171,969 results match your criteria Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine[Journal]


Molecular basis for the potential role of GRK2 in pathological disorders.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1761-1768

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2(GRK2) is a ubiquitous member of the family of GRKs that are serine/threonine kinases originally discovered for their role in the process of desensitization of agonist-activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). However, emerging evidence suggests that GRK2 can phosphorylate a large number of non-GPCR substrates and interact with a plethora of proteins involved in signaling and trafficking, suggesting that GRK2 would participate in the regulation of diverse cellular responses in a phosphorylation-dependent and -independent manner. Alternations in GRK2 levels and/or activity are demonstrated in an array of relevant cardiovascular, metabolic, inflammatory, or cancer pathologies. Read More

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October 2016
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Mind-body inter-relationship of bronchial asthma.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1756-1760

The mind-body inter-relationship of bronchial asthma and its pathological mechanisms have been clarified by the knowledge obtained from basic research studies, such as epide- miological investigations, animal experiments, and brain imaging studies. It is important to take advantage of the knowledge obtained from these researches to clarify the pathology of bronchial asthma and to extend the results to the clinical sphere by developing effective treatments. In the clinical setting, the 'Japanese Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Psychosomatic Diseases' is useful for the assessment and treatment of bronchial asthma accompanied by psychosomatic related problems. Read More

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October 2016
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Current status and tasks of the patient education in asthma.

Authors:
Yotaro Takaku

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1751-1755

With a chronic disease such as asthma, it is important for patients to be provided with education and skills in order to effectively manage their asthma. Although the principal knowl- edge may be the same, it should be adjusted for individual patient and care should be taken so that patients can be socially and mentally active. The following items should be taught; namely the fact that asthma is a chronic disease that requires long-term management, dif- ferences between relievers and controllers, the usage of inhalers, self-monitoring of symp- toms with a diary and peak flow monitoring, a self-management plan (an action plan to show how to recognize and respond to worsening asthma), and avoidance of environmental allergens. Read More

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October 2016

Bronchial thermoplasty in the treatment of asthma.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1747-1750

Bronchial thermoplasty(BT) is a novel therapeutic modality for adult patients with severe asthma. BT is a procedure of applying radio frequency thermal energy to the airways with the goal of ablating the airway smooth muscle and ameliorating airway hypersensitivity. BT improves asthma related quality of life and reduces the rate of asthma exacerbations compared with standard therapy. Read More

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October 2016

Treatment and managements of pediatric asthma.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1741-1746

In Japan, pediatric asthma is managed based on the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for the Treatment and Management of Asthma 2012 (JPGL 2012). JPGL 2012 also recommends treat- ment and management aimed at complete control through avoiding exacerbation factors and appropriate use of anti-inflammatory drugs. In this review, we describe an overview of the newer treatment options available for treatment and management of pediatric asthma and some topics. Read More

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October 2016
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Definition, classification and differential diagnosis of childhood asthma.

Authors:
Kenichi Tokuyama

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1735-1740

The pathophysiology of childhood asthma has not been clarified compared to that of adults. Airway remodeling has been demonstrated even in younger children. On the other hand, high incidence of remission compared to that in adults has been shown, suggesting a het- erogeneity of childhood asthma. Read More

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October 2016

Understanding the common pathogenesis of asthma and COPD.

Authors:
Satoshi Konno

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1729-1734

Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are obstructive pulmonary diseases characterized by chronic airway inflammation. Historically, the pathogenesis of the two diseases has been independently studied in mutually exclusive populations. However, the recent recognition of heterogeneity and of the importance of phenotypic classification in both diseases have highlighted the need to pay much attention to subjects with overlapping features of both asthma and COPD: those with asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). Read More

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October 2016
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Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM).

