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    Rejection, Recurrence, or Something Else?
    Bol Asoc Med P R 2016 ;108(2):39-41
    Since the introduction of liver transplant as treatment for end-stage liver disease, thousands of lives have been saved. To prevent organ rejection, immunosuppression is given chronically and hence, patients are at increased risk for opportunistic infections related to immunosuppression, especially within the first year after the transplant. However, opportunistic infections can occur years after the transplantation. Read More

    In vitro activity of some essential oils alone and in combination against the fish pathogen Nocardia seriolae.
    Pol J Vet Sci 2017 Sep;20(3):559-566
    Microplate resazurin assay was applied to investigate the in vitro activity of four essential oils (EOs); cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) and tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oils against 80 clinical isolates of the fish pathogen Nocardia seriolae. The checkerboard test was then used to determine the possible synergistic effect of EOs combination against reference type strains of fish nocardiosis. All tested EOs had antibacterial activity against N. Read More

    Disseminated nocardiosis complicated by multiple brain abscesses and pleural empyema in a young diabetic man: a case report.
    Pathologica 2017 Sep;109(3):140-142
    Unit of Thoracic Surgery, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Nocardiosis is a life-threatening infection usually affecting immunocompromised patients. Very rarely it presented with intracranial abscesses and pleuro-parenchymal infections. We herein report a very challenging case of a 34-year-old obese and diabetic man affected by disseminated nocardiosis with multiple brain abscesses and pleural empyema. Read More

    Nocardiosis from 1888 to 2017.
    Microb Pathog 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Electronic address:
    The genus Nocardia is an aerobic bacterium, Gram-positive and catalase positive that is in Nocardiaceae family. This bacterium first described by Edmond Nocard in 1888 and is not in human commensal bacteria. To date, nocardiosis incidence is increasing due to increase population growth rate, increase in patients with immune disorder diseases and immunocompromised patients. Read More

    The Complexities of Nocardia Taxonomy and Identification.
    J Clin Microbiol 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Microbiology Service, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive MSC 1508, Bethesda, MD 20892-1508.
    Nocardia species are a complex group of organisms considered to belong to the aerobic actinomycetes. Of the validly described species, many have been implicated as the cause of serious human infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. The genus has a complicated taxonomic history; this is especially true for Nocardia asteroides, the type species of the genus and previously the most frequently reported nocardial taxon from human specimens. Read More

    Successful Treatment of Disseminated Nocardiosis Caused by Nocardia veterana in a Dog.
    J Vet Intern Med 2017 Nov 4. Epub 2017 Nov 4.
    Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA.
    A 5-year-old male castrated Lhasa Apso cross was evaluated for a 1-month history of inappetence, lethargy, gagging, and progressive right thoracic limb lameness. Synovial fluid analysis revealed nonseptic suppurative inflammation, and a diagnosis of immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA) was made. After 3 months of treatment with prednisone and later cyclosporine, the dog developed multiple firm cutaneous and subcutaneous masses and a focal mass within the jejunum. Read More

    Transparent Tiger barb Puntius tetrazona, a fish model for in vivo analysis of nocardial infection.
    Vet Microbiol 2017 Nov 5;211:67-73. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Key Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Immune Technology of Guangdong Province, Pearl River Fishery Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510380, China. Electronic address:
    Nocardiosis afflicts multiple species of cultured fish, resulting in substantial economic losses to the aquaculture industry, however, lack of detailed knowledge on disease pathogenesis has hampered the development of effective prevention and control strategies. In this study, we injected a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled Nocardia seriolae strain into a transparent mutant strain of Tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona) to monitor tissue pathogen accumulation and tissue damage in vivo, and to clarify the relationship between pathogenic processes and overt symptoms. GFP-labeled bacteria were phagocytized by leukocytes and could proliferate within these cells, which in turn led to leukocyte aggregation, leukocyte death, and granuloma formation. Read More

