Niemann-Pick Disease, type C1 (NPC1) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cholesterol sequestration within late endosomes and lysosomes, for which no reliable imaging marker exists for prognostication and management. Cerebellar volume deficits are found to correlate with disease severity and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the corpus callosum and brainstem, which has shown that microstructural disorganization is associated with NPC1 severity. This study investigates the utility of cerebellar DTI in clinical severity assessment. Read More
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau SAR, China; Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA; The SJ Yan and HJ Mao Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Electronic address:
Cholesterol is an important modulator of membrane protein function and signaling in endothelial cells, thus making it an emerging target for anti-angiogenic agents. In this study, we employed a phenotypic screen that detects intracellular cholesterol distribution in endothelial cells (HUVEC) and identified 13 existing drugs as cholesterol trafficking inhibitors. Cepharanthine, an approved drug for anti-inflammatory and cancer management use, was amongst the candidates, which was selected for in-depth mechanistic studies to link cholesterol trafficking and angiogenesis. Read More
The study of the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs, to human disease has enhanced our understanding of different cellular processes and diseased states, as well as the effect of environmental factors on phenotypic outcomes. Epigenetic studies may be particularly relevant in evaluating the clinical heterogeneity observed in monogenic disorders. The lysosomal storage disorders are Mendelian disorders characterized by a wide spectrum of associated phenotypes, ranging from neonatal presentations to symptoms that develop in late adulthood. Read More
Objectives: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare inherited neurovisceral disease that should be recognized by psychiatrists as a possible underlying cause of psychiatric abnormalities. This study describes NP-C patients who had psychiatric manifestations at enrolment in the international NPC Registry, a unique multicentre, prospective, observational disease registry.
Methods: Treating physicians' data entries describing psychiatric manifestations in NPC patients were coded and grouped by expert psychiatrists. Read More
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) arise from monogenic deficiencies in lysosomal proteins and pathways and are characterized by a tissue-wide accumulation of a vast variety of macromolecules, normally specific to each genetic lesion. Strategies for treatment of LSDs commonly depend on reduction of the offending metabolite(s) by substrate depletion or enzyme replacement. However, at least 44 of the ~50 LSDs are currently recalcitrant to intervention. Read More
Center for Translational Neurodegeneration Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA; Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA; Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Electronic address:
Defective lysosomal function defines many neurodegenerative diseases, such as neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) and Niemann-Pick type C (NPC), and is implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP) with progranulin (PGRN) deficiency. Here, we show that PGRN is involved in lysosomal homeostasis and lipid metabolism. PGRN deficiency alters lysosome abundance and morphology in mouse neurons. Read More
Lipid accumulation within the lumen of endolysosomal vesicles is observed in various pathologies including atherosclerosis, liver disease, neurological disorders, lysosomal storage disorders, and cancer. Current methods cannot measure lipid flux specifically within the lysosomal lumen of live cells. We developed an optical reporter, composed of a photoluminescent carbon nanotube of a single chirality, that responds to lipid accumulation via modulation of the nanotube's optical band gap. Read More
Sterols are essential lipids of all eukaryotic cells, appearing either as free sterols or steryl esters. Besides other regulatory mechanisms, esterification of sterols and hydrolysis of steryl esters serve to buffer both an excess and a lack of free sterols. In this review, the esterification process, the storage of steryl esters and their mobilization will be described. Read More
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare neurovisceral and irreversible disease leading to premature death and disabling neurological signs. This autosomal recessive disease with incidence rate of 1:120000 is caused by mutations in either the NPC1 or the NPC2 gene, which leads to accumulation of cholesterol in body tissues especially brain and progressive neurological symptoms. NP-C is characterized by nonspecific visceral, neurological and psychiatric manifestations in infants. Read More
Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is an inherited, progressive neurodegenerative disorder principally caused by mutations in the NPC1 gene. NPC disease is characterized by the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in the late endosomes (LE) and lysosomes (LE) (LE/Ly). Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), restores cholesterol homeostasis in fibroblasts derived from NPC patients; however, the exact mechanism by which Vorinostat restores cholesterol level is not known yet. Read More
