204,702 results match your criteria No To Shinkei Brain and Nerve[Journal]


Gliquidone Alleviates Diabetic Nephropathy by Inhibiting Notch/Snail Signaling Pathway.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 6;51(5):2085-2097. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Background/aims: Diabetic nephropathy is a common complication of diabetes. This study explored the renal protective effect and possible mechanism of gliquidone in mice with diabetic nephropathy.

Methods: Animal model of diabetic nephropathy was established in KKAy mice. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Vascular and metabolic profiles in offspring born to pregnant mice with metabolic syndrome treated with inositols.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas.

Background: Inositols (INOs) supplementation during pregnancy, specifically the combination of myo-inositol (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI), has been reported to improve vascular parameters in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. We demonstrated previously that offspring born to pregnant mice lacking endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS+/-) gene have hypertension (HTN) as adults and when fed high fat diet (HFD) develop a metabolic syndrome (MS) phenotype.

Objective: Our aim was to evaluate if INOs treatment in pregnancy complicated by MS improves the vascular and metabolic profile in mice offspring programmed in utero to develop HTN and MS. Read More

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December 2018

Beneficial effects of combined therapy with lacidipine and candesartan in obese hypertensive patients.

Rom J Intern Med 2018 Dec;56(4):257-264

Kharkiv National Medic University, Nauky Ave., Kharkiv, Ukraine.

Introduction: Obesity is becoming one of the leading risk factors of coronary heart disease, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease. Despite the presence of a large number of antihypertensive agents and scientific substantiation of antihypertensive treatment principles it would be wrong to assume that the problem is completely solved. Development of endothelial dysfunction is one of the key pathogenic mechanisms in hypertension. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

An update and systematic review on the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.

JBRA Assist Reprod 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Nursing Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran.

Objectives: Primary dysmenorrhea is a painful uterine contraction caused by endometrial laceration. Drug therapies and complementary medicine have been used to treat dysmenorrhea. The aim of this study was to investigate and offer an updated perspective on the treatments for dysmenorrhea. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Distribution, projections and association with calbindin baskets of motor neurons, interneurons and sensory neurons in guinea-pig distal colon.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

College of Medicine and Public Health & Centre for Neuroscience, Flinders University, Australia.

Normal gut function relies on the activity of the enteric nervous system (ENS) found within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. The structural and functional organisation of the ENS has been extensively studied in the guinea pig small intestine, but less is known about colonic circuitry. Given that there are significant differences between these regions in function, observed motor patterns and pathology, it would be valuable to have a better understanding of the colonic ENS. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Berberis lycium Royle fruit extract mitigates oxi-inflammatory stress by suppressing NF-κB/MAPK signalling cascade in activated macrophages and Treg proliferation in splenic lymphocytes.

Inflammopharmacology 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Pharmacology and Toxicology Lab, Food and Nutraceutical Division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, HP, 176061, India.

Although Berberis plant species have been advocated as immune modulators, information regarding their mechanism(s) of action is limited. Therefore, in the present study we assessed the efficacy of Berberis lycium Royle fruit extract (BLFE) in the attenuation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxi-inflammatory aggravation and concanavalin A (Con-A)-induced proliferation in murine peritoneal macrophages and lymphocytes, respectively. BLFE strongly suppressed production of the oxidative and inflammatory effector molecules nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α/IL-6/IL-1β/IFN-γ) as well as chemokines (MCP-1 and RANTES), with a concomitant enhancement in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and IL-10 levels. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Mouse models of Alzheimer's disease cause rarefaction of pial collaterals and increased severity of ischemic stroke.

Angiogenesis 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 6309 MBRB, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7545, USA.

Vascular dysfunction contributes to the progression and severity of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients with AD also sustain larger infarctions after ischemic stroke; however, the responsible mechanisms are unknown. Pial collaterals are the primary source of protection in stroke. Read More

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December 2018

(L.) P. Royen Leaf Water Extract Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells via ERK1/2/Akt1/JNK1 Signaling Pathways.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018 5;2018:7826576. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

(L.) P. Royen, called sapodilla, or locally known as , belongs to the family . Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

The Length of Surgical Skin Incision in Postoperative Inflammatory Reaction.

