482 results match your criteria Normal and Abnormal Puerperium

High-risk human papillomavirus infection in pregnant women: a descriptive analysis of cohorts from two centers.

J Investig Med 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China

The aim was to descriptively analyze the clinical characteristics, cytopathology, and outcomes of pregnant patients with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Clinical data of 151,516 female patients with high-risk HPV infection were retrospectively collected. Baseline data, cervical cytology results, histopathology, HPV types, delivery mode, and follow-up outcomes were recorded for descriptive analysis. Read More

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Safe recovery after cesarean in rural Africa: Technical consensus guidelines for post-discharge care.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Maternal, Child and Community Health Division, Rwanda Biomedical Center, Kigali, Rwanda.

Despite increasing cesarean rates in Africa, there remain extensive gaps in the standard provision of care after cesarean birth. We present recommendations for discharge instructions to be provided to women following cesarean delivery in Rwanda, particularly rural Rwanda, and with consideration of adaptable guidelines for sub-Saharan Africa, to support recovery during the postpartum period. These guidelines were developed by a Technical Advisory Group comprised of clinical, program, policy, and research experts with extensive knowledge of cesarean care in Africa. Read More

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Consistently Low Levels of Osteocalcin From Late Pregnancy to Postpartum Are Related to Postpartum Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in GDM Patients.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 7;13:803624. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objective: Increasing evidence suggests that osteocalcin (OC), a marker of bone formation, plays an important role in glucose homoeostasis. Few studies have investigated the relationship between OC levels in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients and their postpartum glucose metabolism. This study evaluated the relationship between OC levels in late pregnancy, their longitudinal changes, and postpartum glucose metabolism among GDM patients. Read More

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Aberrant RET expression affects normal mammary gland post-lactation transition, enhancing cancer potential.

Dis Model Mech 2022 03 29;15(3). Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria C1428EGA CABA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

RET is a receptor tyrosine kinase with oncogenic potential in the mammary epithelium. Several receptors with oncogenic activity in the breast are known to participate in specific developmental stages. We found that RET is differentially expressed during mouse mammary gland development: RET is present in lactation and its expression dramatically decreases in involution, the period during which the lactating gland returns to a quiescent state after weaning. Read More

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Occludin is a target of Src kinase and promotes lipid secretion by binding to BTN1a1 and XOR.

PLoS Biol 2022 01 18;20(1):e3001518. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, China.

Lipid droplets (LDs) have increasingly been recognized as an essential organelle for eukaryotes. Although the biochemistry of lipid synthesis and degradation is well characterized, the regulation of LD dynamics, including its formation, maintenance, and secretion, is poorly understood. Here, we report that mice lacking Occludin (Ocln) show defective lipid metabolism. Read More

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January 2022

Calculating clinical mastitis frequency in dairy cows: Incidence risk at cow level, incidence rate at cow level, and incidence rate at quarter level.

Prev Vet Med 2022 Jan 28;198:105527. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Lechear LLC, King Ferry, NY, USA. Electronic address:

The lack of standardization in reporting clinical mastitis incidence limits the ability to compare results across multiple studies without additional calculations. There is both a biological and statistical rationale for evaluating the at-risk period at the quarter level. This study aimed to: (1) to outline an applied method for calculating clinical mastitis (CM) incidence rate at the quarter level using currently available software; and (2) to present the results of three different measurements: incidence risk at cow level, incidence rate at cow level, and incidence rate at quarter level. Read More

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January 2022

Serum Lactate Level as a Predictor for Blood Transfusion in Postpartum Hemorrhage.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Nov 22. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York.

Objective:  Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. At present, there are no reliable clinical or laboratory indicators to identify which patients might require blood transfusions during a PPH. Serum lactate has long been used as an early biomarker of tissue hypoperfusion in trauma settings. Read More

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November 2021

Mechanical Signaling in the Mammary Microenvironment: From Homeostasis to Cancer.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1329:399-417

Centre for Cancer Biology, An Alliance Between SA Pathology and the University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

It is becoming increasingly appreciated that biophysical influences on tissues are at least as important as biochemical influences in regulating normal development and homeostasis. Furthermore, diseases of aberrant tissue homeostasis such as cancers are driven by the abnormal biophysics of cancerous tissues. The mammary gland, a mechanoresponsive tissue, is exquisitely sensitive to changes in its mechanical microenvironment. Read More

