757 results match your criteria Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi Japanese Journal of Psychopharmacology[Journal]


[Basal Ganglia Circuit Mechanisms in Cognitive Learning].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2017 Apr;37(2):35-8

The nucleus accumbens (NAc), the ventral part of the striatum, plays a critical role in motivation, learning, and cognition in the basal ganglia circuit. Outputs of the NAc are transmitted through two parallel direct and indirect pathways. We have developed a reversible neurotransmission blocking (RNB) technique, in which neurotransmission of each pathway in the NAc is selectively blocked by specific expression of a transmission-blocking tetanus toxin (D-RNB or I-RNB). Read More

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April 2017
1 Read

Experimental disease models for mechanistic understanding and drug discovery for psychiatric disorders.

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2017 Apr;37(2):39-43

Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression are considered to be complex diseases that result from an interaction of many ge- netic and environmental risk factors associated with the diseases. The underlying molecular mechanisms, however, remain largely unknown and there are conditions, the treatment of which is not necessarily satisfactory due to inadequate therapeutic effect or treatment resistance. Therefore, scientific research on the brain functions and dysfunctions as well as development of better treatments is crucially important. Read More

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Experience-dependent development of visual cortical functions.

Authors:
Yumiko Yoshimura

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2017 Apr;37(2):29-33

Visual cortical neurons selectively respond to particular features of visual stimuli. Selective visual responsiveness is modified by visual expe- rience during development. We report that fine-scale networks of precisely interconnected excitatory neurons were embedded in the rat visual cortex and suggest that this network could be a functional unit for visual information processing. Read More

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April 2017
8 Reads

The contribution of neuroplasticity induced in cholinergic neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus to cocaine addiction.

Authors:
Katsuyuki Kaneda

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2017 02;37(1):1-7

Cocaine-induced neuroplasticity in brain reward circuitry consisting of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens and medial pre- frontal cortex is critical for developing cocaine addiction. Recent studies have investigated the involvement of brain areas in addition to the mesocorticolimbic circuitry in cocaine addiction. One such area is the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT). Read More

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February 2017

[Neuroimaging studies of depression: Current status and future direction.]

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2016 Nov;36(5-6):101-108

Recent advances in neuroimaging studies enable us to measure brain function non-invasively. Over the past several decades, neuroimaging measurement has been substantially applied to elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder (MDD). Since MDD is a wide spectrum which consists of various symptoms such as low mood or loss of interest and is considered to affect a biologically het- erogeneous population, we have not yet elucidated the biological underpinnings of MDD. Read More

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November 2016
3 Reads

[Newly developed nomenclature (Neuroscience-based Nomenclature)].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2016 Jun;36(3):69-71

The current nomenclature is based on clinical indications; for example, drugs used for mania and psychosis are classified as "mood stabilizers" and "antipsychotic drugs", respectively. This discrepancy between their names and indications often confuses patients and their caregivers and sometimes leads to a misunderstanding of the effects of prescribed medications. In addition, up-to-date scientific knowledge on these drugs has not been reflected in the current nomenclature. Read More

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June 2016
4 Reads

[Pharmacokinetics and safety of aripiprazole long-acting injection, following multiple deltoid administrations in schizophrenia patients in Japan].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2016 Jun;36(3):63-8

Aripiprazole once-monthly (AOM) was previously approved for treatment of schizophrenia as monthly injections in the gluteal muscle. The deltoid muscle provides a more accessible injection site. The present study was conducted in Japanese schizophrenia patients as a 24-week, open-label trial that assessed the pharmacokinetics and safety of 5 sequential doses of AOM 400 mg (AOM 400) once every 4 weeks administered in the deltoid muscle. Read More

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June 2016
79 Reads

Hibernation, Hypothermia and a Possible Therapeutic "Shifted Homeostasis" Induced by Central Activation of A1 Adenosine Receptor (A1AR).

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2016 Apr;36(2):51-4

The positive outcome that hypothermia contributes to brain and cardiac protection following ischemia has stimulated research in the development of pharmacological approaches to induce a hypothermic/hypometabolic state. Pharmacological manipulation of central autonomic thermoregulatory circuits could represent a potential target for the induction of a hypothermic state. Here we present a brief description of the CNS thermoregulatory centers and how the manipulation of these circuits can be useful in the treatment of pathological conditions such as stroke or brain hemorrhage. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5005006PMC
April 2016
2 Reads

[When we have learned about the brain development from a disease-oriented study: DBZ regulates cortical cell positioning and neurite extension by sustaining the anterograde transport of Lis1/DISC1 through control of Ndel1 phosphorylation].

