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    1 OF 110

    Electromagnetic fields may act via calcineurin inhibition to suppress immunity, thereby increasing risk for opportunistic infection: Conceivable mechanisms of action.
    Med Hypotheses 2017 Sep 3;106:71-87. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    The Experimental Dermatology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:
    While a good number of studies have demonstrated that modern, man-made ambient electromagnetic fields can have both stimulatory and inhibitory effect on immune system function, the precise mechanisms have yet to be completely elucidated. It is hypothesized here that, depending on the parameters, one of the means by which long-term electromagnetic field exposure has the potential to eventually lead to immunosuppression is via downstream inhibition of the enzyme calcineurin - a protein phosphatase, which activates the T-cells of the immune system and can be blocked by pharmaceutical agents. Calcineurin is the target of a class of pharmaceuticals called calcineurin inhibitors (e. Read More

    [Retrospective analysis of 13 cases of nocardiosis].
    Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2017 Aug;40(8):588-591
    Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100020, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the clinical features, chest radiological manifestations, microbiological examination and treatments of nocardial disease. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the data of patients with nocardial infection admitted to Beijing Chaoyang Hospital from January 2010 to January 2016. Results: The 13 patients, 6 males and 7 females, aged (51±17) years. Read More

    [Brain abcesses associated with a systemic infection by Nocardia Farcinica].
    Rev Med Liege 2017 Jul;72(7-8):340-343
    Service de Rhumatologie, CHU de Liège, site Sart Tilman, Liège, Belgique.
    The prevalence of nocardia infections is increasing because of both improved detection laboratory techniques and a higher number of immunosuppressed patients. We report the case of a patient with brain abcesses resulting from nocardia farcinica cerebral dissemination associated with lung infection, endocarditis and ocular lesions for which we suspected a similar origin. This case gives the opportunity to discuss the main issues of these infections and the current therapeutic guidelines. Read More

    A Primary Cutaneous Nocardiosis of the Hand.
    Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2017 Jul 20;5(4):470-472. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Friedrichstrasse 41, 01067, Dresden, Germany.
    Background: Nocardiosis is caused by an aerobic actinomycete, most commonly introduced through the respiratory tract. The Nocardiae are gram-positive, partially acid-fast bacteria. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis infections are rare and caused by the traumatic introduction of organisms percutaneously. Read More

    Primary Cutaneous Nocardiosis Caused by Nocardia takedensis.
    Ann Dermatol 2017 Aug 21;29(4):471-475. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Dermatology, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.
    Nocardia species are aerobic, gram-positive, filamentous, partially acid-fast actinomycetes which are found worldwide in soil and decaying organic plant matter. When they infect human beings, they generally enter through the respiratory tract and then disseminate systemically. Rarely has a primary infection occurred as the result of direct inoculation. Read More

    Nocardia farcinica Brain Abscess: Report of 3 Cases.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Jul 18. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Microbiology, Hospital Universitario de Burgos, Burgos, Spain.
    Background: Central nervous system nocardial infection is a rarely reported disease that usually affects patients with predisposing and debilitating conditions but also the immunocompetent population. The most common variant affecting the brain is Nocardia farcinica. Management of brain nocardiosis is troublesome and requires consideration of the severity of the underlying systemic disease, the difficulties in identifying the bacterium, and the frequent delay in initiating adequate therapy. Read More

    [Disseminated nocardiosis caused by Nocardia nova with brain abscesses and osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent patient].
    Rev Med Interne 2017 Jul 14. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Service de pneumologie, hôpital d'instruction des armées Percy, 101, avenue Henri-Barbusse, 92140 Clamart, France.
    Introduction: Nocardia is an opportunist bacteria involved in patients with cellular immunodepression or chronic lung disease. The most frequent portals of entry are the respiratory tract by inhalation or direct inoculation through a cutaneous effraction. Nocardiosis may be localised or disseminated. Read More

