hypertension (cHTN) between those with normal and abnormal plasma angiogenic profiles.

Study Design: This secondary analysis explored associations between angiogenic markers soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) drawn prior to delivery among women with history of cHTN who were enrolled between 22 and 41 weeks. Patients were divided into two groups based on sFlt1/PlGF ratio, namely low sFlt1/PlGF (<85) and high sFlt1/PlGF (≥85) ratio. Read More

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How comparable is clinical grading of obstetric anal sphincter injury with that determined by four-dimensional translabial ultrasound?

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2020 Oct;56(4):618-623

Sydney Medical School Nepean, Nepean Hospital, Penrith, NSW, Australia.

Objectives: To evaluate the agreement between grading of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASI) on translabial ultrasound (TLUS), using a newly developed algorithm, and grading on postpartum examination. A secondary aim was to assess the correlation between tear severity, as defined on ultrasound, and symptoms of anal incontinence and/or fecal urgency.

Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients seen at a perineal clinic between 2012 and 2018, after recent primary repair of OASI. Read More

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October 2020

Relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease during pregnancy and abnormal glucose metabolism during and after pregnancy.

J Investig Med 2020 03 17;68(3):743-747. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

While non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in non-pregnant patients, the clinical significance of NAFLD during pregnancy is still unclear. We hypothesized that sonographic findings of NAFLD during pregnancy would be associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and predict abnormal postpartum glucose metabolism. NAFLD was assessed by ultrasound during and after pregnancy. Read More

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Associations between postpartum phenotypes, cow factors, genetic traits, and reproductive performance in seasonal-calving, pasture-based lactating dairy cows.

J Dairy Sci 2020 Jan 20;103(1):1016-1030. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Animal and Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Teagasc, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland, P61 C996. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between corpus luteum (CL) status, uterine health, body condition score (BCS), metabolic status, parity, genetic merit for fertility traits, and reproductive performance in pasture-based dairy cows managed for seasonal reproduction. First- and second-lactation (n = 2,600) spring-calving dairy cows from 35 dairy farms located in Ireland were enrolled in the study. Farms were visited every 2 wk, and animals that were at wk 3 (range: 14-27 d in milk) and wk 7 (range: 42-55 d in milk) postpartum were examined. Read More

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January 2020

Measurement of lipid profiles in the early postpartum period after hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

J Clin Lipidol 2019 Nov - Dec;13(6):1008-1015. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; O'Brien Institute for Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: The hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), including preeclampsia (PE) and gestational hypertension (GHTN), are independent risk factors for future maternal cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated that women with HDP have abnormal cardiovascular risk factors in the early postpartum period, but this has not been fully characterized.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the lipid profiles among women with PE, GHTN, and normal blood pressure in the first 4 years postpartum. Read More

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Abnormal IL-10 levels were related to alanine aminotransferase abnormalities during postpartum in HBeAg positive women with chronic hepatitis B.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Nov;98(46):e17969

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Beijing YouAn Hospital.

Alanine transaminase (ALT) abnormalities are common in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) carriers during postpartum period. Disturbances in cytokines are considered to be associated with hepatitis Flares. There are limited data on cytokines changes in HBeAg positive patients with ALT abnormalities. Read More

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November 2019

Associations between postpartum fertility phenotypes and genetic traits in seasonal-calving, pasture-based lactating dairy cows.

J Dairy Sci 2020 Jan 31;103(1):1002-1015. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Animal and Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Teagasc, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland, P61 C996. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between corpus luteum (CL) status, uterine health, body condition score (BCS), metabolic status, and parity at wk 3 and 7 postpartum in seasonal-calving, pasture-based, lactating dairy cows. The associations between those phenotypes and individual genetic traits were also evaluated. First- and second-parity spring-calving lactating dairy cows (n = 2,600) from 35 dairy farms in Ireland were enrolled. Read More

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January 2020

The experience of postpartum bleeding in women with inherited bleeding disorders.

Res Pract Thromb Haemost 2019 Oct 26;3(4):733-740. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Department of Medicine University of Toronto Toronto Ontario Canada.

Introduction: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) affects 6% of all deliveries and is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide (19.7%). The incidence of PPH in women with inherited bleeding disorders is substantially greater than in unaffected women; however, estimates of relative risk are highly variable. Read More

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October 2019

[Pelvic floor function of 5 143 women in early postpartum stage and analysis on the effect factors].

Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 2019 Aug;54(8):522-526

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijng Key Laboratory of Female Pelvic Floor Disorders, Beijing 100044, China, is working on the Department of Women's Health, Xicheng Women and Children's Health Hospital, Beijing 100054, China.

To describe the situation of early stage of pelvic floor function and investigate the effect factors in postpartum women. A retrospective survey was conducted, and women who did regular examination and gave birth in Peking University People's Hospital and had an annual pelvic floor examination at 6-12 weeks after delivery from Sep. 2012 to Dec. Read More

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Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Changes the Metabolomes of Human Colostrum, Transition Milk and Mature Milk.