JSLS 2018 Oct-Dec;22(4)

Department of Surgery, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Background And Objectives: Surgery provokes inflammatory and immune responses, so efforts have been made to reduce host response by using less invasive techniques. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the surgical stress induced by skin incision and the role of liver response in this process.

Methods: Seventy male anesthetized Wistar rats were subjected to a midline incision confined strictly to the skin (dermis) of either 1 cm long (n = 20), 10 cm long (n = 20), or no incision (n = 20) or served as controls (n = 10). Read More

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December 2018

Exaggerated blood pressure response to fasudil or nifedipine in hypertensive Ren-2 transgenic rats: role of altered baroreflex.

Hypertens Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department. of Experimental Hypertension, Institute of Physiology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.

Basal calcium sensitization is decreased in spontaneously hypertensive rats, although their blood pressure (BP) response to acute Rho-kinase inhibition is enhanced. Using fasudil (Rho-kinase inhibitor) or nifedipine (L-VDCC blocker), we evaluated the contribution of calcium sensitization and calcium entry to BP maintenance in hypertensive transgenic Ren-2 rats (TGR) focusing on the influence of major vasoactive systems and/or baroreflex efficiency on BP responses to these two drugs. Homozygous TGR and normotensive Hannover Sprague-Dawley (HanSD) control rats aged 5, 11, or 22 weeks were used. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Metabolomic assessment of exposure to near-highway ultrafine particles.

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA.

Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants has been associated with increased risk of adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes and mortality; however, the biochemical pathways linking exposure to disease are not known. To delineate biological response mechanisms associated with exposure to near-highway ultrafine particles (UFP), we used untargeted high-resolution metabolomics to profile plasma from 59 participants enrolled in the Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health (CAFEH) study. Metabolic variations associated with UFP exposure were assessed using a cross-sectional study design based upon low (mean 16,000 particles/cm) and high (mean 24,000 particles/cm) annual average UFP exposures. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Hif-1α paralogs play a role in the hypoxic ventilatory response of larval and adult zebrafish ().

J Exp Biol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada.

Hypoxia inducible factor (Hif) 1α, an extensively studied transcription factor, is involved in the regulation of many biological processes in hypoxia including the hypoxic ventilatory response. In zebrafish, there are two paralogs of Hif-1α (Hif-1A and Hif-1B), but little is known about the specific roles or potential sub-functionalization of the paralogs in response to hypoxia. Using knockout lines of Hif-1α paralogs, we examined their involvement in the hypoxic ventilatory response, measured as ventilation frequency () in larval and adult zebrafish (). Read More

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December 2018

The composition of a bioprocessed shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushroom mycelia and rice bran formulation and its antimicrobial effects against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SL1344 in macrophage cells and in mice.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2018 Dec 5;18(1):322. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Western Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Albany, CA, 94710, USA.

Background: Human infection by pathogenic Salmonella bacteria can be acquired by consuming of undercooked meat products and eggs. Antimicrobial resistance against antibiotics used in medicine is also a major concern. To help overcome these harmful effects on microbial food safety and human health, we are developing novel antimicrobial food-compatible formulations, one of which is described in the present study. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Secondary metabolites from the fermented rice of the fungus Monascus purpureus and their bioactivities.

Nat Prod Res 2018 Dec 5:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

b Bioresource Collection and Research Center (BCRC) , Food Industry Research and Development Institute (FIRDI) , Hsinchu , Taiwan.

Phytochemical investigation of the EtOAc-soluble fraction of the ethanolic extract of a yellow mutant of the fungus Monascus purpureus BCRC 38110 (Eurotiaceae) grown on rice resulted in the isolation of one new azaphilone derivative, monapurpureusone (1), one acetophenone metabolite isolated for the first time from natural source, monapurpureusin (2), along with four known compounds, TW94a (3), ergosterol (4), monascin (5), and ankaflavin (6). The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, including 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, and by the comparison of their NMR data with those of related compounds. Some phytochemicals were evaluated for both anti-inflammatory activity through the measurement of nitric oxide (NO) production levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine-derived macrophages RAW264. Read More

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December 2018
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Semisynthesis and Inhibitory Effects of Solidagenone Derivatives on TLR-Mediated Inflammatory Responses.