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1721-1728

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(EGPA) is characterized by ANCA-related small vessel vasculitis with granuloma formation and chronic eosinophilic airway inflammation including severe asthma and nasal polyposis. Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis(ABPM) is characterized by asthma, central bronchiectasis, eosinophilic mucoid impaction, and fungal sensitization. The accurate diagnosis in early stages for these severe type of asthma is very important for good prognosis. Read More

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October 2016
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Eosinophilic otitis media and eosinophilic chronic -hinosinusitis.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1717-1720

In Japan, eosinophilic inflammations of upper airway, eosinophilic otitis media(EOM) and eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis(ECRS), have been paid attention as intractable disease in recent years. The most common characteristic of EOM is the presence of highly viscous middle ear effusion enriched eosinophils, and EOM carries a high risk of hearing loss. That of ECRS is the nasal polyps with eosinophil dominant infiltration, and ECRS has a high risk of impairment of smell. Read More

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October 2016
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New drugs for asthma; current status and future perspectives.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1709-1714

In most asthmatic patients, asthma symptoms can be well controlled through the pharmaco- logical interventions using combination with inhaled corticosteroids(ICSs) and/long-acting beta2-agonists(LABA) inhalers. However, there are some severe cases who did not respond to the current asthma therapy. One of topic of development for new asthma drugs is molecular targeting therapy such as anti-Th2-cytokine antibody and chemoattractant recep- tor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) inhibitors. Read More

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October 2016

The therapy of biological agents in severe asthma.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1703-1708

Bronchial asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, smooth muscle contraction and airway inflammation. Multiple factors such as genetic back- ground and environmental factors are involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. Allergic asthma is a Th2-driven eosinophilic inflammatory disease, in which may cytokines including IL- 4, IL-5, and IL-13 play important roles. Read More

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October 2016

Perioperative management for patients with bronchial asthma.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1698-1702

To minimize the risks of perioperative respiratory complications in patients with asthma undergoing general anesthesia, the key is detailed preoperative assessment of asthmatic patients. A patient with a history of frequent exacerbations, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, or recent airway infection has a severe risk of perioperative exacerbation. Pre- operative intervention with anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory medication should be considered if asthma is poorly controlled before surgery. Read More

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October 2016

Cough variant asthma.

Authors:
Akio Niimi

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1693-1697

Cough variant asthma (CVA), a phenotype of asthma solely presenting with coughing, is the most common cause of chronic cough in Japan, which lasts for 8 weeks or longer. It shares some clinical and pathophysiological features with classic asthma with wheezing such as seasonal or nocturnal coughing, airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilic airway inflammation and airway remodeling. The key diagnostic feature of CVA is the responsiveness of coughing to bronchodilators (beta-agonists), but the mainstay treatment after the established diagnosis is the long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids with or without other controller antiasthma medica- tions. Read More

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October 2016

Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB).

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1688-1692

Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction(EIB) is defined as a transient airway obstruction that follows a modest period of high intensity exercise. Accumulating evidence demonstrated that EIB is reported not only among patients with asthma (EIBA), but also observed in a signifi- cant number of individuals without a known diagnosis of asthma (EIBWA). Accordingly, most recent guidelines have been largely revised. Read More

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October 2016

Advances in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD).

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1683-1687

Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by the triad of asthma, eosinophilic nasal polyposis and a hypersensitivity to all medications that inhibit the cyclo- oxygenase (COX) -1 enzyme. Clinical history and observed aspirin provocation test remains gold standard for diagnosis of AERD. AERD patients typically have more severe asthma with airflow limitation and greater requirement for high-dose corticosteroid therapies. Read More

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October 2016

Asthma in the elderly.

Authors:
Hiroto Matsuse

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1678-1682

Since the induction of inhaled corticosteroids as a first line therapy for asthma, severe intrac- table asthma had been decreased. Nonetheless, a proportion of severe asthma still remains including asthma in the elderly. To date, the reasons of severity in elderly asthma are con- sidered due to decline of pulmonary function and low adherence to the therapy, both of which are associated with aging. Read More

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October 2016

Severe intractable asthma.