Background: Niemann-Pick disease Type C1 (NPC1) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the NPC1 gene. The pathological mechanisms, underlying NPC1 are not yet completely understood. Especially the contribution of glial cells and gliosis to the progression of NPC1, are controversially discussed. Read More
We report a 37-year-old woman with Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) 1. At the age of 8 years, she presented slow running followed by both fingers dystonia at the age of 10 years. At the age of 16 years, she developed declined scholastic achievement. Read More
Background And Objective: Advances in the care of patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS) have been hampered by lack of data. This deficiency has produced fragmentary knowledge regarding the natural history of this condition, healthcare needs, and the effects of the disease on caregivers. To remedy this deficiency, the Fragile X Clinic and Research Consortium was established to facilitate research. Read More
Background: Niemann-Pick disease Type C (NP-C) is a rare, autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in NPC1 or NPC2 genes. Diagnosis of NP-C can be challenging and is frequently delayed. Identifying mutations in individuals with NP-C and their relatives enables genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis and may support earlier diagnosis. Read More
Background: Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. In preclinical testing, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrins (HPβCD) significantly delayed cerebellar Purkinje cell loss, slowed progression of neurological manifestations, and increased lifespan in mouse and cat models of NPC1. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of lumbar intrathecal HPβCD. Read More
Rapid whole exome sequencing (rWES) is increasingly used in critically ill newborn infants to inform about diagnosis, clinical management and prognosis. Here we report a male newborn infant with hydrops, pancytopenia and acute liver failure who was listed for liver transplantation. Given the acuity of the presentation, the procedure related morbidity and mortality and lack of diagnosis we employed rWES in the proband and both parents with a turn-around time of 10 business days. Read More
Reference Centre for Inborn Errors of Metabolism, Robert Debré University Hospital, APHP, Paris, France; UMR1141, PROTECT, INSERM, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France. Electronic address:
Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) deficient Niemann-Pick disease is a lysosomal storage disorder resulting from mutations in the SMPD1 gene. The clinical spectrum distinguishes a severe infantile neurological form (type A), a non-neurological visceral form (type B) and a rare intermediate neurovisceral form. We report the first case of presymptomatic cord blood transplantation in a child with the intermediate type of ASM deficiency due to a homozygous Tyr369Cys mutation, whose affected elder brother had developed neurodevelopmental delay from 19 months of age, and had died from severe visceral complications at the age of 3. Read More
Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) and NPC2 proteins are indispensable for the export of LDL-derived cholesterol from late endosomes. Mutations in these proteins result in Niemann-Pick type C disease, a lysosomal storage disease. Despite recent reports of the NPC1 structure depicting its overall architecture, the function of its C-terminal luminal domain (CTD) remains poorly understood even though 45% of NPC disease-causing mutations are in this domain. Read More
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a feline coronavirus (FCoV)-induced fatal disease in wild and domestic cats. FCoV exists in two serotypes. Type I FCoV is the dominant serotype worldwide. Read More
PLoS One 2017 27;12(7):e0181700. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire Grand Est, Unité Médicale Pathologies Métaboliques, Erythrocytaires et Dépistage Périnatal, Centre de Biologie et de Pathologie Est, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France.
Background: The biological diagnosis of sphingolipidoses currently relies on the measurement of specific enzymatic activities and/or genetic studies. Lysosphingolipids have recently emerged as potential biomarkers of sphingolipidoses and Niemann-Pick type C in plasma.
Methodology: We developed a sensitive and specific method enabling the simultaneous quantification of lysosphingolipids by LC-MS/MS: lysoglobotriaosylceramide for Fabry disease, lysohexosylceramide (i. Read More
Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease is a rare autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder, which presents with a range of clinical phenotypes and hence diagnosis remains a challenge. In view of these difficulties, the search for a novel, NPC1-specific biomarker (or set of biomarkers) is a topic of much interest. Here we employed high-resolution (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled with advanced multivariate analysis techniques in order to explore and seek differences between blood plasma samples acquired from NPC1 (untreated and miglustat treated), heterozygote, and healthy control subjects. Read More
Objectives: To assess the outcomes of newborn screening for 5 lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) in the first cohort of infants tested in the state of Illinois.
Study Design: Tandem mass spectrometry was used to assay for the 5 LSD-associated enzymes in dried blood spot specimens obtained from 219 973 newborn samples sent to the Newborn Screening Laboratory of the Illinois Department of Public Health in Chicago.