Authors:
Makoto Sato

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2016 Apr;36(2):43-50

Cell positioning and neuronal network formation are crucial for proper brain function. Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is anterogradely transported to the neurite tips, together with Lis1, and functions in neurite extension via suppression of GSK3β activity. Then, transported Lis1 is retrogradely transported and functions in cell migration. Read More

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April 2016
8 Reads

[Thermosensitive TRP channels and brain function].

Authors:
Makoto Tominaga

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2016 Apr;36(2):37-41

Capsaicin receptor TRPV1 and wasabi receptor TRPA1 are expressed in the unmyelinated C fiber nociceptors and activated by various nociceptive stimuli causing pain in our body. Their involvement in nociception was proven with behavior studies using mice lacking TRPV1 and TRPA1. TRPV1 was found to interact with a calcium-activated chloride channel, anoctamin1 (ANO1), and calcium ions entering the primary sensory neurons activated ANO1, leading to chloride efflux which resulted in further depolarization. Read More

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April 2016
2 Reads

[Effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of schizophrenia].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2016 Apr;36(2):29-35

Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have recently been focused on the pathological hypotheses of schizophrenia. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a precursor of endogenous antioxidant glutathione and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. NAC is widely available as an over-the-counter nutritional supplement. Read More

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April 2016
5 Reads

[Intermediate phenotype studies in psychiatric disorder].

Authors:
Ryota Hashimoto

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2016 Feb;36(1):1-7

The concept of intermediate phenotype was proposed by Dr. Weinberger of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). The risk genes for mental disorders define intermediate phenotypes, neurobiological characteristics observed in psychiatric disorders, and intermediate phenotypes increase the risk of mental disorders. Read More

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February 2016
6 Reads

Assessment of Cognitive Dysfunction Caused by Anticholinergic Burden in Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Patients, Using the Most Commonly Used Scales in Japan.

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2015 Nov;35(5-6):113-8

Anticholinergic activity (AA) is generally thought to cause cognitive dysfunction, especially in Alzheimer's disease (AD), one of the neurocognitive disorders related to memory disturbances. Therefore, it is important to evaluate cognitive functions to determine whether they are associated with anticholinergic burden. In Japan, the most frequently used cognitive scale for evaluating cognitive functions is the revised version of Hasegawa's Dementia Rating Scale (HDS-R). Read More

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November 2015
6 Reads

[Distinct roles of the direct and indirect pathways in the basal ganglia circuit mechanism].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2015 Nov;35(5-6):107-11

The basal ganglia are key neural substrates that control not only motor balance but also emotion, motivation, cognition, learning, and decision-making. Dysfunction of the basal ganglia leads to neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Read More

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November 2015
3 Reads

[Proceeding of 44th annual meeting of the Japanese Society of Neuropsychopharmacology. Nagoya, Japan. November 20-22, 2014. Abstracts].

Authors:

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2014 Nov;Suppl Godo Nenkai:85-221

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November 2014
1 Read

[Animals' clever adaptation strategy for seasonal changes in environment].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2015 Aug;35(4):103-6

Organisms living outside of tropical zones experience seasonal changes in environment. Organisms are using day length as a calendar to change their physiology and behavior such as seasonal breeding, hibernation, migration, and molting. A comparative biology approach revealed underlying mechanisms of vertebrate seasonal reproduction. Read More

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August 2015
8 Reads

[Controlling sleep/wakefulness using optogenetics].

Authors:
Akihiro Yamanaka

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2015 Aug;35(4):97-102

Optogenetics is a recently developed experimental technique to control the activity of neurons using light. Optogenetics shows its power to reveal the physiological role of specific neural circuits in the brain. In particular, manipulation of a specific type of neurons using optogenetics with high accuracy timing enables us to analyze causality between neural activity and initiation of animal behaviors. Read More

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August 2015
7 Reads

[Pain and emotional dysregulation: Cellular memory due to pain].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2015 Aug;35(4):89-95

Genetic factors are involved in determinants for the risk of psychiatric disorders, and neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Chronic pain stimuli and intense pain have effects at a cellular and/or gene expression level, and will eventually induce "cellular memory due to pain", which means that tissue damage, even if only transient, can elicit epigenetically abnormal transcription/translation and post-translational modification in related cells depending on the degree or kind of injury or associated conditions. Such cell memory/transformation due to pain can cause an abnormality in a fundamental intracellular response, such as a change in the three-dimensional structure of DNA, transcription, or translation. Read More

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August 2015
10 Reads

[Glutamic acid as a universal extracellular signal].