    Disseminated Nocardia cyriacigeorgia causing pancreatitis in a haploidentical stem cell transplant recipient.
    IDCases 2017 27;9:73-76. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, 1015 Chestnut St., Suite 1020, Philadelphia, PA 19107, United States.
    We report the first published case of acute pancreatitis secondary to disseminated nocardiosis in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipient on chronic immunosuppression for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Nocardiosis in the HSCT population is relatively rare, and has not yet been described in haploidentical HSCT recipients. Our patient is a 28-year-old male with a history of haploidentical HSCT and GVHD of the skin and lung who was admitted to the hospital with acute pancreatitis. Read More

    [Respiratory infections caused by slow-growing bacteria: Nocardia, Actinomyces, Rhodococcus].
    Rev Mal Respir 2017 Jun 5;34(6):661-671. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Service de microbiologie, unité mobile de microbiologie clinique, hôpital européen Georges-Pompidou, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 20, rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris, France; Université Paris Descartes, 75006 Paris, France. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Pneumonia caused by slow-growing bacteria is rare but sometimes severe.

    State Of The Art: These infections share many similarities such as several differential diagnoses, difficulties to identify the pathogen, the importance of involving the microbiologist in the diagnostic investigation and the need for prolonged antibiotic treatment. However, major differences distinguish them: Nocardia and Rhodococcus infect mainly immunocompromised patients while actinomycosis also concerns immunocompetent patients; the severity of nocardioses is related to their hematogenous spread while locoregional extension by contiguity makes the gravity of actinomycosis. Read More

    Pelvic Actinomycosis.
    Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2017 8;2017:9428650. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Coordinación Delegacional de Investigación en Salud, México Poniente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Toluca, MEX, Mexico.
    Introduction: Actinomycosis is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces, Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria. Its symptomatology imitates some malignant pelvic tumours, tuberculosis, or nocardiosis, causing abscesses and fistulas. Actinomycoses are opportunistic infections and require normal mucous barriers to be altered. Read More

    Pulmonary Nocardiosis: A Clinical Analysis of 30 Cases.
    Intern Med 2017 15;56(12):1485-1490. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chiba Aoba Municipal Hospital, Japan.
    Objective Pulmonary nocardiosis frequently develops as an opportunistic infection in patients with malignant tumor and is treated with steroids. This study was performed to clarify the clinical features of pulmonary nocardiosis in Japan. Methods The patients definitively diagnosed with pulmonary nocardiosis at our hospital between January 1995 and December 2015 were retrospectively investigated. Read More

    Imaging Spectrum of Invasive Fungal and Fungal-like Infections.
    Radiographics 2017 Jul-Aug;37(4):1119-1134. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    From the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 S Kingshighway Blvd, Box 8131, St Louis, MO 63110 (H.L.P.O., S.M., V.M.M., S.B.); Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis (M.G.L., P.J.P.); and Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Ariz (C.O.M.).
    Invasive fungal and fungal-like infections contribute to substantial morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. The incidence of these infections is increasing-largely because of rising numbers of immunocompromised patients, including those with neutropenia, human immunodeficiency virus, chronic immunosuppression, indwelling prostheses, burns, and diabetes mellitus, and those taking broad-spectrum antibiotics. Invasive fungal pathogens include primary mycotic organisms such as Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, which are true pathogens and inherently virulent. Read More

    Pulmonary and cutaneous infection caused by Nocardia farcinica in a patient with nephrotic syndrome: A case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jun;96(24):e7211
    aDepartment of Cardiology bDepartment of Nephrology, The Third Clinical College of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou People's Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, PR China.
    Rationale: Nocardia species is known as conditional pathogenic bacteria. Disseminated infection caused by Nocardia species is rare and occurs primarily in immunosuppressed patients. Signs and symptoms of this infection are frequently nonspecific making early diagnosis and treatment difficult. Read More

    [Brain abscesses caused by Nocardia farcinica in a kidney transplanted man].
    Ugeskr Laeger 2017 Jun;179(23)
    Nocardiosis is primarily an opportunistic infection caused by aerobic Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Nocardia. In this case report we describe a male patient who previously received a kidney transplant and was admitted to hospital with chills, headache and pain in the neck and left eye, tremor and coordination problems. A magnetic resonance scan of the brain showed multiple abscesses, and blood culture was positive for Nocardia farcinica. Read More