Results: The total number of cases with a positive diagnosis and the incidence for each disorder were as follows: Fabry disease, n = 26 (1 in 8454, including the p. Read More
The finding of collections of macrophages/histiocytes in lung biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage is relatively common in routine practice. This morphological feature in itself is pathological, but the exact clinical significance and underlying disease should be evaluated together with clinical data, functional respiratory and laboratory tests and imaging studies.Morphological characteristics of macrophages and their distribution along the different pulmonary structures should be examined carefully by pathologists. Read More
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare neurometabolic disorder resulting in impaired intracellular lipid trafficking. The only disease-modifying treatment currently available is miglustat, an iminosugar that inhibits the accumulation of lipid metabolites in neurons and other cells. This longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study examined how the rate of white matter change differed between treated and non-treated adult-onset NPC patient groups. Read More
Background: Demand for cholesterol is high in certain cancers making them potentially sensitive to therapeutic strategies targeting cellular cholesterol homoeostasis. A potential approach involves disruption of intracellular cholesterol transport, which occurs in Niemann-Pick disease as a result of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) deficiency. Hence, a class of lysosomotropic compounds that were identified as functional ASM inhibitors (FIASMAs) might exhibit chemotherapeutic activity by disrupting cancer cell cholesterol homoeostasis. Read More
Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting in accumulation of unesterified lysosomal cholesterol. An 8-year-old girl with NPC disease had a painless, rigid, and fixed mass measuring 3 cm in diameter located on the left angular region of mandibula. The mass biopsy showed lipid-laden phagocytic cells infiltrating the lymph node consistent with Niemann-Pick cells. Read More
The critical relevance of the lysosomal compartment for normal cellular function can be proved by numbering the clinical phenotypes that arise in lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs), a group of around 70 different monogenic autosomal or X-linked syndromes, caused by specific lysosomal enzyme deficiencies: all LSDs are characterized by progressive accumulation of heterogeneous biologic materials in the lysosomes of various parts of the body such as viscera, skeleton, skin, heart, and central nervous system. At least a fraction of LSDs has been associated with mixed abnormalities involving the immune system, while some patients with LSDs may result more prone to autoimmune phenomena. A large production of proinflammatory cytokines has been observed in Gaucher and Fabry diseases, and wide different autoantibody production has been also reported in both. Read More
Background: Expanded carrier screening (ECS), which can identify carriers of a large number of recessive disorders in the general population, has grown in popularity and is now widely accessible to prospective parents. This article presents a comprehensive overview of the characteristics of currently available ECS tests.
Methods: To identify relevant ECS providers, we employed a multi-step approach, which included online searching, review of the recent literature, and consultations with researchers familiar with the current landscape of ECS. Read More
Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPCD) is an autosomal recessive storage disorder, characterized by abnormal sequestration of unesterified cholesterol within the late endo-lysosomal compartment of cells. In the central nervous system, hypoxic insults could result in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) induction, leading to a pathological hippocampal response, namely, ischemic long-term potentiation (i-LTP). These events may correlate with the progressive neural loss observed in NPCD. Read More
Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the NPC1 gene, resulting mainly in the accumulation of cholesterol and the ganglioside GM2. Recently, we described accumulations of these lipids in neuronal differentiated cells derived from NPC1 patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). As these lipids are essential for proper cell membrane composition, we were interested in the expression and function of voltage-gated ion channels and excitatory AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in neurons derived from three patient-specific iPSC lines. Read More
Enzyme replacement is a viable treatment for diseases caused by genetic deficiency of lysosomal enzymes. However, suboptimal access of enzymes to target sites limits this strategy. Polymer nanocarriers (NCs) coated with antibody against intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), a protein overexpressed on most cells under disease states, enhanced biodistribution and lysosomal delivery of these therapeutics. Read More
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder causing an intracellular lipid trafficking defect and varying damage to the spleen, liver, and central nervous system. The adult form, representing approximately 20% of the cases, is associated with progressive cognitive decline. Intriguingly, brains of adult NPC patients exhibit neurofibrillary tangles, a characteristic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More
Proper intracellular cholesterol trafficking is critical for cellular function. Two lysosome-resident proteins, NPC1 and NPC2, mediate the egress of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol from lysosomes. However, other proteins involved in this process remain largely unknown. Read More
Methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) reduces lysosomal cholesterol accumulation in Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1) patient fibroblasts. However, the pharmacological activity of MβCD reported by different laboratories varies. To determine the potential causes of this variation, we analyzed the mass spectrum characteristics, pharmacological activity of three preparations of MβCDs, and the protein expression profiles of NPC1 patient fibroblasts after treatment with different sources of MβCDs. Read More