Authors:
Ken Ohta

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1672-1677

Severe persistent asthma has been defined as being symptomatic every day with distur- bance of daily life. To judge asthma as severe and intractable, besides misdiagnosis, treatment step 4 has been properly done with good adherence, appropriate management of comorbidi- ties, avoidance of risk factors. Management for severe intractable asthma consists of thera- peutic step 4 with adjustment of the dose of sustained release theophylline by a step-wise manner with therapeutic dose monitoring, and selection of ICS or ICS/LABA considering individual state, and selecting intermittent administration of OCS and/or anti-IgE(omali- zumab) or anti-IL-5 (mepolizumab) antibodies after getting informed consent from a patient. Read More

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October 2016
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Treatment for acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1664-1671

Diagnosis of asthma exacerbations (e.g. exclusion of acute heart failure) and assessment of its severity are important for treatment of asthma attacks. Read More

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October 2016

Outline of pharmacotherapy of adult bronchial asthma based on Japanese asthma guideline 2015.

Authors:
Takeo Horie

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1658-1663

Recent Japanese asthma guideline was published in 2015 (JGL2015). Variability of asthma symptom and airflow limitation was added to its definition. Updated information of pharma- cotherapy in adult asthma was documented. Read More

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October 2016

Differential diagnosis.

Authors:
Yoichi Nakamura

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1650-1657

The points for differential diagnosis of asthma attack and other diseases are as follows. Acute heart failure (image analysis, BNP), hyperventilation syndrome (limbs numbness, low PaCO2), vocal cord dysfunction (stridor in the neck, normal SpO2), COPD exacerbation (smoking history, image analysis), pulmonary thromboembolism (contrasting CT, elevated D-dimer), spontaneous pneumothorax (chest pain, image analysis), large airway disease (inspi- ratory stridor, image analysis). Examinations for diagnosis of bronchial asthma in stable phase are respiratory function tests, increased eosinophils in sputum, FeNO, serum periostin and allergological examination (specific IgE, skin test). Read More

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October 2016
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Pulmonary function testing in bronchial asthma.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1640-1649

The lung function of asthma is characterized by the following points: - Airflow limitation that reverses after administration of a bronchodilator - Variable airflow limitation Airway hyperresponsiveness, that is, an excessive decrease in airflow in response to an aerosolized provocation that elicits little or no response in a normal person. Airflow limitation from asthma usually demonstrates some degree of reversibility following acute inhalation with a beta-agonist. But patients with mild asthma often do not show this reversibility. Read More

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October 2016

Radiologic finding of bronchial asthma.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1634-1639

High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan is a noninvasive technique that might be valuable for evaluating bronchial wall thickening and bronchiectasis as a result of chronic inflammation in patients with severe asthma. HRCT is also useful to diagnose the complications of asthma such as pulmonary emphysema and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. In addition, HRCT will be able to demonstrate the tracheobronchial and parenchymal abnormality dis- tinctly, with the result that it will be helpful for making differential diagnosis in the patients with wheeze, including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, bronchial tuberculosis and tracheal tumor. Read More

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October 2016

Interviewing of patients, physical findings, laboratory findings.

Authors:
Yuko Komase

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1628-1633

When diagnosing bronchial asthma, it is necessary to make a comprehensive assessment of the information obtained by interviewing the patient, physical findings, and laboratory findings, while taking into consideration the course of the condition. This is not an easy task unless it is a classic case. On the other hand, based on the information obtained from the patient interview, it is possible to make predictions to some extent and conduct laboratory tests accordingly. Read More

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October 2016

Genetic and environmental factors associated with bronchial asthma.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1622-1627

Many genetic and environmental factors associated with bronchial asthma have been investigated. These include disease-related genome, obesity, smoking, and rhinitis. Several susceptibility loci for bronchial asthma were recently identified by genome-wide association study(GWAS). Read More

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October 2016

Adult bronchial asthma, definition, cause and severity assessment.