Molecules 2018 Dec 4;23(12). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Departamento de Farmacología, Farmacognosia y Botánica. Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n. 28040 Madrid, Spain.

A series of nine derivatives (⁻) were prepared from the diterpene solidagenone () and their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic studies. Their ability to inhibit inflammatory responses elicited in peritoneal macrophages by TLR ligands was investigated. Compounds and showed significant anti-inflammatory effects, as they inhibited the protein expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS-2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12) induced by the ligand of TLR4, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), acting at the transcriptional level. Read More

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December 2018

Biodegradable amino acid-based poly(ester amine) with tunable immunomodulating properties and their in vitro and in vivo wound healing studies in diabetic rats' wounds.

Acta Biomater 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Fiber Science and Apparel Design, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853-4401, USA. Electronic address:

The objective of this study is to design a new family of biodegradable synthetic polymeric biomaterials for providing a tunable inhibition of macrophage's nitric oxide synthase (NOS) pathway. L-Arginine (Arg) is the common substrate for NOS and arginase. Both two metabolic pathways participate in the wound healing process. Read More

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November 2018
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Identification of Expression and Function of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor in Colonic Smooth Muscle.

Peptides 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, VCU Program in Enteric Neuromuscular Sciences, Virginia Commonwealth University, United States. Electronic address:

The insulinotropic effects of the incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are mediated via GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) present on pancreatic β cells. GLP-1 causes a decrease in the motility of stomach and intestine which involves both central and peripheral nervous systems. The expression and function of GLP-1R in gastrointestinal smooth muscle, however, are not clear. Read More

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November 2018

Aberrant redox signalling and stress response in age-related muscle decline: Role in inter- and intra-cellular signalling.

Free Radic Biol Med 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

MRC-Arthritis Research UK Centre for Integrated research into Musculoskeletal Ageing (CIMA), Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, L7 8TX, United Kingdom.

Age-associated frailty is predominantly due to loss of muscle mass and function. The loss of muscle mass is also associated with a greater loss of muscle strength, suggesting that the remaining muscle fibres are weaker than those of adults. The mechanisms by which muscle is lost with age are unclear, but in this review we aim to pull together various strands of evidence to explain how muscle contractions support proteostasis in non-muscle tissues, particularly focussed on the production and potential transfer of Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) and how this may fail during ageing, Furthermore we will identify logical approaches, based on this hypothesis, by which muscle loss in ageing may be reduced. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Mechanisms of vascular dysfunction evoked by ionizing radiation and possible targets for its pharmacological correction.

Biochem Pharmacol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, 15 Dana Road, Valhalla, 10595, NY, the US. Electronic address:

Ionizing radiation (IR) leads to a variety of the cardiovascular diseases, including the arterial hypertension. A number of studies have demonstrated that blood vessels represent important target for IR, and the endothelium is one of the most vulnerable components of the vascular wall. IR causes an inhibition of nitric oxide (NO)-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and generation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species trigger this process. Read More

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November 2018

Protein-energy wasting and asymmetric dimethylarginine in peritoneal dialysis patients.

Acta Biochim Pol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Nephrology, Transplantology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdańsk, Poland.

Cardiovascular (CVS) morbidity and mortality in the peritoneal dialysis patients (PD) is 10-30-fold higher than in the general population. A relatively low level of adiponectin and a higher level of leptin are important predictors of vascular complications as well as CVS events in PD patients. The asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, is an important risk factor of CVS morbidity and mortality. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Human Brain Blood Flow and Metabolism During Isocapnic Hyperoxia: The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species.

J Physiol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Laboratory of Exercise Sciences, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, Brazil.

Key Points: It is unknown whether excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production drives the isocapnic hyperoxia (IH)-induced decline in human cerebral blood flow (CBF) via reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and leads to disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or neural-parenchymal damage. We then simultaneously quantified CBF, metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO ) and transcerebral exchanges of NO-end products, oxidant, antioxidant, and neural-parenchymal damage markers under IH with intravenous saline and vitamin C infusion. CBF and CMRO were reduced during IH, responses that were followed by increased oxidative stress and reduced NO bioavailability when saline was infused. Read More

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December 2018

Seven consecutive days of remote ischaemic preconditioning improves cutaneous vasodilatory capacity in young adults.