Med Sci Monit 2019 Aug 16;25:6128-6152. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Ministry of Education of China International Collaborative Joint Laboratory of Reproduction and Development, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a pregnancy complication that is diagnosed by the novel onset of abnormal glucose intolerance. Our study aimed to investigate the changes in human breast milk metabolome over the first month of lactation and how GDM affects milk metabolome. MATERIAL AND METHODS Colostrum, transition milk, and mature milk samples from women with normal uncomplicated pregnancies (n=94) and women with GDM-complicated pregnancies (n=90) were subjected to metabolomic profiling by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Read More

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Risk factors for abnormal postpartum glucose outcome in women with gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed by modified The International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2019 Aug 10;45(8):1545-1552. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Department of Obstetrics, Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Aim: To characterize postpartum glycemic outcome and related risk factors in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by modified The International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria.

Methods: This is a cohort study of 583 patients with GDM diagnosed by modified IADPSG criteria for Chinese women from 2016 to 2017. According to their oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) results at 6-12 weeks postpartum, the subjects were categorized into normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) groups using the World Health Organization criteria. Read More

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Invited review: A systematic review of the effects of prolonged cow-calf contact on behavior, welfare, and productivity.

J Dairy Sci 2019 Jul 15;102(7):5765-5783. Epub 2019 May 15.

Animal Welfare Program, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4. Electronic address:

Separation of calves from cows within hours or days of birth is common on dairy farms. Stakeholders have conflicting perspectives on whether this practice is harmful or beneficial for the animals' welfare and production. Our objective was to critically evaluate the scientific evidence for both acute and long-term effects of early separation versus an extended period of cow-calf contact. Read More

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Multidetector CT appearance of the pelvis after vaginal delivery: normal appearances and abnormal acute findings.

Diagn Interv Radiol 2019 May;25(3):210-218

Department of Radiological Sciences, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, Roma, Italy; Department of Radiological Sciences, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma, Italy.

Vaginal delivery is the most commonly performed delivery in the world and accounts for nearly two-thirds of all deliveries in the United States. It is a secure method but may be associated with some acute complications, especially in the immediate postpartum days, which can potentially be fatal for the mother. The most frequent acute complications are hemorrhages/hematomas, uterine rupture, endometritis, retained product of conception (RPOC), ovarian thrombosis and HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count). Read More

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Macroscopic evaluation of the placenta of the alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

Reprod Domest Anim 2019 Jul 21;54(7):996-1002. Epub 2019 May 21.

Faculty Veterinary Medicine, Department of Reproduction, Obstetrics and Herd Health, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium.

Macroscopic evaluation of the placenta is an essential post-partum examination in the alpaca and can be of special interest in case of abortion, premature birth or stillbirth. Since there are not many reference values regarding macroscopic properties of normal alpaca placentas, a small descriptive study was conducted. Only placentae from normally foaling alpaca mares, giving birth to healthy crias, after a full-term and uneventful gestation (±350 days; range 335-360 days) were taken into account (N = 11). Read More

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Effect of postpartum glucose tolerance results on subsequent weight retention in women with recent gestational diabetes: A retrospective cohort study.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2019 May 18;151:169-176. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Women's College Research Institute, Women's College Hospital, Toronto, Canada; Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation/Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Canada; Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

Aims: Glucose tolerance normalizes postpartum in most women with gestational diabetes (GDM), which may provide false reassurance and decrease weight-reducing behaviours. We evaluated whether awareness of normal postpartum glucose tolerance was associated with higher weight retention than being unaware of glucose tolerance.

Methods: This cohort study of women with GDM collected survey data during pregnancy and in the first and second postpartum year. Read More

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Negatively controlled, randomized clinical trial to evaluate intramammary treatment of nonsevere, gram-negative clinical mastitis.

J Dairy Sci 2019 Jun 10;102(6):5438-5457. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48864. Electronic address:

The objective of this negatively controlled, randomized clinical trial was to examine clinical outcomes of 2-d or 8-d treatment using an approved intramammary (IMM) product containing ceftiofur hydrochloride compared with no antimicrobial treatment of nonsevere, gram-negative cases of clinical mastitis (CM). Additionally, we contrasted clinical outcomes of cases caused by Escherichia coli (n = 56) or Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 54). Cases (n = 168) of nonsevere (abnormal milk or abnormal milk and udder) CM were randomly assigned to receive 2 d (n = 56) or 8 d (n = 56) of IMM ceftiofur or assigned to a negative control group (n = 56). Read More

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[Impact of cessation of antiviral therapy at delivery on postpartum liver function in mothers with chronic hepatitis B virus infection].

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2019 Feb;27(2):112-117

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China; Department of Hospital Infection Management, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510220, China.

To investigate the impact of immediate cessation of antiviral therapy on postpartum liver function and the factors influencing postpartum abnormality in mothers with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. One hundred eighty-eight pregnant women with HBV DNA level > 2×106 IU/ml were enrolled from June 2014 to June 2018. Read More

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February 2019

Angiogenic Factor Estimation as a Warning Sign of Preeclampsia-Related Peripartum Morbidity Among Hospitalized Patients.

Hypertension 2019 04;73(4):868-877

From the Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (J.L.P., S.C., A.M., R.M., H.R., R.N., H.N., D.Y., S.S., S.R.), University of Chicago, IL.

Preeclampsia-related morbidity and mortality is rising predominantly because of delayed identification of patients at risk for preeclampsia with severe features and associated complications. This study explored the association between angiogenic markers (sFlt1 [soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1]) and PlGF [placental growth factor]) and preeclampsia-related peripartum complications. Normotensive women or those with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were enrolled. Read More

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