    Adjuvant effect of recombinant interleukin-12 in the Nocardiosis formalin-killed vaccine of the amberjack Seriola dumerili.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Aug 7;67:263-269. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8580, Japan; Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0056, Japan. Electronic address:
    Nocardiosis causes serious economic damage in the fish farming of Japanese yellowtail fish. Nocardia seriolae identified as pathogenic bacterium is an intracellular-pathogen. In general, induction of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is effective in infection defense against intracellular-pathogen. Read More

    Respiratory infections associated with anti-TNFα agents.
    Med Mal Infect 2017 Jun 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Service des maladies respiratoires, hôpital Haut-Lévêque, CHU de Bordeaux, 1, avenue Magellan, 33604 Pessac cedex, France.
    Anti-TNFα agents have proved effective in the treatment of various inflammatory, rheumatologic, dermatologic, and gastrointestinal diseases. Severe respiratory tract infections of bacterial or fungal origin have emerged as important complications in patients receiving such treatments. The risk of infection due to anti-TNFα therapy is difficult to assess in these patients who are immunocompromised because of the underlying disease itself and of previous or concomitant immunosuppressive drugs. Read More

    An Elderly Man With Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor and a Cavitary Right Upper Lobe Lung Mass.
    Chest 2017 Jun;151(6):e135-e139
    Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT. Electronic address:
    Case Presentation: An elderly man presented to the ED from a nursing care facility after transient loss of consciousness. Three weeks previously, the patient had been diagnosed with a high-grade pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with metastases to the liver after being hospitalized for weakness. A chest radiograph at that time had revealed a right upper lobe mass that was presumed to represent a metastatic lesion (Fig 1); CT of the chest demonstrated similar findings (Fig 2). Read More

    Isolation, biochemical and molecular identification of Nocardia species among TB suspects in northeastern, Tanzania; a forgotten or neglected threat?
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Jun 8;17(1):407. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Liebig Str. 21, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.
    Background: Pulmonary nocardiosis mimic pulmonary tuberculosis in most clinical and radiological manifestations. In Tanzania, where tuberculosis is one of the major public health threat clinical impact of nocardiosis as the cause of the human disease remains unknown. The objective of the present study was to isolate and identify Nocardia isolates recovered from TB suspects in Northeastern, Tanzania by using biochemical and molecular methods. Read More

    Nocardia infection following intraocular surgery: Report of seven cases from a tertiary eye hospital.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2017 May;65(5):371-375
    Department of Cornea and Anterior Segment, Dr. Shroff's Charity Eye Hospital, New Delhi, India.
    Purpose: To study the outcome of ocular nocardiosis following intraocular surgery.

    Materials And Methods: A retrospective review of medical records of all postoperative cases of culture proven Nocardia infection over a period of 3 years, from October 2010 to September 2013, was performed. Microbiological analysis was performed for all cases and included smears and cultures. Read More

    Practical Management of Deep Cutaneous Fungal Infections.
    Med Mycol J 2017 ;58(2):E71-E77
    Department of Dermatology, Kitasato University Kitasato Institute Hospital.
    Understanding deep cutaneous fungal infection requires not only reading many case reports and checking the typical clinical images of skin lesions, but also managing the patients properly to prevent misdiagnosis. Herein, I review my recent experiences with eight typical cases of deep cutaneous infections (including protothecosis and nocardiosis) in Japan. It is very important to do the four management processes; namely, KOH direct microscopic examination, skin biopsy, fungal culture, and microscopic examination of the histopathological specimen of PAS and Grocott staining. Read More

    Cutaneous nocardiosis manifesting as a frontal mass in a patient with giant cell arteritis.
    Clujul Med 2017 25;90(2):231-234. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Rheumatology Department, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
    We report the case of a subcutaneous abscess due to Nocardia spp. mimicking a spontaneous hematoma or an aneurysm of the temporal artery branch, in a giant cell arteritis patient treated with methylprednisolone and azathioprine. Ultrasonography, incision and drainage with cultures helped in the diagnosis. Read More

    Approach to skin and soft tissue infections in non-HIV immunocompromised hosts.
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 2017 Aug;30(4):354-363
    Section of Infectious Diseases and HIV Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: Skin and soft tissue infections are frequent contributors to morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised host. This article reviews the changing epidemiology and clinical manifestations of the most common cutaneous pathogens in non-HIV immunocompromised hosts, including patients with solid organ transplants, stem cell transplants, solid tumors, hematologic malignancies, and receiving chronic immunosuppressive therapy for inflammatory disorders.