Authors:
Osamu Narumoto

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1617-1621

Bronchial asthma is a serious global burden affecting 1 to 18 % of people in different countries and the number is increasing. Asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflam- mation, which leads to symptoms of wheeze, shortness of breath, chest tightness due to airflow limitation. Symptoms and degree of airflow limitation change over time, however usually persist. Read More

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October 2016

Asthma prevention and management guidelines 2015, Japan: comparison with GINA2015.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1609-1614

Asthma prevention and management guidelines (JGL) 2015 were published by the Japanese Society of Allergology. In the JGL2015, asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflam- mation and symptoms, such as wheeze and cough, that vary over time as also described in Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2015. Concerning the pharmacotherapy for asthma, medications are divided into 2:types, such as controller agents used continuously for long-term management (controllers) and reliever agents used for a short period to treat asthma symptoms(relievers) in both the JGL2015 and GINA2015. Read More

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October 2016
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Epidemiology of asthma in Japan.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Oct;74(10):1603-1608

In Japan, asthma prevalence is 8-14 % in children aged 0-14 years in 2008, 9-10 % in adults aged 15 and over in 2006-2007. Asthma prevalence does not change more than the past 10 years or tends to fall in children, but is increasing in adults. The number of patients with asthma was 1,177,000 in 2014; however, it is thought there are a lot more patients who are not visiting medical facilities. Read More

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October 2016
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Recent advances in research on chronic active EB virus infection.

Authors:
Hiroshi Kimura

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1917-1924

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous gammaherpesvirus that is associated with a variety of malignancies. Chronic active virus infection (CAEBV) is an EBV-associated T or NK cell lymphoproliferative diseases that occur most often in children and young adults in East Asia. It is still not known why this ubiquitous virus causes CAEBV in certain individuals. Read More

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November 2016

Molecular biological characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of the colorectal serrated lesions.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1909-1916

Previous data shows that colorectal serrated lesions are precursor of carcinogenesis. It has been advancing even molecular biological analysis, SSA/P become microsatellite instability (MSI) positive colon cancers and TSA become microsatellite stable (MSS) positive colon cancers. It is observed that redness and double elevation in conventional endoscopy, CP type II (Sano classification) in the NBI endoscopy, type III pit pattern in magnifying endoscopy, if SSA/P have cytological dysplastic change. Read More

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November 2016

Current status of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer based on the evidence of JCOG0404 trial.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1903-1908

The concept of optimal surgery for colorectal cancer in Japan includes D3 dissection, which preserves the mesocolic plane by sharp dissection off the parietal plane, with central vascular ligation. In recent 25 years, laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancers has been widespread, and Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery(JSES) demonstrated that a penetration rate of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer was 58 % in 2013. To evaluate long and short-term outcomes of laparoscopic D3 resection for stage Il/III colorectal cancer, a randomized con- trolled trial was conducted in Japan (JCOG0404). Read More

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November 2016

Molecular approach for diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1895-1901

Implementation of screening programs aimed at early detection of colorectal cancer is essen- tial to reduce incidence and mortality rates. Current screening and diagnostic methods range from semi-invasive procedures such as colonoscopy to noninvasive stool-based tests. On the other hands, with the development of new sensitive molecular techniques, colorectal cancer initiation and progression have been known to control by both genetic and epigenetic events, which can be used for the development of novel, minimally invasive molecular bio- markers. Read More

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November 2016
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Current topics of colorectal cancer screening.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1889-1894

Despite the recent advancement of the treatment including endoscopic resection, surgery, and systemic chemotherapy, mortality rate of colorectal cancer(CRC) has been increasing in Japan. Therefore, the strategy for CRC should be focused to both the early diagnosis by efficient screening and prevention. The screening using fecal occult blood test and subsequent total colonoscopy has been recognized as a gold standard of CRC screening, however, the checkup rate of these examinations is still very low in Japan. Read More

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November 2016

Palliative medicine as active cancer therapy support.