    Granulomatous Thyroiditis: A Case Report and Literature Review.
    Ann Clin Lab Sci 2017 Sep;47(5):620-624
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.
    Background: Granulomatous disease in the thyroid gland has been linked to viral, bacterial and autoimmune etiologies. The most common granulomatous disease of the thyroid is subacute granulomatous thyroiditis, which is presumed to have a viral or post-viral inflammatory cause. Bacterial etiologies include tuberculosis, actinomycosis, and nocardiosis, but are extremely rare. Read More

    Nocardia beijingensis pericarditis presenting with cardiac tamponade: A case report.
    Int J STD AIDS 2017 Jan 1:956462417736986. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    1 Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, 26682 Chiang Mai University , Chiang Mai, Thailand.
    We report the first case of Nocardia beijingensis pericarditis in a 32-year-old HIV-infected patient. He presented with cardiac tamponade after failing to respond to treatment for smear-negative pulmonary and pericardial tuberculosis (TB). The pericardial fluid was examined several times before it eventually revealed filamentous branching organisms in Gram and modified acid-fast bacilli stain. Read More

    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Expression Licenses Type-2 Helper T Cells to Function in a T Cell Receptor-Independent Fashion.
    Immunity 2017 Oct;47(4):710-722.e6
    Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, EH9 3FL Edinburgh, UK. Electronic address:
    Gastro-intestinal helminth infections trigger the release of interleukin-33 (IL-33), which induces type-2 helper T cells (Th2 cells) at the site of infection to produce IL-13, thereby contributing to host resistance in a T cell receptor (TCR)-independent manner. Here, we show that, as a prerequisite for IL-33-induced IL-13 secretion, Th2 cells required the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and of its ligand, amphiregulin, for the formation of a signaling complex between T1/ST2 (the IL-33R) and EGFR. This shared signaling complex allowed IL-33 to induce the EGFR-mediated activation of the MAP-kinase signaling pathway and consequently the expression of IL-13. Read More

    Virulence test using nematodes to prescreen Nocardia species capable of inducing neurodegeneration and behavioral disorders.
    PeerJ 2017 10;5:e3823. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    UMR CNRS5557, INRA1418 Ecologie Microbienne, Université Lyon 1, VetAgro Sup, Université Claude Bernard (Lyon I), Lyon, France.
    Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a disorder characterized by dopaminergic neuron programmed cell death. The etiology of PD remains uncertain-some cases are due to selected genes associated with familial heredity, others are due to environmental exposure to toxic components, but over 90% of cases have a sporadic origin. Nocardia are Actinobacteria that can cause human diseases like nocardiosis. Read More

    Cutaneous Nocardiosis Simulating Cutaneous Lymphatic Sporotrichosis.
    Case Rep Dermatol 2017 May-Aug;9(2):119-129. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Sector of Dermatology and Post-Graduation Course in Dermatology, University Hospital and School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Sporotrichosis is the subcutaneous mycosis caused by several species of the Sporothrix genus. With worldwide occurrence, the State of Rio de Janeiro is presently undergoing a zoonotic sporotrichosis epidemic. The form of lymphocutaneous nocardiosis is rare, being caused especially by Nocardia brasiliensis. Read More

    Unfolding of a Clinically Suspected Case of Pulmonary Tuberculosis.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Aug 1;11(8):DD01-DD03. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Senior Consultant Microbiologist, Nirmal Laboratories, Puducherry, India.
    Pulmonary nocardiosis caused by Nocardia mimics pulmonary tuberculosis in many aspects. Here, we report a case of suspected pulmonary tuberculosis turning into pulmonary nocardiosis following microbiological evaluation. Sputum sample of the patient grew Nocardia otitidiscaviarum. Read More

    Clinical manifestations of nocardiosis: Study of risk factors and outcomes in a tertiary care hospital.
    J Lab Physicians 2017 Oct-Dec;9(4):288-295
    Department of Microbiology, Medanta-The Medicity, Sector-38, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.
    Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the predisposing risk factors, clinical presentations, laboratory parameters, and treatments taken and outcomes in patients of nocardiosis in the span of 5 years in a tertiary care hospital.