Authors:
Yukio Yoneda

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2015 Aug;35(4):81-8

The prevailing view is that both glutamic (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) acids play a role as an amino acid neurotransmitter released from neurons. However, little attention has been paid to the possible expression and functionality of signaling machineries required for amino acidergic neurotransmission in cells other than central neurons. In line with our first demonstration of the presence of Glu receptors outside the brain, in this review I will outline our recent findings accumulated since then on the physiological and pathological significance of neuronal amino acids as an extracellular signal essential for homeostasis in a variety of phenotypic cells. Read More

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August 2015
5 Reads

[Association between GSK3β polymorphisms and the smoking habits in young Japanese].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2015 Jun;35(3):73-7

Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder show high comorbidity with smoking dependence. Several previous studies reported that glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), which is widely expressed in the brain including the dopamine projection areas such as the amygdala, nucleus accumbens and hippocampus, may play a role in neuropsychiatric disorders and dopamine- and serotonin-mediated behavior. In this study, we have analyzed the association of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within GSK3β gene (rs3755557, rs334558, rs6438552) with the smoking habits and age at smoking initiation in a sample of 384 young adult Japanese, which included 172 smokers and 212 non-smokers. Read More

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June 2015
13 Reads

[Exploration of novel therapeutic targets for neuropathic pain based on the regulation of immune cells].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2015 Jun;35(3):65-72

The pathogenesis of neuropathic pain is quite complicated and diverse. Because pre-existing analgesics, such as opioid analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, are not sufficient to treat it, it is a serious task to establish a strategy of remedy for neuropathic pain. Recently, increasing evidence suggests that immune cell-mediated neuroinflammation in the nervous system induces central and peripheral sensitization, resulting in chronic pain. Read More

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June 2015
17 Reads

[JSNP Excellent Presentation Award for CINP2014].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2015 Apr;35(2):61-2

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April 2015
2 Reads

[JSNP Excellent Presentation Award for CINP2014].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2015 Apr;35(2):59-60

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April 2015
3 Reads

[JSNP Excellent Presentation Award for CINP2014].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2015 Apr;35(2):57-8

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April 2015
4 Reads

[JSNP Excellent Presentation Award for CINP2014: PACAP].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2015 Apr;35(2):55-6

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April 2015
3 Reads

[JSNP Excellent Presentation Award for CINP2014].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2015 Apr;35(2):53-4

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April 2015
2 Reads

[JSNP Excellent Presentation Award for CINP20 14].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2015 Apr;35(2):49-50

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April 2015
3 Reads

[JSNP Excellent Presentation Award for CINP2014].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2015 Apr;35(2):45-6

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April 2015
5 Reads

[Utility of organotypic raphe slice cultures to investigate the effects of psychotropic drugs on the function of serotoninergic neurons].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2015 Apr;35(2):39-44

A number of behavioral, neurochemical and electrophysiological studies have emphasized the importance of the serotonergic neurons in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and the therapeutic actions of psychotropics. However, no in vitro serotonergic culture systems have successfully analyzed the long-term effects of psychotropics or the neural interaction between serotonergic and excitatory/inhibitory neurons. Recently, we have established rat organotypic raphe slice cultures, which have functional serotonergic neurons with the ability to release 5-HT in response to stimulation and to reuptake 5-HT through serotonin transporter and retain neural and synaptic functions. Read More

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April 2015
9 Reads

[Interoception and decision-making].

Authors:
Hideki Ohira

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2015 Feb;35(1):11-8

We sometimes make decisions relying not necessarily on deliberative thoughts but on intuitive and emotional processes in uncertain situations. The somatic marker hypothesis proposed by Damasio argued that interoception, which means bodily responses such as sympathetic activity, can be represented in the insula and anterior cingulate cortex and can play critical roles in decision-making. Though this hypothesis has been criticized in its theoretical and empirical aspects, recent studies are expanding the hypothesis to elucidate multiple bodily responses including autonomic, endocrine, and immune activities that affect decision-making. Read More

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February 2015
8 Reads

[Gliaotransmission and brain functions].