Authors:
Satoshi Miyake

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1884-1888

Active cancer therapy consists of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. The meaning of palliative cancer care have been changed from end-of-life care to accomplishment of better QOL of cancer patients and their family from the period of diagnosis and early treatment. Palliative medicine as active cancer therapy support includes not only supportive care for the adverse events of active cancer therapy but also shared decision making with patients and family. Read More

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November 2016
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Self-expanding metallic stent for unresectable obstructive colorectal cancer.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1879-1883

Colon stent self-expanding metallic stents(SEMS) are useful for obstructive colorectal cancers (CRC). SEMS placement has indicated in the palliation of malignant colorectal obstruc- tion, and bridge to elective surgery for resectable colorectal cancers. SEMS can reduce the risk of early complications, mortality, stoma creation rate, and shorten hospital stay. Read More

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November 2016
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Conversion chemotherapy for unresectable or recurrent colorectal cancer.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1872-1876

Conversion therapy to surgical resection is associated with prolonged survival and even cure in patients with unresectable or borderline metastatic colorectal cancer(mCRC). The indication should be decided after close considerations to the patient's background and the mutation status of RAS/BRAF. The conversion strategy should be chosen especially for liver limited disease (LLD). Read More

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November 2016

Peri-operative chemotherapy for resectable colorectal cancer liver metastases.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1863-1871

Approximately one-third of patients survive for 5 years following curative resection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer, and the proportion of hepatectomy-related death is as low as 1-2 %. These observations strongly support the view that hepatectomy seems to be the most effective therapy for treating hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer, due to the potential for long-term survival that is not possible with other treatment modalities. However, a hepatectomy alone does not always provide a complete cure. Read More

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November 2016

Benefits and disadvantages of preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1857-1862

Preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer is now widely performed and has been validated by multiple randomized controlled trials to be oncologically effective. The most important benefit of chemoradiotherapy is reduction of local recurrence. Potential benefits include increased sphincter preservation in good responders, and further organ preservation by non-operative management in patients with complete clinical response. Read More

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November 2016
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Current status and future perspective of the chemotherapy for colorectal cancer.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1852-1856

In the last decade unprecedented advances have been seen in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer(mCRC). Clinical developments of many active agents have contributed to this great progress in the prognosis of mCRC. Recently, new active agents and combination chemotherapies have been developed and reported promising results for HER2 positive, BRAF mutant, and MSI-High mCRC patients. Read More

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November 2016

The risk of adverse events of CPT- 11.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1847-1851

Irinotecan is a camptothecin analog used worldwide for a broad range of solid tumors, including colorectal cancer. It can cause severe adverse drug reactions, such as neutropenia or diarrhea. Recent pharmacogenetic studies on irinotecan have revealed the impact of UGT1A1 polymorphisms on severe adverse effects. Read More

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November 2016
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Surgical outcomes and prognostic factors after lung metastasectomy for pulmonary metastasis of colorectal cancer.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1842-1846

Surgical resection of resectable pulmonary metastasis from colorectal cancer(PM-CRC) has been widely performed and considered to be the primary treatment modality. We re- viewed the recent literatures on metastasectomy of PM-CRC and summarized the long-term survival data and prognostic factors after metastasectomy of PM-CRC. Although many prog- nostic factors have been reported, recent major studies and meta-analysis suggested that the following 4 indicators were promising prognostic factors: (1) number of metastasis, (2) disease-free interval, (3) preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) level, and (4) hilar/mediastinal nodal status. Read More

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November 2016

Prognostic risk factors for recurrence after resection of colorectal liver metastases.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1835-1841

Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment for colorectal liver metastases (CLM). Although long-term survival after resection of CLM, with a 5-year overall survival of more than 50 %, has been reported recently, high recurrence rate up to 80 % with a short interval after resection still remains the key problem of CLM treatment. Several clinicopa- thological prognostic risk factors after resection of CLM has been reported, such as short disease free interval, primary nodal status, number and size of CLM, preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen level, etc. Read More

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November 2016
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Evaluation of recurrence risk in colorectal cancer with the novel clinicopathological factors.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1828-1833

Two novel histopathological parameters, i.e., poorly differentiated cluster(PDC) and des- moplastic reaction (DR), have increasingly been investigated as risk factors of recurrence in colorectal cancer patients. Read More

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November 2016

Risk of lymph node metastasis in colorectal T1 (SM) carcinoma.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1823-1827