    Materials And Methods: The patients whose specimens showed Nocardia like organism in Gram-staining, Kinyoun staining and characteristic colonies in culture were included in the retrospective analysis study. Retrospective analysis of associated risk factors, clinical presentations, and radiological findings was performed. Read More

    The value of molecular techniques to diagnose Ureaplasma urealyticum and Nocardia farcinica pleuropneumonia in a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Nov 22;64:93-95. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France; Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Centre-Cochin, Fédération d'Infectiologie, Paris, France; INSERM 1181 Biostatistics, Biomathematics, Pharmacoepidemiology, and Infectious Diseases (B2PHI), Paris, France.
    An unusual case of pleural empyema related to Nocardia farcinica and Ureaplasma urealyticum, occurring after autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a 30-year-old patient with lymphoma, is reported. This case illustrates the role of repeated and comprehensive microbiological investigations and the contribution of molecular techniques in reaching the aetiological diagnosis. Read More

    Update on the Management of Infectious Keratitis.
    Ophthalmology 2017 Nov 21;124(11):1678-1689. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Francis I. Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, California; Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, California. Electronic address:
    Infectious keratitis is a major global cause of visual impairment and blindness, often affecting marginalized populations. Proper diagnosis of the causative organism is critical, and although culture remains the prevailing diagnostic tool, newer techniques such as in vivo confocal microscopy are helpful for diagnosing fungus and Acanthamoeba. Next-generation sequencing holds the potential for early and accurate diagnosis even for organisms that are difficult to culture by conventional methods. Read More

    Second report of a Nocardia beijingensis infection in the United States: nodular scleritis with in vitro imipenem resistance.
    Digit J Ophthalmol 2016 10;22(3):62-66. Epub 2016 Aug 10.
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Florida, Gainesville.
    We describe the case of a 52-year-old woman with scleritis caused by an imipenem-resistant strain of Nocardia beijingensis. The patient presented with pain, redness, and nodules on the sclera of 8 weeks' duration. A Gram stain from a nodule on the superonasal aspect of the globe was initially negative. Read More

    In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of Tedizolid against Isolates of Nocardia.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 Dec 22;61(12). Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    The University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Department of Microbiology, Tyler, Texas, USA.
    There is a paucity of efficacious antimicrobials (especially oral) against clinically relevant species of Nocardia To date, all species of Nocardia have been susceptible to linezolid, the first commercially available oxazolidinone. Tedizolid is a new oxazolidinone with previously reported improved in vitro and in vivo (intracellular) potency against multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium sp. and Nocardia brasiliensis Using the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-recommended broth microdilution method, 101 isolates of Nocardia spp. Read More

    Nocardia infections in solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 2017 Dec;30(6):545-551
    aDepartment of Infectious Diseases, CUB-Hôpital Erasme, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium bUnité Mobile de Microbiologie Clinique, Service de Microbiologie, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou cUniversité Paris Descartes dCentre d'Infectiologie Necker-Pasteur, Institut Imagine, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.
    Purpose Of Review: Nocardia spp. is a gram-positive bacteria that may cause infections in humans. Nocardiosis has been described since the early years of transplantation. Read More

    [Pulmonary nocardiosis with cerebral abscesses mimicking metastatic lung cancer: Three cases and a review of literature].
    Rev Mal Respir 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Service de pneumologie, hôpital Pontchaillou, 35033 Rennes, France; Université de Rennes 1, 35000 Rennes, France.
    Nocardiosis is an infectious disease with wide range of clinical features, which can eventually lead to death. The agent responsible belongs to the genus Nocardia that includes about fifty different species. Nocardiosis occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts. Read More

    Subcellular localization and function study of a secreted phospholipase C from Nocardia seriolae.
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 2017 Sep;364(17)
    College of Fisheries, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, PR China.
    Fish nocardiosis is a chronic systemic granulomatous disease, and Nocardia seriolae is the main pathogen that causes it. The pathogenesis and virulence factors of N. seriolae are not fully understood. Read More