Authors:
Schuichi Koizumi

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2015 Feb;35(1):5-9

Glial cells receive neurotransmitters, respond to them, and then release so-called gliotransmitters such as ATP, glutamate or D-serine. Astrocytes in particular have received much attention because synaptic structures are surrounded by astrocytic fine processes, by which astrocytes communicate with neurons via gliotransmitters. Here, we introduce recent progress concerning glia-neuron interaction, especially focusing on the major gliotransmitter ATP and astrocytes in parallel with the latest progress in glia-imaging techniques. Read More

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February 2015
3 Reads

[Mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain revealing by the role of glial cells].

Authors:
Makoto Tsuda

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2015 Feb;35(1):1-4

Injury to the nervous system results in debilitating chronic pain states (called neuropathic pain) whose mechanisms remain unclear. Emerging lines of evidence indicate the pivotal role of spinal glial cells in neuropathic pain. Spinal microglia rapidly respond to peripheral nerve injury (PNI) and become activated with changing expression of a variety of genes. Read More

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February 2015
12 Reads

[The therapeutic plasma concentrations of antiparkinson dopamine agonists and their in vitro pharmacology at dopamine receptors].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2014 Nov;34(5-6):127-32

This review discusses the relationship between therapeutic plasma concentrations of antiparkinson dopamine agonists (rotigotine, pergolide, cabergoline, apomorphine, bromocriptine, ropinirole, pramipexole, and talipexole) and their in vitro pharmacology at dopamine D1, D2 and D3 receptors. A significant correlation was found between therapeutic plasma concentrations of these dopamine agonists and their agonist potencies (EC50) at D2 receptors, although no such correlation existed at D1 or D3 receptors, suggesting that D2 receptors could be the primary and common target for the antiparkinson action of all dopamine agonists. However, D1 receptor stimulation is also important for maintaining swallowing reflex, bladder function and cognition. Read More

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November 2014
4 Reads

[Mechanisms for regulation of fear conditioning and memory].

Authors:
Satoshi Kida

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2014 Nov;34(5-6):117-25

Pavlovian fear conditioning is a model of fear learning and memory. The mechanisms regulating fear conditioning and memory have been investigated in humans and rodents. In this paradigm, animals learn and memorize an association between a conditioned stimulus (CS), such as context, and an unconditioned stimulus (US), such as an electrical footshock that induces fear. Read More

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November 2014
4 Reads

[Roles of inflammation-related molecules in emotional changes induced by repeated stress].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2014 Aug;34(4):109-15

Stress is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. Studies using rodent stress models have shown critical roles for inflammation-related molecules in stress-induced behavioral changes. Under chronic mild stress, IL-1beta through IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1RI) in the brain activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, thereby stimulating glucocorticoid release, which in turn decreases motivation to obtain reward. Read More

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August 2014
9 Reads

[Neurochemical basis for social encounter-induced hyperactivity in post-weaning isolation-reared mice].

Authors:
Yukio Ago

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2014 Aug;34(4):101-7

Rearing rodents in social isolation from post-weaning causes abnormal behaviors in adulthood, such as hyper-locomotion, aggression, cognitive impairments, and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. This social isolation is widely used as a model to study the effects of adverse early-life experiences on behavior and the neural mechanisms associated with neuropsychological development. Previous studies have shown abnormalities of dendritic spine density, synaptic protein levels and amine metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of isolation-reared animals, but the neurochemical basis for induction of abnormal behaviors is not known. Read More

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August 2014
4 Reads

[The involvement of hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide and its precursor in Alzheimer pathogenesis].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2014 Jun;34(3):93-100

Hippocampal cholinergic neruostimulating peptide (HCNP) induces acethylcholine synthesis in the adult hippocampus of mice via increasing the amount of cholineacethyl transferase. The precursor protein of HCNP (HCNP-pp), composed of 186 amino acids, is a multifunctional protein, such as c-Raf kinase inhibitory protein and phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein. In the adult hippocampus, HCNP-pp co-localizes in presynapse terminals with non-phosphorylated collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP)-2, and might play a crucial role in hippocampal neuronal activity. Read More

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June 2014
6 Reads

[Regulation of neural circuit function in the axon initial segment].