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October 2021

High Levels of 25-OH-Vitamin D and Copper in Pregnant Women with Abnormal Glucose Challenge Test.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2022 Jul 28;200(7):3060-3069. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Health Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Several hormones and elements are involved in the homeostasis of glucose metabolism during pregnancy. This present study determined the differences among the factors involved in glucose regulation for pregnant women with and without an abnormal glucose challenge test (GCT), but without gestational diabetes mellitus, during the second trimester of gestation and the postpartum period. One hundred and six pregnant women who had received routine prenatal and postpartum examinations at our hospital were recruited. Read More

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Glucose tolerance test with a single abnormal value in pregnancy and the risk of type-2 diabetes mellitus.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2022 04 30;305(4):869-875. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Helen Schneider Hospital for Women, Rabin Medical Center, 39 Zabotinski St., 4941492, Petach Tikva, Israel.

Purpose: To evaluate the association between a single abnormal value on a 3-h 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results and future type-2 diabetes mellitus (Type-2 DM).

Methods: Retrospective cohort study of women between 18 and 45 years of age who underwent a 3-h OGTT during pregnancy and delivered in a tertiary medical center between 2007 and 2014. The women  were followed for a median period of 64 months postpartum. Read More

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Endocrine disrupting chemicals and the mammary gland.

Adv Pharmacol 2021 2;92:237-277. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health & Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, United States. Electronic address:

Development of the mammary gland requires coordination of hormone signaling pathways including those mediated by estrogen, progesterone, androgen and prolactin receptors. These hormones play important roles at several distinct stages of life including embryonic/fetal development, puberty, pregnancy, lactation, and old age. This also makes the gland sensitive to perturbations from environmental agents including endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Read More

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November 2021

Factors Associated with Postpartum Glucose Testing Following Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

Oman Med J 2021 Jul 8;36(4):e282. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysi.

Objectives: Glucose testing at six weeks after delivery has been recommended by the World Health Organization as the earliest period to detect abnormal glucose tolerance among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, the rate of postpartum glucose testing in many parts of the world is low, between 30-60%. Therefore, we sought to determine the proportion of women with GDM who underwent glucose testing at six weeks postpartum and the factors associated with the compliance to the test. Read More

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Do patients with a single abnormal OGTT value need a globally admitted definition such as "borderline GDM"? Pregnancy outcomes of these women and the evaluation of new inflammatory markers.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Nov 5;34(22):3782-3789. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bursa Yuksek Ihtisas Training and Research Hospital, Bursa, Turkey.

Introduction: One of the approaches to diagnose Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is to detect two or more elevated values in 3-h Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) after an abnormal 50 gr Glucose Challenge Test (GCT). Patients with single elevated OGTT generally postulated as healthy; however, these patients could experience adverse perinatal and maternal issues more frequently. We aimed to investigate the maternal and neonatal outcomes of women with single abnormal OGTT primarily by comparing these women with healthy controls and GDM patients. Read More

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November 2021

Fetal Programming Is Deeply Related to Maternal Selenium Status and Oxidative Balance; Experimental Offspring Health Repercussions.

Nutrients 2021 Jun 18;13(6). Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Seville University, 41012 Seville, Spain.

Nutrients consumed by mothers during pregnancy and lactation can exert permanent effects upon infant developing tissues, which could represent an important risk factor for diseases during adulthood. One of the important nutrients that contributes to regulating the cell cycle and tissue development and functionality is the trace element selenium (Se). Maternal Se requirements increase during gestation and lactation. Read More

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Lead, mercury, and cadmium levels in breast milk and infant hair in the late period of lactation in Ankara, Turkey.

Int J Environ Health Res 2021 Jun 7:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Analytic Toxicology Laboratory, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara, Turkey.

Lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) have known harmful effects on children's well-being. The object of this study was to measure the levels of heavy metals (Pb, Hg, and Cd) in breast milk and infant hair, connected environmental factors, and the impact on infant growth and development at 8 months. Seventy-four breast milk samples and 46 infant hair samples were analyzed. Read More

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The Impact of a Lifestyle Intervention on Postpartum Weight Retention Among At-Risk Hispanic Women.