    [Pulmonary nocardiosis in immunocompetent patients: about 2 cases].
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 29;27:149. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Service de Pneumo-Phtisiologie, Hôpital Moulay Youssef, Rabat, Maroc.
    Nocardiosis is a rare but severe infection caused by bacteria of the genus nocardia, which belong to the order actinomycetales. If they can affect immunocompetent adult, nocardioses are pathologies affecting the individuals with weakened immune system. Pulmonary involvement is the most common manifestation, its correct management is based on diagnosis, which is often delayed due to non-specific symptoms and inconclusive specimens. Read More

    The cytopathology of Actinomyces, Nocardia, and their mimickers.
    Diagn Cytopathol 2017 Dec 9;45(12):1105-1115. Epub 2017 Sep 9.
    Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, Ohio, 44106.
    Nocardia species and Actinomyces species are 2 of the most commonly diagnosed filamentous bacteria in routine cytopathology practice. These genera share many overlapping cytomorphologic features, including their thin, beaded, branching, Gram-positive, GMS-positive filamentous structures that fragment at their peripheries into bacillary- and coccoid-appearing forms. Features that help distinguish between these 2 microorganisms include the width of their filamentous structures, the angles at which they branch, and their ability or lack thereof to retain a modified acid-fast stain. Read More

    Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical Nocardia species in a tertiary hospital in China.
    J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2017 Sep 1;11:183-187. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:
    Objectives: There is a lack of information on the activities of antimicrobial agents against Nocardia clinical isolates of specific species in China. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of 28 clinical isolates of Nocardia spp. isolated from Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital (Beijing, China). Read More

    Non-Coding RNAs are Differentially Expressed by Nocardia brasiliensis in Vitro and in Experimental Actinomycetoma.
    Open Microbiol J 2017 30;11:112-125. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Ciudad de México, México.
    Introduction: Nocardia spp. are common soil-inhabiting bacteria that frequently infect humans through traumatic injuries or inhalation routes and cause infections, such as actinomycetoma and nocardiosis, respectively. Nocardia brasiliensis is the main aetiological agent of actinomycetoma in various countries. Read More

    Mycetoma laboratory diagnosis: Review article.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 24;11(8):e0005638. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    The Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
    Mycetoma is a unique neglected tropical disease caused by a substantial number of microorganisms of fungal or bacterial origins. Identification of the causative organism and the disease extension are the first steps in the management of the affected patients and predicting disease treatment outcome and prognosis. Different laboratory-based diagnostic tools and techniques were developed over the years to determine and identify the causative agents. Read More

    A Novel Case of Pulmonary Nocardiosis with Secondary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.
    Chin Med J (Engl) 2017 Sep;130(17):2128-2129
    Center for Respiratory Diseases, China-Japan Friendship Hospital; Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, China-Japan Friendship Hospital; National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, Beijing 100029, China.

    Electromagnetic fields may act via calcineurin inhibition to suppress immunity, thereby increasing risk for opportunistic infection: Conceivable mechanisms of action.
    Med Hypotheses 2017 Sep 3;106:71-87. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    The Experimental Dermatology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:
    While a good number of studies have demonstrated that modern, man-made ambient electromagnetic fields can have both stimulatory and inhibitory effect on immune system function, the precise mechanisms have yet to be completely elucidated. It is hypothesized here that, depending on the parameters, one of the means by which long-term electromagnetic field exposure has the potential to eventually lead to immunosuppression is via downstream inhibition of the enzyme calcineurin - a protein phosphatase, which activates the T-cells of the immune system and can be blocked by pharmaceutical agents. Calcineurin is the target of a class of pharmaceuticals called calcineurin inhibitors (e. Read More