J Physiol 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Faculty of Physical Education, University of Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil.

Key Points: Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC), induced by brief bouts of ischaemia followed by reperfusion, confers vascular adaptations that protect against subsequent bouts of ischaemia. However, the effect of RIPC repeated over several days on the human microcirculation is unknown. Using skin as a model, microvascular function was assessed at a control and a NO-inhibited area of skin before, after, and 1 week after administering seven consecutive days of repeated RIPC on the contralateral arm. Read More

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December 2018

Edaravone acts as a potential therapeutic drug against pentylenetetrazole-induced epilepsy in male albino rats by downregulating cyclooxygenase-II.

Brain Behav 2018 Dec 1:e01156. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Key Laboratory of Neurology of Hebei Province, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, PR China.

Introduction: The effects of edaravone against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced epilepsy in male albino rats were investigated. Edaravone is a well-known commercial drug used in the treatment of strokes and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of edaravone have been reported in patients with ALS. Read More

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December 2018

Amplification of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in contracting human skeletal muscle: role of K channels.

J Physiol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Human Cardiovascular Physiology Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science.

Key Points: In humans, the vasodilatory response to skeletal muscle contraction is mediated in part by activation of inwardly rectifying potassium (K ) channels. Evidence from animal models suggest that K channels serve as electrical amplifiers of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH). We found that skeletal muscle contraction amplifies vasodilatation to the endothelium-dependent agonist acetylcholine (ACh), whereas there was no change in the vasodilatory response to sodium nitroprusside, an endothelium-independent nitric oxide donor. Read More

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December 2018
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Endothelial Cells: From Dysfunction Mechanism to Pharmacological Effect in Cardiovascular Disease.

Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathy Research Center, Research Institute of Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Endothelial cells (ECs) are the innermost layer of blood vessels that play important roles in homeostasis and vascular function. However, recent evidence suggests that the onset of inflammation and the production of reactive oxygen species impair the function of ECs and are a main factor in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this study, we investigated the effects of inflammatory markers, oxidative stress, and treatment on ECs in CVD patients. Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads

A comprehensive insight into the functional bacteria and genes and their roles in simultaneous denitrification and anammox system at varying substrate loadings.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Road, Nanjing, 210023, China.

Simultaneous denitrification and anammox process are newly developed wastewater treatment processes with high-nitrogen removal efficiency, but little information is available regarding its optimal operational conditions and molecular mechanisms. In this study, a lab-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor fed with nitrate and ammonia was continuously operated for 180 days to establish the simultaneous denitrification and anammox system, so as to investigate the changing patterns of nitrogen removal efficiency and functional bacteria and genes at varying substrate loadings. Results showed that the optimal removal efficiency of total nitrogen (TN) reached 92. Read More

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November 2018

The role of bitter and sweet taste receptors in upper airway innate immunity: Recent advances and future directions.

World J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Sep 24;4(3):200-208. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Division of Rhinology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Bitter (T2R) and sweet (T1R) taste receptors have been implicated in sinonasal innate immunity and in the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Taste receptors are expressed on several sinonasal cell types including ciliated epithelial cells and solitary chemosensory cells. Bitter agonists released by pathogenic microbes elicit a T2R dependent signaling cascade which induces the release of bactericidal nitric oxide, increases mucociliary clearance, and promotes secretion of antimicrobial peptides. Read More

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September 2018

Data characterizing the biophysical and nitric oxide release properties of the tDodSNO - Styrene maleic anhydride nanoparticle SMA-tDodSNO.

Data Brief 2018 Dec 3;21:1771-1775. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Nitric oxide (NO) donor drugs have a range of clinical applications, and are also being developed as therapeutics for the potential treatment of multiple diseases. This article presents data describing the synthesis and characterisation of a novel NO releasing nanoparticle formed by encapsulation of the NO donor tDodSNO into a co-polymer of styrene and maleic acid (SMA) to afford SMA-tDodSNO. The pharmacological activity of SMA-tDodSNO is discussed in our accompanying manuscript "Encapsulation of tDodSNO generates a photoactivated nitric oxide releasing nanoparticle for localized control of vasodilation and vascular hyperpermeability". Read More

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December 2018

Effect of nitroso-redox imbalance on male reproduction.