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is an autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder, and the majority of cases are caused by mutations in the NPC1 gene. In this study, we clarified how a single gene mutation in the NPC1 gene impacts the cellular glycome by analyzing the total glycomic expression profile of Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in the Npc1 gene (Npc1 KO CHO cells). A number of glycomic alterations were identified, including increased expression of lactosylceramide, GM1, GM2, GD1, various neolacto-series glycosphingolipids, and sialyl-T (O-glycan), which was found to be the major sialylated protein-bound glycan, as well as various N-glycans, which were commonly both fucosylated and sialylated. Read More
While the cytosolic events of Wnt/β-catenin signaling (canonical Wnt signaling) pathway have been widely studied, only little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in Wnt binding to its receptors at the plasma membrane. Here, we reveal the influence of the immediate plasma membrane environment on the canonical Wnt-receptor interaction. While the receptors are distributed both in ordered and disordered environments, Wnt binding to its receptors selectively occurs in more ordered membrane environments which appear to cointernalize with the Wnt-receptor complex. Read More
The drug 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) reduces lysosomal cholesterol accumulation in Niemann-Pick disease, type C (NPC) and has been advanced to human clinical trials. However, its mechanism of action for reducing cholesterol accumulation in NPC cells is uncertain and its molecular target is unknown. We found that methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), a potent analog of HPβCD, restored impaired macroautophagy/autophagy flux in Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) cells. Read More
Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is a lysosomal storage disease exhibiting progressive intellectual disability, motor impairment, and premature death. There is currently no cure or corrective treatment. The disease results from mutations in the gene encoding mucolipin-1, a transient receptor potential channel believed to play a key role in lysosomal calcium egress. Read More
Mol Ther 2017 Jul 9;25(7):1686-1696. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA; Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. Electronic address:
Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency in type B Niemann-Pick disease leads to lysosomal sphingomyelin storage, principally affecting lungs, liver, and spleen. Infused recombinant enzyme is beneficial, yet its delivery to the lungs is limited and requires higher dosing than liver and spleen, leading to potentially adverse reactions. Previous studies showed increased enzyme pulmonary uptake by nanocarriers targeted to ICAM-1, a protein overexpressed during inflammation. Read More
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Togaviridae family that poses a present worldwide threat to human in the absence of any licensed vaccine or antiviral treatment to control viral infection. Here, we show that compounds interfering with intracellular cholesterol transport have the capacity to inhibit CHIKV replication in human skin fibroblasts, a major viral entry site in the human host. Pretreatment of these cells with the class II cationic amphiphilic compound U18666A, or treatment with the FDA-approved antidepressant drug imipramine resulted in a near total inhibition of viral replication and production at the highest concentration used without any cytotoxic effects. Read More
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have provided new opportunities to explore the cell biology and pathophysiology of human diseases, and the lysosomal storage disorder research community has been quick to adopt this technology. Patient-derived iPSC models have been generated for a number of lysosomal storage disorders, including Gaucher disease, Pompe disease, Fabry disease, metachromatic leukodystrophy, the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, Niemann-Pick types A and C1, and several of the mucopolysaccharidoses. Here, we review the strategies employed for reprogramming and differentiation, as well as insights into disease etiology gleaned from the currently available models. Read More
Niemann-Pick type C is a storage disease caused by dysfunction of NPC proteins, which transport cholesterol from the lumen of lysosomes to the limiting membrane of that compartment. Using freeze fracture electron microscopy, we show here that the yeast NPC orthologs, Ncr1p and Npc2p, are essential for formation and expansion of raft-like domains in the vacuolar (lysosome) membrane, both in stationary phase and in acute nitrogen starvation. Moreover, the expanded raft-like domains engulf lipid droplets by a microautophagic mechanism. Read More
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare, progressive autosomal recessive disease. It is caused by mutations in either the NPC1 or NPC2 genes, resulting in defective regulation of intracellular lipid trafficking. Miglustat, which reversibly inhibits glucosylceramide synthase, reportedly has beneficial effects on the progressive neurological symptoms of NPC and was approved in Japan in 2012. Read More
Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC; OMIM #257220) is an inborn error of intracellular cholesterol trafficking. It is an autosomal recessive disorder caused predominantly by mutations in NPC1 Although characterized as a progressive neurological disorder, it can also cause cholestasis and liver dysfunction because of intrahepatocyte lipid accumulation. We report a 7-wk-old infant who was admitted with neonatal cholestasis, and who was diagnosed with a novel homozygous stop-gain variant in NPC1 by rapid whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Read More