    [Retrospective analysis of 13 cases of nocardiosis].
    Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2017 Aug;40(8):588-591
    Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100020, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the clinical features, chest radiological manifestations, microbiological examination and treatments of nocardial disease. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the data of patients with nocardial infection admitted to Beijing Chaoyang Hospital from January 2010 to January 2016. Results: The 13 patients, 6 males and 7 females, aged (51±17) years. Read More

    [Brain abcesses associated with a systemic infection by Nocardia Farcinica].
    Rev Med Liege 2017 Jul;72(7-8):340-343
    Service de Rhumatologie, CHU de Liège, site Sart Tilman, Liège, Belgique.
    The prevalence of nocardia infections is increasing because of both improved detection laboratory techniques and a higher number of immunosuppressed patients. We report the case of a patient with brain abcesses resulting from nocardia farcinica cerebral dissemination associated with lung infection, endocarditis and ocular lesions for which we suspected a similar origin. This case gives the opportunity to discuss the main issues of these infections and the current therapeutic guidelines. Read More

    A Primary Cutaneous Nocardiosis of the Hand.
    Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2017 Jul 20;5(4):470-472. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Friedrichstrasse 41, 01067, Dresden, Germany.
    Background: Nocardiosis is caused by an aerobic actinomycete, most commonly introduced through the respiratory tract. The Nocardiae are gram-positive, partially acid-fast bacteria. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis infections are rare and caused by the traumatic introduction of organisms percutaneously. Read More

    Primary Cutaneous Nocardiosis Caused by Nocardia takedensis.
    Ann Dermatol 2017 Aug 21;29(4):471-475. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Dermatology, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.
    Nocardia species are aerobic, gram-positive, filamentous, partially acid-fast actinomycetes which are found worldwide in soil and decaying organic plant matter. When they infect human beings, they generally enter through the respiratory tract and then disseminate systemically. Rarely has a primary infection occurred as the result of direct inoculation. Read More

    Nocardia farcinica Brain Abscess: Report of 3 Cases.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Oct 18;106:1053.e15-1053.e24. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Microbiology, Hospital Universitario de Burgos, Burgos, Spain.
    Background: Central nervous system nocardial infection is a rarely reported disease that usually affects patients with predisposing and debilitating conditions but also the immunocompetent population. The most common variant affecting the brain is Nocardia farcinica. Management of brain nocardiosis is troublesome and requires consideration of the severity of the underlying systemic disease, the difficulties in identifying the bacterium, and the frequent delay in initiating adequate therapy. Read More

    Mycetoma (Madura Foot) in Israel: Recent Cases and a Systematic Review of the Literature.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jun;96(6):1355-1361
    Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    AbstractMycetoma is a chronic soft tissue infection caused by fungal or bacterial pathogens, and is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. Cases in developed countries outside the mycetoma belt are rare and usually imported by immigrants. Sporadic cases have been reported in Israel. Read More

    [Disseminated nocardiosis caused by Nocardia nova with brain abscesses and osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent patient].
    Rev Med Interne 2017 Jul 14. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Service de pneumologie, hôpital d'instruction des armées Percy, 101, avenue Henri-Barbusse, 92140 Clamart, France.
    Introduction: Nocardia is an opportunist bacteria involved in patients with cellular immunodepression or chronic lung disease. The most frequent portals of entry are the respiratory tract by inhalation or direct inoculation through a cutaneous effraction. Nocardiosis may be localised or disseminated. Read More

    Disseminated Nocardia cyriacigeorgia causing pancreatitis in a haploidentical stem cell transplant recipient.
    IDCases 2017 27;9:73-76. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, 1015 Chestnut St., Suite 1020, Philadelphia, PA 19107, United States.
    We report the first published case of acute pancreatitis secondary to disseminated nocardiosis in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipient on chronic immunosuppression for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Nocardiosis in the HSCT population is relatively rare, and has not yet been described in haploidentical HSCT recipients. Our patient is a 28-year-old male with a history of haploidentical HSCT and GVHD of the skin and lung who was admitted to the hospital with acute pancreatitis. Read More

    [Respiratory infections caused by slow-growing bacteria: Nocardia, Actinomyces, Rhodococcus].
    Rev Mal Respir 2017 Jun 5;34(6):661-671. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Service de microbiologie, unité mobile de microbiologie clinique, hôpital européen Georges-Pompidou, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 20, rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris, France; Université Paris Descartes, 75006 Paris, France. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Pneumonia caused by slow-growing bacteria is rare but sometimes severe.