Transl Androl Urol 2018 Dec;7(6):968-977

1Department of Urology, 2The Interdisciplinary Stem Cell Institute, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are byproducts of normal metabolic processes. They are necessary for normal cellular function and are kept in balance by antioxidant mechanisms. Alterations in levels of ROS and RNS can lead to nitroso-redox imbalance that in turn can negatively affect male reproduction. Read More

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December 2018

The Effects of Icariin on Enhancing Motor Recovery Through Attenuating Pro-inflammatory Factors and Oxidative Stress via Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway in the Mice Model of Spinal Cord Injury.

Front Physiol 2018 16;9:1617. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Spine Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe medical problem leading to crucial life change. Icariin (ICA) is a natural flavonoid compound extracted from the Chinese herb Epimedium brevicornum which has neuroprotective effects. But little is known about the relationship between ICA and SCI. Read More

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November 2018

Dysfunction of Cerebrovascular Endothelial Cells: Prelude to Vascular Dementia.

Front Aging Neurosci 2018 16;10:376. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Geriatrics, Xiyuan Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common type of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized by progressive cognitive impairment, memory loss, and thinking or speech problems. VaD is usually caused by cerebrovascular disease, during which, cerebrovascular endothelial cells (CECs) are vulnerable. CEC dysfunction occurs before the onset of VaD and can eventually lead to dysregulation of cerebral blood flow and blood-brain barrier damage, followed by the activation of glia and inflammatory environment in the brain. Read More

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November 2018

Evaluation of antioxidant and anticancer activities of chemical constituents of the root extracts.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2018 Nov 3;25(7):1387-1392. Epub 2017 Jan 3.

PG & Research Department of Chemistry, Nehru Memorial College, Puthanampatti 621007, Tiruchirappalli (Dt), Tamil Nadu, India.

Evaluation of antioxidant and anticancer activities were screened by various root extracts. Four solvents (ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol, and water) extracts were investigated for their total flavonoids, phenol contents and their antioxidant activity of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), NO (nitric oxide), HO (hydrogen peroxide), ABTS 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid)diammonium assays, FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) assays and anticancer activity. The total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts were determined by using FC (Folin-Ciocalteu) and AlCl colorimetric assay method. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Subchronic hypoxia pretreatment on brain pathophysiology in unilateral common carotid artery occluded albino rats.

Indian J Pharmacol 2018 Jul-Aug;50(4):185-191

Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research, Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Objective: This study was aimed to assess the effect of unilateral common carotid artery occlusion on brain pathophysiology in rats pretreated with subchronic hypoxia.

Materials And Methods: Rats (200 ± 20 g) were randomized into three groups: Group 1 served as sham, Group 2 were normoxic (21% O and 79% N), and Group 3 were hypoxia preconditioned (10% O and 90% N) for 21 days before left common carotid artery occlusion (LCCAO). The LCCAO was done for 75 min followed by reperfusion for 12 h. Read More

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December 2018

The effect of and α-linolenic acid on oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Indian J Pharmacol 2018 Jul-Aug;50(4):177-184

Department of Basic Science, School of Veterinary, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Objectives: Various pharmacological effects including antioxidant property of L. were reported previously. In the present study, the effect of the extract of the plant and its constituent, α-linolenic acid (ALA), on oxidant and antioxidant markers of PHA/non-stimulated human mononuclear cells was evaluated. Read More

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December 2018

Endogenous Nitric Oxide Inhibits, Whereas Awakening Stimuli Increase, the Activity of a Subset of Orexin Neurons.

Biol Pharm Bull 2018 ;41(12):1859-1865

Department of Chemico-Pharmacological Sciences, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University.

The lateral hypothalamic area contains neurons expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), in addition to orexin neurons. Here we examined whether the activity of orexin neurons was regulated by endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in male C57BL/6 mice. Caffeine (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i. Read More

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January 2018

Nitric Oxide Is Involved in Activation of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling through Tyrosine Nitration of Src Homology Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 2 in Murine Dextran Sulfate-Induced Colitis.