Am J Prev Med 2021 07 13;61(1):44-54. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Introduction: This study assesses the impact of a culturally modified, motivationally targeted, individually tailored intervention on postpartum weight retention among Hispanic women with abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy.

Methods: Estudio Parto (Project Aiming to Reduce Type twO diabetes) was an RCT conducted in Western Massachusetts (collected 2013‒2017, analyzed 2018-2020). Hispanic women with blood glucose ≥140 mg/dL (7. Read More

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Peripartum Encephalopathy: A Pictorial Review.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2021 Apr 23;12(2):402-409. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Neurology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER) Puducherry, India.

Acute neurological problems are significant disorders of pre- and postpartum period in women. We analyzed the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profile of patients presenting with peripartum encephalopathy over 2 years. Of 51 patients, MRI was abnormal in 40 patients and normal in 11 patients. Read More

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Liver transaminase levels during pregnancy: a Japanese multicenter study.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Feb 28:1-7. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Introduction: There are conflicting reports on the effect of pregnancy on liver transaminase (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) levels. In this study, we sought to investigate the trajectories of AST and ALT levels during normal pregnancy and to compare them with AST and ALT levels of matched nonpregnant controls.

Materials And Methods: Our multicenter retrospective study included 34,396 women who delivered at term at 12 primary maternity care units between January 2011 and December 2018 and 57,152 nonpregnant women younger than 45 years who received a medical checkup between 2016 and 2019. Read More

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February 2021

Effect of pre-operative bicarbonate infusion on maternal and perinatal outcomes among women with obstructed labour in Mbale hospital: A double blind randomized controlled trial.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(2):e0245989. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, School of Medicine, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda.

Introduction: Oral bicarbonate solution is known to improve both maternal and perinatal outcomes among women with abnormal labour (dystocia). Its effectiveness and safety among women with obstructed labour is not known.

Objective: To determine the effect and safety of a single-dose preoperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate on maternal and fetal blood lactate and clinical outcomes among women with obstructed labour (OL) in Mbale hospital. Read More

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A longitudinal study of thyroid markers during pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus and post-partum glucose metabolism.

Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2021 05 22;37(4):e3441. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Endocrinology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.

Aims: To determine the relationship between thyroid markers during pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or post-partum glucose metabolism.

Materials And Methods: Based on pregnancy 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results, 1467 subjects were grouped into normal glucose tolerance (NGTp; n = 768) and GDM (n = 699) groups. Furthermore, based on post-partum 75-g OGTT results, 286 GDM subjects, screened for glucose metabolism after delivery, were grouped into NGTd (n = 241) and abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT; n = 45) groups. Read More

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Postpartum-Specific Vital Sign Reference Ranges.

Obstet Gynecol 2021 02;137(2):295-304

Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, the Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering Science, the Nuffield Department of Women's & Reproductive Health, and the Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; the Department of Anaesthesia, Wellington Hospital, Wellington, New Zealand; and Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and the Department of Women and Children's Health, King's College, London, and the National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit and the Oxford National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Objective: To estimate normal ranges for postpartum maternal vital signs.

Methods: We conducted a multicenter prospective longitudinal cohort study in the United Kingdom. We recruited women before 20 weeks of gestation without significant comorbidities and with accurately dated singleton pregnancies. Read More

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February 2021

Enlarged uterine fibroid forming uterine diverticulum during pregnancy: a case report.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Jan 7;21(1):34. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, 1-757, Asahimachi-dori, Chuo-ku, Niigata, 951-8510, Japan.

Background: Although uterine fibroids are a common gynecologic neoplasm, uterine diverticulum accompanied by a uterine fibroid is unique. In addition, pregnancy complicated with uterine diverticulum is extremely rare. We experienced a case of a uterine fibroid that was associated with a uterine diverticulum that enlarged during pregnancy and puerperium. Read More

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January 2021

Toxic effects of TiO NPs in the blood-milk barrier of the maternal dams and growth of offspring.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 11;208:111762. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, China. Electronic address:

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO NPs) are amongst the most frequently used nanomaterial in everyday consumer products, and their widespread applications have raised concerns of the consequent deleterious effects on human health, particularly to vulnerable populations, such as lactating females remains elusive. Therefore, this study was initiated to investigate the detrimental effects and toxic mechanisms induced by TiO NPs in maternal dams and offspring during the lactation period. Dams were randomly divided into three groups. Read More