    State Of The Art: These infections share many similarities such as several differential diagnoses, difficulties to identify the pathogen, the importance of involving the microbiologist in the diagnostic investigation and the need for prolonged antibiotic treatment. However, major differences distinguish them: Nocardia and Rhodococcus infect mainly immunocompromised patients while actinomycosis also concerns immunocompetent patients; the severity of nocardioses is related to their hematogenous spread while locoregional extension by contiguity makes the gravity of actinomycosis. Read More

    Pelvic Actinomycosis.
    Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2017 8;2017:9428650. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Coordinación Delegacional de Investigación en Salud, México Poniente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Toluca, MEX, Mexico.
    Introduction: Actinomycosis is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces, Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria. Its symptomatology imitates some malignant pelvic tumours, tuberculosis, or nocardiosis, causing abscesses and fistulas. Actinomycoses are opportunistic infections and require normal mucous barriers to be altered. Read More

    [The modern possibilities for the application of multispiral computed tomography in diagnostics of paranasal sinuses mycetomas].
    Vestn Otorinolaringol 2017;82(3):22-24
    I.K. Akhunbaev ENT Department, Kyrgyz State Medical Academy, Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic, 720020.
    The objective of the present study was the analysis of the health status of 20 patients presenting with histologically verified paranasal sinuses mycetomas (fungus balls) with special reference to CT-semiotics characteristic of the fungal ball as early as during the pre-verification period. The surgical strategy for the management of this condition has been substantiated. It is concluded that the final verification of the pathological process in question is possible only based on the results of the histological studies. Read More

    Pulmonary Nocardiosis: A Clinical Analysis of 30 Cases.
    Intern Med 2017 15;56(12):1485-1490. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chiba Aoba Municipal Hospital, Japan.
    Objective Pulmonary nocardiosis frequently develops as an opportunistic infection in patients with malignant tumor and is treated with steroids. This study was performed to clarify the clinical features of pulmonary nocardiosis in Japan. Methods The patients definitively diagnosed with pulmonary nocardiosis at our hospital between January 1995 and December 2015 were retrospectively investigated. Read More

    Imaging Spectrum of Invasive Fungal and Fungal-like Infections.
    Radiographics 2017 Jul-Aug;37(4):1119-1134. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    From the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 S Kingshighway Blvd, Box 8131, St Louis, MO 63110 (H.L.P.O., S.M., V.M.M., S.B.); Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis (M.G.L., P.J.P.); and Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Ariz (C.O.M.).
    Invasive fungal and fungal-like infections contribute to substantial morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. The incidence of these infections is increasing-largely because of rising numbers of immunocompromised patients, including those with neutropenia, human immunodeficiency virus, chronic immunosuppression, indwelling prostheses, burns, and diabetes mellitus, and those taking broad-spectrum antibiotics. Invasive fungal pathogens include primary mycotic organisms such as Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, which are true pathogens and inherently virulent. Read More

    Pulmonary and cutaneous infection caused by Nocardia farcinica in a patient with nephrotic syndrome: A case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jun;96(24):e7211
    aDepartment of Cardiology bDepartment of Nephrology, The Third Clinical College of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou People's Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, PR China.
    Rationale: Nocardia species is known as conditional pathogenic bacteria. Disseminated infection caused by Nocardia species is rare and occurs primarily in immunosuppressed patients. Signs and symptoms of this infection are frequently nonspecific making early diagnosis and treatment difficult. Read More