    Recent Findings: Defects in the innate or adaptive immune response can predispose the immunocompromised host to certain cutaneous infections in a predictive fashion. Read More

    Disseminated Nocardia Farcinica Pneumonia with Left Adrenal Gland Abscess.
    Cureus 2017 Apr 12;9(4):e1160. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Internal Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center Memphis.
    Adrenal masses pose a diagnostic challenge. The differential diagnosis includes functional adrenal tumors, incidentally found adrenal masses, metastases from an unknown primary cancer, and abscesses. Infrequently, adrenal gland abscesses have been reported in disseminated nocardiosis affecting immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Read More

    Infections in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients: Results From the Organ Transplant Infection Project, a Multicenter, Prospective, Cohort Study.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2017 22;4(2):ofx050. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    University of Alabama at Birmingham.
    Background: Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Our object was to better define the epidemiology and outcomes of infections after HCT.

    Methods: This was a prospective, multicenter cohort study of HCT recipients and conducted from 2006 to 2011. Read More

    Toll-Like Receptor 2 and Mincle Cooperatively Sense Corynebacterial Cell Wall Glycolipids.
    Infect Immun 2017 Jul 20;85(7). Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    Institute of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Friedrich Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany
    Nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans cause invasive disease in humans and animals. Host sensing of corynebacteria is largely uncharacterized, albeit the recognition of lipoglycans by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) appears to be important for macrophage activation by corynebacteria. The members of the order Corynebacterineae (e. Read More

    Culture-Proven Thorn-Associated Infections in Arizona: 10-Year Experience at Mayo Clinic.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2017 10;4(1):ofx017. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Division of Infectious Diseases.
    Background: Thorn injuries are common in the desert Southwest; however, the frequency and microbiology of thorn-associated infections have not been systematically described. Most information comes from case reports describing infections from atypical or environmental microorganisms. Our aim was to summarize the spectrum of thorn-associated infections. Read More

    Recurrent Scedosporium apiospermum mycetoma successfully treated by surgical excision and terbinafine treatment: a case report and review of the literature.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Apr 14;16(1):31. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    MTA-SZTE "Lendület" Fungal Pathogenicity Mechanisms Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Szeged, Közép fasor 52, Szeged, 6726, Hungary.
    Background: Scedosporium apiospermum is an emerging opportunistic filamentous fungus, which is notorious for its high levels of antifungal-resistance. It is able to cause localized cutaneous or subcutaneous infections in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent persons, pulmonary infections in patients with predisposing pulmonary diseases and invasive mycoses in immunocompromised patients. Subcutaneous infections caused by this fungus frequently show chronic mycetomatous manifestation. Read More

    Detection of high serum levels of β-D-Glucan in disseminated nocardial infection: a case report.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Apr 13;17(1):272. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nagasaki University Hospital, 1-7-1 Sakamoto-machi, Nagasaki, Japan.
    Background: β-D-glucan (BDG) is a helpful diagnostic marker for many invasive fungal infections, but not for nocardiosis. Here, we reported the first case of nocardial infection with high serum level of BDG.