In this report, we reviewed risk factors for lymph node metastasis in colorectal T1 (SM) carcinoma in relation to the chronological trend of the management of T1 colorectal carci- noma after endoscopic treatment. Recently according to the accumulation of many cases and detailed pathologic evaluation, after complete endoscopic en bloc resection, if below all conditions are satisfied in histological examination, 1) submucosal invasion depth: less than 1,000 pm, 2)histologic grade: favorable, 3)no vessel involvement and 4)budding grade: low, it shows very low risk of lymph node metastasis. Also, in this report, we assess the conditions for additional surgery after endoscopic resection based on the risk stratification of lymph node metastasis. Read More

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November 2016
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Development of immune checkpoint inhibitor in colorectal cancer.

Authors:
Shigehisa Kitano

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1818-1820

Nowadays immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD -L1 anti- bodies, are most striking among the clinical development of immunotherapy. These mono- clonal antibodies restore and augment the anti-tumor immune activities of cytotoxic T cells by mainly blocking immune checkpoint molecules on T cells or their ligands on antigen presenting and tumor cells. Based on preclinical data, many clinical trials have demonstrated the acceptable safety profiles and efficacies in a variety of cancers. Read More

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November 2016

Integration of clinical information and molecular biology profile -Endeavor of SCRUM-Japan-.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1812-1817

In recent years, the cancer therapy based on the biomarker has been clinically introduced in colorectal cancer. Furthermore, the therapeutic development for the colorectal cancer patients corresponding to gene alteration, such as BRAF gene mutation and microsatellite instability(MSI), are underway. Although the development of the novel treatments according to biomarkers is urgent the fragmentation of the patient population by biomarker have caused various problems in the treatment development. Read More

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November 2016

Mechanisms and clinical uses of miRNAs in colorectal cancer.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1807-1811

MicroRNAs(miRNAs) are key regulators involved in various tumors. Recently, it has become clear that aberrant miRNA expression has a functional role in the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Distinct miRNA expression profiles have cancer- specific patterns and are associated with diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic outcome in CRC. Read More

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November 2016

Molecular subtypes of colorectal cancer.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1802-1806

Cancer has a character of heterogeneity, which makes it difficult to determine treatment strategy and predict prognosis. To conquer this problem, comprehensive analyses have been actively performed for gene expression, and molecular subtypes of various types of cancer have been identified by many studies. In colorectal cancer(CRC), there are known to be other subtypes than gene expression, that is, chromosome instability(CIN), microsatellite instability (MSI), and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). Read More

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November 2016

Epidemiology of colitis complicating cancer-postoperative cancer in ulcerative colitis and anorectal cancer in Crohn's disease.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1796-1801

Colitis complicating inflammatory bowel disease is gradually increasing in Japan. Although the postoperative cancer in ulcerative colitis is rare, careful postoperative follow up is nec- essary. Anorectal cancer including cancer of anal fistulae in Crohn's disease is the most common cancer in Japan and our original cancer surveillance program in which biopsy for anorectal lesion is performed for longstanding anal lesion (more than 10 years) is suggested to be effective for the detection of early cancer. Read More

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November 2016

Epidemiology of hereditary colorectal cancer.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1790-1795

Hereditary colorectal cancers comprise less than 5 % of all colorectal cancers and are defined as heritable conditions characterized by an apparently increased risk of colorectal cancer in individuals (mutant carriers in the germline), compared with the risk in the general population. Among the various known hereditary colorectal cancers, Lynch syndrome is the most common, followed by familial adenomatous polyposis. Other rarer diseases have been described, such as MUTYH-associated polyposis, polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis, hamartomatous polyposis syndromes (Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenile polyposis syndrome, and PTEN hamartomatous syndrome). Read More

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November 2016

Colorectal cancer epidemiology in Japan: Mortality, incidence, survival.

Nihon Rinsho 2016 Nov;74(11):1786-1789

The mortality, incidence, and survival rates for colorectal cancer in Japan are reviewed, with attention paid to changes over time and comparison with US statistics. The age-adjusted mortality rate gradually decreased in Japan, 16.2 per 100,000 per year in 2014. Read More

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November 2016