    [Brain abscesses caused by Nocardia farcinica in a kidney transplanted man].
    Ugeskr Laeger 2017 Jun;179(23)
    Nocardiosis is primarily an opportunistic infection caused by aerobic Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Nocardia. In this case report we describe a male patient who previously received a kidney transplant and was admitted to hospital with chills, headache and pain in the neck and left eye, tremor and coordination problems. A magnetic resonance scan of the brain showed multiple abscesses, and blood culture was positive for Nocardia farcinica. Read More

    Adjuvant effect of recombinant interleukin-12 in the Nocardiosis formalin-killed vaccine of the amberjack Seriola dumerili.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Aug 7;67:263-269. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8580, Japan; Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0056, Japan. Electronic address:
    Nocardiosis causes serious economic damage in the fish farming of Japanese yellowtail fish. Nocardia seriolae identified as pathogenic bacterium is an intracellular-pathogen. In general, induction of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is effective in infection defense against intracellular-pathogen. Read More

    Respiratory infections associated with anti-TNFα agents.
    Med Mal Infect 2017 Oct 9;47(6):375-381. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Service des maladies respiratoires, hôpital Haut-Lévêque, CHU de Bordeaux, 1, avenue Magellan, 33604 Pessac cedex, France.
    Anti-TNFα agents have proved effective in the treatment of various inflammatory, rheumatologic, dermatologic, and gastrointestinal diseases. Severe respiratory tract infections of bacterial or fungal origin have emerged as important complications in patients receiving such treatments. The risk of infection due to anti-TNFα therapy is difficult to assess in these patients who are immunocompromised because of the underlying disease itself and of previous or concomitant immunosuppressive drugs. Read More

    An Elderly Man With Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor and a Cavitary Right Upper Lobe Lung Mass.
    Chest 2017 Jun;151(6):e135-e139
    Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT. Electronic address:
    Case Presentation: An elderly man presented to the ED from a nursing care facility after transient loss of consciousness. Three weeks previously, the patient had been diagnosed with a high-grade pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with metastases to the liver after being hospitalized for weakness. A chest radiograph at that time had revealed a right upper lobe mass that was presumed to represent a metastatic lesion (Fig 1); CT of the chest demonstrated similar findings (Fig 2). Read More

    Isolation, biochemical and molecular identification of Nocardia species among TB suspects in northeastern, Tanzania; a forgotten or neglected threat?
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Jun 8;17(1):407. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Liebig Str. 21, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.
    Background: Pulmonary nocardiosis mimic pulmonary tuberculosis in most clinical and radiological manifestations. In Tanzania, where tuberculosis is one of the major public health threat clinical impact of nocardiosis as the cause of the human disease remains unknown. The objective of the present study was to isolate and identify Nocardia isolates recovered from TB suspects in Northeastern, Tanzania by using biochemical and molecular methods. Read More

    Nocardia infection following intraocular surgery: Report of seven cases from a tertiary eye hospital.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2017 May;65(5):371-375
    Department of Cornea and Anterior Segment, Dr. Shroff's Charity Eye Hospital, New Delhi, India.
    Purpose: To study the outcome of ocular nocardiosis following intraocular surgery.

    Materials And Methods: A retrospective review of medical records of all postoperative cases of culture proven Nocardia infection over a period of 3 years, from October 2010 to September 2013, was performed. Microbiological analysis was performed for all cases and included smears and cultures. Read More

    Practical Management of Deep Cutaneous Fungal Infections.
    Med Mycol J 2017 ;58(2):E71-E77
    Department of Dermatology, Kitasato University Kitasato Institute Hospital.
    Understanding deep cutaneous fungal infection requires not only reading many case reports and checking the typical clinical images of skin lesions, but also managing the patients properly to prevent misdiagnosis. Herein, I review my recent experiences with eight typical cases of deep cutaneous infections (including protothecosis and nocardiosis) in Japan. It is very important to do the four management processes; namely, KOH direct microscopic examination, skin biopsy, fungal culture, and microscopic examination of the histopathological specimen of PAS and Grocott staining. Read More

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