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January 2021

Relationship between excess iodine, thyroid function, blood pressure, and blood glucose level in adults, pregnant women, and lactating women: A cross-sectional study.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 10;208:111706. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

High water iodine concentration in drinking water can lead to excessive iodine, which will affect normal thyroid function, blood glucose, and blood pressure, especially among pregnant and lactating women. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between iodine, thyroid function, blood pressure, and blood glucose level among adults, and pregnant and lactating women in areas that are iodine-adequate (IA) and iodine-excess (IE) with respect to iodine concentrations in drinking water. A cross-sectional survey was conducted involving 144 pregnant and 237 lactating women in Shanxi Province, and 828 adults in Shandong Province. Read More

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January 2021

Effect of a subsequent pregnancy on anal sphincter integrity and function after obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI).

Int Urogynecol J 2021 07 2;32(7):1719-1726. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Croydon Urogynaecology & Pelvic Floor Reconstruction Unit, Croydon University Hospital, Thornton Heath, UK.

Introduction And Hypothesis: Endoanal ultrasound (EAUS) and anal manometry are used in the assessment women with a history of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI), both postpartum and in a subsequent pregnancy, to aid counselling regarding mode of delivery (MOD).

Methods: A prospective observational study between 2012 to 2020 was completed. Women were reviewed 3 months postpartum following OASI and in the second half of a subsequent pregnancy. Read More

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Kinetics of placenta-specific 8 (PLAC8) in equine placenta during pregnancy and placentitis.

Theriogenology 2021 Jan 5;160:81-89. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 40546, USA. Electronic address:

Placenta-specific 8 (PLAC8) is one of the placenta-regulatory genes which is highly conserved among eutherian mammals. However, little is known about its expression in equine placenta (chorioallantois; CA and endometrium; EN) during normal and abnormal pregnancy. Therefore, the current study was designed to 1) elucidate the expression of PLAC8 in equine embryonic membranes during the preimplantation period, 2) characterize the expression profile of PLAC8 in equine CA (45d, 4mo, 6mo, 10 mo, 11 mo and postpartum) and EN (14d, 4mo, 6mo, 10 mo, and 11 mo) obtained from pregnant mares (n = 4/timepoint), as well as, d14 non-pregnant EN (n = 4), and 3) investigate the expression profile of PLAC8 in ascending placentitis (n = 5) and in nocardioform placentitis (n = 6) in comparison to normal CA. Read More

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January 2021

A Pictorial Review of Postpartum Complications.

Radiographics 2020 Nov-Dec;40(7):2117-2141. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

From the Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron 119-129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain.

The postpartum period, also known as the puerperium, begins immediately after delivery of the neonate and placenta and ends 6-8 weeks after delivery. The appearance of physiologic uterine changes during puerperium can overlap with that of postpartum complications, which makes imaging interpretation and diagnosis difficult. Obstetric and nonobstetric postpartum complications are a considerable source of morbidity and mortality in women of reproductive age, and the radiologist plays an important role in the assessment of these entities, which often require a multimodality imaging approach. Read More

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Maternal nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation induces brown adipose tissue whitening in female offspring.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2020 12 19;409:115298. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China. Electronic address:

Maternal nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation is associated with obesity in female offspring. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is related to energy metabolism and obesity. In this study, we explored the mechanism of maternal nicotine exposure on BAT "whitening" in female offspring. Read More

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December 2020

Utility of in-hospital post-delivery fasting plasma glucose to predict postpartum glucose status in women with hyperglycaemia first detected in pregnancy: A prospective cohort study.

PLoS One 2020 5;15(10):e0239720. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Women with hyperglycaemia first detected in pregnancy (HFDP), including those with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), should undergo a glucose evaluation 4-12 weeks after delivery. Globally, suboptimal postpartum return rates limit the opportunity to intervene in women with sustained hyperglycaemia and pragmatic solutions should be sought to bridge this gap.

Objective: To assess the utility of postpartum in-hospital glucose evaluation to predict the outcome of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed 4-12 weeks after delivery. Read More

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November 2020