Authors:
Hiroshi Kuba

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2014 Jun;34(3):87-92

The axon initial segment (AIS) is a highly specialized neuronal subregion that separates axonal and somatodendritic compartments. The AIS is enriched with voltage-gated Na+ channels, and plays a critical role in determining neuronal activity. Recently, our understanding of AIS has seen major advances. Read More

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June 2014
4 Reads

[An introduction of the Translational Medical Science Committee (TMSC) of the Japanese Society of Neuropsychopharmacology].

Authors:
Jun Ishigooka

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2014 Jun;34(3):81-6

The Japanese Society of Neuropsychopharmacology (NP) has established a Translational Medical Science Committee (TMSC), which is introduced in this article. In this century, the Japanese Government has made great effort to establish highly organized supporting systems for translational research (TR); however, clinical developments for psychotropic drugs in Japan are facing stagnation. TMSC will provide advisory activities from an academic point of view in this field, which will be result in the improvement of people's health. Read More

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June 2014
5 Reads

[Immaturity of brain as an endophenotype of neuropsychiatric disorders].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2014 Jun;34(3):67-79

Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are severe neuropsychiatric disorders, affecting about 1% of the population. Identifying endophenotypes in the brains of neuropsychiatric patients is now considered the way to understand the underlying mechanisms and to improve therapeutic outcomes. However, the endophenotypes and brain mechanisms of the disorders remain unknown. Read More

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June 2014
7 Reads

[Microglial hypothesis of schizophrenia].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2014 Feb;34(1):11-3

While the etiology of schizophrenia remains unclear, there has been a growing amount of evidence pointing to neuroinflammation, which is characterized by an increased serum concentration of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and an increase of microglia in the brain of schizophrenics. Microglia respond rapidly to even minor pathological changes in the brain and may contribute directly to neuronal degeneration by producing various pro-inflammatory cytokines and free radicals. In many aspects, the neuropathology of schizophrenia has recently been reported to be closely associated with microglial activation. Read More

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February 2014
6 Reads

[Role of apolipoprotein E in the molecular pathomechanism of Alzheimer disease].

Authors:
Makoto Michikawa

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2014 Feb;34(1):5-9

Apolipoprotein E (Apo-E) is a major cholesterol carrier regulating lipid transport and injury repair in the brain. It is known that individuals carrying the epsilon4 allele are at increased risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) compared with those carrying the more common epsilon3 allele, whereas the epsilon2 allele decreases risk. ApoE-HDL binds to several cell-surface receptors to deliver lipids, and also to amyloid-beta (Abeta) proteins. Read More

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February 2014
5 Reads

[Synapse maturation and autism: learning from neuroligin model mice].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2014 Feb;34(1):1-4

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior. Synaptic defects have been implicated in autism; nevertheless, the cause is still largely unknown. A mutation that substitutes cysteine for arginine at residue 451 of Neuroligin-3 (R451C) is the first monogenic mutation identified in idiopathic autism patients. Read More

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February 2014
14 Reads

[Haplotype analysis of serotonin 2A receptor gene polymorphisms and smoking behavior].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2013 Nov;33(5-6):237-40

In this study, the relationship between the haplotypes consisting of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of serotonin 2A receptor (5HT2AR) gene (HTR2A) 102T/C (rs6313) and -1438A/G (rs6311) and smoking behavior was studied among 101 smokers and 99 non-smokers. It was shown that the genotypic and allelic frequencies of these polymorphisms were not associated with the smoking behavior. However, according to haplotype analysis, higher haplotype 1 ((-1438G) G-(102)T) frequency was observed in smokers than in non-smokers (P < 0. Read More

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November 2013
4 Reads

[Multiaxial evaluation of the pathophysiology of mood disorder and therapeutic mechanisms of clinical drugs by neuronal plasticity and neuronal load].

Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2013 Nov;33(5-6):231-6

Impairment of neuronal plasticity is important in the pathophysiology of mood disorder. Both zinc deficiency and social isolation impair neuronal plasticity. Both cause a depressive state. Read More

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November 2013
6 Reads