    Case Presentation: A 73-year-old man was hospitalized because of fever, headache, and appetite loss after 10 months of steroid and immunosuppressive therapy for cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. Read More

    Primary cutaneous nocardiosis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis following a wasp sting.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2017 Apr 10. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Department of Dermatology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University No. 37 of Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.
    We report a case of an 87-year-old woman who presented with painful erythema of her right forearm 10 days after she had been stung by a wasp on her right hand. The lesion had rapidly deteriorated during the week before presentation, and treatment with antibiotics and glucocorticoids did not improve the condition. After careful evaluation, we performed cultures from the lesion aspiration, and morphological and genetic analysis of bacteria cultures confirmed a bacterial infection with Nocardia brasiliensis. Read More

    Surgery of a nocardia lung abscess presenting as a tension pyopneumothorax.
    Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2017 May 7;25(4):315-317. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Department of Thoracic Surgery, Nishi-Kobe Medical Center, Hyogo, Japan.
    While some cases of nocardial pneumonia develop secondary empyema, tension pyopneumothorax is a very rare and lethal complication. A 74-year-old man who exhibited thrombocytopenia during steroid therapy for autoimmune hepatitis, presented to our department with a nocardial tension pyopneumothorax. He underwent a left lower lobectomy after chest drainage, and was discharged without any complication other than reoperation to remove a postoperative hematoma. Read More

    Meningitis and Ventriculitis due to Nocardia araoensis Infection.
    Intern Med 2017 1;56(7):853-859. Epub 2017 Apr 1.
    Division of Neurology, Minamata City Hospital, Japan.
    A 73-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with disturbance of consciousness, fever and headache. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed pleocytosis with neutrophil predominance, increased protein and low glucose. CSF and blood cultures yielded negative results. Read More

    Nocardiosis in freshwater reared Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).
    N Z Vet J 2017 Jul 26;65(4):214-218. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    a Animal Health Laboratory , Ministry for Primary Industries , 66 Ward Street, Upper Hutt , New Zealand.
    Case History: An investigation was conducted to identify the cause of mortalities in freshwater reared Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Mortalities occurred in juvenile salmon, at a salmon rearing facility in the South Island of New Zealand. The affected fish were from a pen inside the facility with no surrounding pens or other year classes affected. Read More

    Severe pneumonia due to Nocardia otitidiscaviarum identified by mass spectroscopy in a cotton farmer: A case report and literature review.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Mar;96(13):e6526
    aDepartment of Nephrology bDepartment of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine cDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, P.R. China.
    Rationale: Nocardia species are aerobic saprophytic bacilli. Among Nocardia species, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum (N otitidiscaviarum) is rarely reported in pulmonary infection.

    Patient Concerns: We reported a case of N otitidiscaviarum pneumonia in a cotton farmer. Read More

    Successful treatment of pulmonary nocardiosis with fluoroquinolone in bronchial asthma and bronchiectasis.
    Respirol Case Rep 2017 May 26;5(3):e00229. Epub 2017 Mar 26.
    Division of Haematology, Respiratory Medicine and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Saga University Saga Japan.
    A 72-year-old Japanese woman was admitted at Saga University Hospital for fever, malaise, and productive cough. Six years ago, she had been diagnosed with bronchial asthma and was treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Chest radiograph and computed tomography on admission showed infiltrates in the right middle lobe, a mass lesion in the left lower lobe, and bronchiectasis in both lower lobes. Read More

    Nocardia brasiliensis Infection Complicating Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia.
    Case Rep Pulmonol 2017 28;2017:9567175. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Sleep Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.
    Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis. Read More

    First case report of pulmonary nocardiosis caused by Nocardia mexicana.
    JMM Case Rep 2016 Aug 30;3(4):e005054. Epub 2016 Aug 30.
    Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba City, Chiba, 260-8673, Japan.
    Introduction: Nocardia species usually cause opportunistic infections, and the frequency of these infections is increasing owing to the growing population of immunocompromised hosts. However, Nocardia species may sometimes cause an infection disease in immunocompetent hosts. Nocardia mexicana infections are the least common and are very rare. Read More

    Adjuvant interferon-gamma immunotherapy in a patient with progressive cerebral Nocardia abscesses.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Jun 22;59:25-28. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud university medical center, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (RILMS), Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Despite advances in medical care, mortality due to cerebral Nocardia abscesses remains unacceptably high. The case of a typical immunocompromised patient, who deteriorated clinically despite optimal antimicrobial treatment, is reported here. Adjuvant immunotherapy with interferon-gamma resulted in partial restoration of the immune response and a corresponding clinical and radiographic recovery. Read More

    Combining two antifungal agents does not enhance survival of Galleria mellonella larvae infected with Madurella mycetomatis.
    Trop Med Int Health 2017 Jun 2;22(6):696-702. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ErasmusMC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Objective: To determine whether combination therapy would improve therapeutic outcome in eumycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomatis.