Biol Pharm Bull 2018 ;41(12):1843-1852

Physical Chemistry for Life Science Laboratory, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University.

Ulcerative colitis is characterized by colonic mucosal bleeding and ulceration, often with repeated active and remission stages. One factor in ulcerative colitis development is increased susceptibility to commensal bacteria and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS activates macrophages to release nitric oxide (NO) through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

Dietary Nitrite Attenuates Elastase-Induced Pulmonary Emphysema in a Mouse Model.

Biol Pharm Bull 2018 ;41(12):1818-1823

Division of Pathophysiology, Department of Clinical Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Josai University.

Pulmonary emphysema (PE) is a major pathological feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is characterized by proteolytic destruction of the alveolar structure and subsequent inflammation of the respiratory tract. We hypothesized that nitrite attenuates the development of PE via anti-inflammatory actions. PE was induced by intratracheal instillation of porcine pancreas elastase (PPE) in mice. Read More

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January 2018

Facile Total Synthesis of (+)-Spinoxazine B.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2018 ;66(12):1196-1198

Department of Synthetic Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hoshi University.

Herein we describe a short total synthesis of (+)-spinoxazine B, which inhibits nitric oxide (NO) production in BV-2 microgrial cells. Spinoxazine B is the first example of a natural alkaloid containing an oxazinone-pyrrolidone nucleus, and it is expected to serve as a novel drug lead compound as well as a drug discovery scaffold. Read More

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January 2018

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) splice variant function: Insights into nitric oxide signaling from skeletal muscle.

Nitric Oxide 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine Miami, Florida, 33101, USA. Electronic address:

Defects in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) splice variant localization and signaling in skeletal muscle are a firmly established pathogenic characteristic of many neuromuscular diseases, including Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD and BMD, respectively). Therefore, substantial efforts have been made to understand and therapeutically target skeletal muscle nNOS isoform signaling. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent salient advances in understanding of the regulation, targeting, and function of nNOSμ and nNOSβ splice variants in normal and dystrophic skeletal muscle, primarily using findings from mouse models. Read More

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November 2018

Enteric nervous system analyses: New biomarkers for environmental quality assessment.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Dec 15;137:711-722. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

São Paulo State University (UNESP), Institute of Biosciences, Praça Infante Dom Henrique, s/n, Parque Bitaru, São Vicente, SP, Brazil.

The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of fish is a target of contaminants since it can absorb these substances. We evaluated the morphophysiological alterations in the GIT of Sphoeroides testudineus collected in two estuaries presenting differences in their environmental quality (NIA and IA). The intestine was analyzed for histological and neuronal changes; liver and gills for biochemical markers; muscle tissues for neurotoxicity and peripheral blood for genotoxic damage. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of flow-modulation approaches in ventricular assist devices using an in-vitro endothelial cell culture model.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2018 Nov 2. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Division of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Continuous-flow ventricular assist devices (CF-VADs) produce non-physiologic flow with diminished pulsatility, which is a major risk factor for development of adverse events, including gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Introduction of artificial pulsatility by modulating CF-VAD flow has been suggested as a potential solution. However, the levels of pulsatility and frequency of CF-VAD modulation necessary to prevent adverse events are currently unknown and need to be evaluated. Read More

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November 2018

Immunohistochemical localization of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in epidermis and gill epithelium of an angler catfish, Chaca chaca (Siluriformes, Chacidae).

Tissue Cell 2018 Dec 26;55:25-30. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Skin Physiology Laboratory, Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Zoology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

The present study is concerned with the expression and localization of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms, nNOS, eNOS and iNOS in the epidermis and the gill epithelium of Chaca chaca by means of immunohistochemical techniques. nNOS immunoreactivity was observed in the outer layer epithelial cells of the epidermis, outer epithelium of gill filaments at their distal regions and in between the secondary lamellae. iNOS positive cells were observed at intervals in the epidermis from basal layer to superficial layer, in outer layers of epithelium of the gill filament and in epithelium of the secondary lamellae. Read More

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December 2018

Antioxidant, intestinal immune status and anti-inflammatory potential of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. in fish: In vitro and in vivo studies.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Chemistry of Natural Products Laboratory, Biotechnology and Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV-IPN), Irapuato, Gto., Mexico.