    Methods: Survival, colony-forming units (CFU), melanisation and histopathology in M. mycetomatis-infected Galleria mellonella larvae treated with amphotericin B, itraconazole, terbinafine or combinations thereof were determined. Read More

    Outcome and Treatment of Nocardiosis After Solid Organ Transplantation: New Insights From a European Study.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 May;64(10):1396-1405
    Division of Infectious Diseases, CUB-Erasme, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Background: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at risk of nocardiosis, a rare opportunistic bacterial infection, but prognosis and outcome of these patients are poorly defined. Our objectives were to identify factors associated with 1-year mortality after nocardiosis and describe the outcome of patients receiving short-course antibiotics (≤120 days).

    Methods: We analyzed data from a multicenter European case-control study that included 117 SOT recipients with nocardiosis diagnosed between 2000 and 2014. Read More

    Actinomycetoma: an update on diagnosis and treatment.
    Cutis 2017 Feb;99(2):E11-E15
    Dawson Medical Group, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA.
    Mycetoma is a chronic infection that develops after traumatic inoculation of the skin with either true fungi or aerobic actinomycetes. The resultant infections are known as eumycetoma or actinomycetoma, respectively. Although actinomycetoma is rare in developed countries, migration of patients from endemic areas makes knowledge of this condition crucial for dermatologists worldwide. Read More

    Endogenous Nocardial Endophthalmitis in an Immunosuppressed Patient: A Serious Warning of an Underlying Life Threatening and Blinding Disorder.
    J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2017 Jan-Mar;12(1):113-116
    Department of Ophthalmology, Army Hospital Research and Referral, Delhi Cantonment, India.
    Purpose: To report a case of bilateral endogenous nocardial endophthalmitis with central nervous system involvement in an immunocompromised individual with an extremely poor outcome.

    Case Report: A 35-year-old man with a history of long-term, prescribed oral steroid use for membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis presented with profound bilateral vision loss. Patient's diagnosis of bilateral endogenous nocardial endophthalmitis was delayed. Read More

    Pulmonary Nocardia beijingensis infection associated with the use of alemtuzumab in a patient with multiple sclerosis.
    Mult Scler 2017 May 1;23(6):872-874. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Department of Internal Medicine, UAB School of Medicine, Huntsville, AL, USA.
    Nocardia is a Gram-positive aerobic pathogen that usually affects immunocompromised patients. We report a case of pulmonary infection caused by a rare Nocardia species, Nocardia beijingensis, in a 50-year-old woman who had received alemtuzumab for the treatment of her multiple sclerosis. The invasive pulmonary infection was successfully treated with meropenem. Read More

    Cloning, Expression, Invasion, and Immunological Reactivity of a Mammalian Cell Entry Protein Encoded by the mce1 Operon of Nocardia farcinica.
    Front Microbiol 2017 22;8:281. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention Beijing, China.
    Bacterial mammalian cell entry (Mce) proteins have been implicated in pathogen invasion of mammalian host cells. The aim of this study was to examine the invasion-conferring ability of mce1E operon-encoded proteins, in vivo expression of Mce1E in cells from infected mice and rabbits, and Mce1E immunogenicity. Nocardia farcinica mce1E was cloned into pet30a(+) vectors, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. Read More

    Analysis of the complete genome sequence of Nocardia seriolae UTF1, the causative agent of fish nocardiosis: The first reference genome sequence of the fish pathogenic Nocardia species.
    PLoS One 2017 3;12(3):e0173198. Epub 2017 Mar 3.
    Research Center for Bioinformatics and Biosciences, National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Japan Fisheries Research and Education Agency, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.
    Nocardiosis caused by Nocardia seriolae is one of the major threats in the aquaculture of Seriola species (yellowtail; S. quinqueradiata, amberjack; S. dumerili and kingfish; S. Read More

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