Chenopodium ambrosioides L. has been used for centuries as traditional medicine in many clinical situations. The objectives of this study were first to assess the nutraceutical potential of C. Read More

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November 2018
2.674 Impact Factor

Mycosporine-2-glycine exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2018 Nov 28;662:33-39. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand; The Chemical Approaches for Food Applications Research Group, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand. Electronic address:

Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are a group of water-soluble low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites, which are well-documented UV-screening molecules and antioxidants. We have recently demonstrated that a rare MAA, mycosporine-2-glycine (M2G), efficiently inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Because AGEs contribute significantly to the aging process, including the pathogenesis and progression of age-related diseases, the present study further evaluated anti-inflammatory effects of M2G using an in vitro model of RAW 264. Read More

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November 2018

Regulation of iNOS on Immune Cells and Its Role in Diseases.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 29;19(12). Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Precision Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA.

In recent years, there have been many studies on the function of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in experimental animals and humans. This review analyzes and explores the relationship between inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cell et al. differentiation using data based on laboratory research, highlighting recent NOS laboratory research. Read More

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November 2018

[Effect of oxytocin on the levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and s100b protein in newborns].

Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 2018 Jul-Sep;35(3):449-455

. Hospital III Yanahuara. Arequipa, Perú.

Objectives: To assess the effects of the administration of oxytocin during labor management on the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and S100B protein in newborns.

Materials And Methods: We selected 80 term pregnant women without obstetric and fetal pathology, forming two groups: pregnant women with normal delivery and pregnant women conducted with oxytocin. Blood was collected immediately after delivery from the umbilical cord vein to measure MDA, ON and from the artery for protein S100B. Read More

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December 2017

Dental Pulp Fibroblasts Response after Stimulation with HEMA and Adhesive System.

Braz Dent J 2018 Sep-Oct;29(5):419-426

Department of Biological Sciences, Bauru School of Dentistry, USP - Universidade de São Paulo, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil.

This study evaluated in vitro cell viability and metabolism, nitric oxide release and production of chemokines by cultured human dental pulp fibroblasts (DPF) under contact with HEMA and Single Bond. Cultures of DPF were established by means of an explant technique. Once plated, cells were kept under contact with increasing concentrations of HEMA (10, 100 and 1000 nM) or Single Bond (SB) [10-fold serially diluted in culture medium (10-4, 10-3 and 10-2 v/v)] and also with polymerized SB components. Read More

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August 2018
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Treatment with a fixed dose combination antiretroviral therapy drug containing tenofovir, emtricitabine and efavirenz is associated with cardioprotection in high calorie diet-induced obese rats.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(12):e0208537. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, Republic of South Africa.

HIV-infection, certain antiretroviral drug classes, especially protease inhibitors (PI), and obesity are associated with increased ischaemic heart disease (IHD) risk. However, the effect of PI-free fixed dose combination (FDC) antiretroviral therapy (ART) on hearts exposed to ischaemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) is unknown, particularly in obesity. This is becoming relevant as World Health Organisation guidelines recommend a FDC ART containing (non-) nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (tenofovir (TDF), emtricitabine (FTC) and efavirenz (EFV)) as first-line HIV treatment. Read More

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December 2018
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Reductive Nitric Oxide Coupling at a Dinickel Core: Isolation of a Key cis-Hyponitrite Intermediate en route to N2O Formation.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Georg-August-Universität, Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Tammannstrasse 4, 37077, Göttingen, GERMANY.

Reductive coupling of nitric oxide (NO) to give N2O is an important reaction in the global nitrogen cycle. Here, a dinickel(II) dihydride complex 1 that releases H2 upon substrate binding and serves as a dinickel(I) scaffold is shown to reductively couple two molecules of NO within the bimetallic cleft. The resulting hyponitrite complex 2 features an unprecedented cis-[N2O2]2- binding mode that has been computationally proposed as a key intermediate in flavodiiron nitric oxide reductases (FNORs). Read More

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December 2018