45,581 results match your criteria Nicotine Addiction


Tobacco and cannabis co-use and interrelatedness among adults.

Addict Behav 2018 Nov 27;90:354-361. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Charleston, SC, USA.

Cannabis and tobacco co-use is prevalent, but consensus regarding the reasons for co-use among adults and the degree of interrelatedness between these substances is lacking. Reasons for co-use have been explored with younger users, but little data exists for more experienced users with entrenched patterns of co-use. The goal of this study was to examine characteristics and patterns of cannabis-tobacco co-use among adults in the Southeastern United States (US), where there is a legal landscape of generally restrictive cannabis legislation coupled with more permissive tobacco control compared to other US regions. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Classic Psychedelics: An integrative review of epidemiology, mystical experience, brain network function, and therapeutics.

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.

The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrative review and offer novel insights regarding human research with classic psychedelics (classic hallucinogens), which are 5HT2AR agonists such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin. Classic psychedelics have been administered as sacraments since ancient times. They were of prominent interest within psychiatry and neuroscience in the 1950s to 1960s, and during this time contributed to the emergence of the field of molecular neuroscience. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Pediatric Office Delivery of Smoking Cessation Assistance for Breast-Feeding Mothers.

Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Division of General Academic Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston, MA.

Introduction: National and international organizations have done an excellent job of advocating and promoting breast feeding for all mothers. This study assessed to what extent an intervention increased delivery of cessation assistance to breast-feeding mothers who smoke.

Methods: Data were collected between April and October 2015 in five US states as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial in 10 pediatric practices. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

The Role of Sirt1 in Ischemic Stroke: Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Strategies.

Front Neurosci 2018 21;12:833. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Neurology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Sirt1), a nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent enzyme, is well-known in playing a part in longevity. Ischemic stroke is a major neurological disorder and is a leading cause of death and adult disability worldwide. Recently, many studies have focused on the role of Sirt1 in ischemic stroke. Read More

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November 2018

Mitochondrial functioning abnormalities observed in blood platelets of chronic smoke-exposed guinea pigs - a pilot study.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2018 9;13:3707-3717. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Pneumology and Allergy, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland,

Background: COPD represents a major global health issue, which is often accompanied by cardiovascular diseases. A considerable body of evidence suggests that cardiovascular risk is elevated by the activation of blood platelets, which in turn is exacerbated by inflammation. As reactive oxygen species are believed to be an important factor in platelet metabolism and functioning, the aim of our study was to perform a complex assessment of mitochondrial function in platelets in chronic smoke exposed animals with COPD-like lung lesions. Read More

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November 2018
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Modulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Annexin A2 in Response to 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-Butanone -Induced Inflammation via Swimming Training.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2018 Oct 7;17(5):418-427. Epub 2018 Oct 7.

Department of Physical Education and Sport, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.

The nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK; nicotine derived nitrosamine ketone) is one of the strongest carcinogens in tobacco which is involved in induction of lung cancer by changing the stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and annexin A2 expression. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in resting levels of annexin A2 and VEGF in lung tissues of rats exposed NNK after 12 weeks of aerobic submaximal swimming training. For this purpose, 46 Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups consist of training, training + NNK, NNK, saline and control. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Behavioral effects of psychostimulants in mutant mice with cell-type specific deletion of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in dopamine neurons.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Biology, William Paterson University, Wayne, New Jersey, 07470, USA. Electronic address:

Activation of the endocannabinoid system modulate dopaminergic pathways that are involved in the effects of psychostimulants including amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine and other drugs of abuse. Genetic deletion or pharmacological activation of CB2 cannabinoid receptor is involved in the modulation of the effects of psychostimulants and their rewarding properties. Here we report on the behavioral effects of psychostimulants in DAT-Cnr2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice with selective deletion of type 2 cannabinoid receptors in dopamine neurons. Read More

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November 2018

A machine-learning approach to predicting smoking cessation treatment outcomes.

Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, Roanoke, VA, USA.

Aims: Most cigarette smokers want to quit smoking and more than half make an attempt every year, but less than 10% remain abstinent for at least 6 months. Evidence-based tobacco use treatment improves the likelihood of quitting, but more than two-thirds of individuals relapse when provided even the most robust treatments. Identifying for whom treatment is effective will improve the success of our treatments and perhaps identify strategies for improving current approaches. Read More

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December 2018

An evaluation of a pilot specialist smoking cessation clinic in a mental health setting.

Australas Psychiatry 2018 Dec 3:1039856218816372. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Consultant Psychiatrist, Great Southern Mental Health Service, Western Australia Country Health Service, Albany, WA, and; Clinical Senior Lecturer, The Rural Clinical School of Western Australia and University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA, Australia.

Objectives:: Smoking rates in people with mental illness in Australia remain alarmingly high whilst they have been declining in the general population. This study reviews a smoking cessation programme in a mental health service, as a pilot for future studies and program development. We aim to assess the effectiveness of this intervention and the ease of implementation after upskilling the clinical workforce. Read More

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December 2018

Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: Oral Health Implications and Oral Cancer Risk.

J Oral Pathol Med 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Australian Centre for Oral Oncology Research & Education, UWA Dental School, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA, Australia.

There is a paucity of evidence surrounding the potential detrimental effects of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) for both systemic and oral health. The effects of conventional cigarettes on the development of oral cancer are well known, however the role of ENDS in oral carcinogenesis is yet to be elucidated. Furthermore, the exponential rise of the use of ENDS by the general public means that dental healthcare providers are more likely to encounter questions on their safety in the oral cavity, and on their effectiveness as a smoking cessation aid. Read More

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December 2018

The efficacy of smoking cessation interventions in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Addiction 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Center for Global Health, Northwestern University, 645 N Michigan Avenue, Chicago, USA.

Aims: To summarize evidence for the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials SETTING: LMICs as defined by the World Bank PARTICIPANTS: Adult current cigarette smokers residing in LMICs INTERVENTIONS: Behavioral and/or pharmacotherapy smoking cessation interventions.

Measurements: PubMed MEDLINE, EMBASE (embase. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Metabolomic Analysis Of Human Follicular Fluid: Potential Follicular Fluid Markers Of Reproductive Aging.

J Pak Med Assoc 2018 Dec;68(12):1769-1781

The Department of Gynecology, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, China.

Objective: To assess the difference in the metabolomics profiles of follicular fluid between older and younger reproductive-aged women.

Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Centre of Reproduction and Genetics, Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, China and comprised patient data related to the period between July and October 2015. Follicular fluid was obtained from male-factor infertility women aged 28-35 years as the younger group A, and those aged 35-42 years as the older group B. Read More

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December 2018

MicroRNA cluster miR199a/214 are differentially expressed in female and male rats following nicotine self-administration.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 30;8(1):17464. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

Previous research has established sex differences associated with nicotine intake, however a significant gap in knowledge remains regarding the molecular mechanisms that govern these differences at the transcriptional level. One critical regulator of transcription are microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are a family of non-coding RNAs that regulate an array of important biological functions altered in several disease states, including neuroadaptive changes within the brain associated with drug dependence. Read More

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November 2018
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The impact of local regulation on reasons for electronic cigarette use among Southern California young adults.

Addict Behav 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Objective: Tobacco control policies have decreased tobacco use among youth and young adults. We aimed to identify whether specific local tobacco retail licensing ordinances were associated with reasons for e-cigarette use, in order to examine whether strong local policies may reduce e-cigarette initiation rates by influencing the appeal of these products.

Methods: Online questionnaires were completed by Southern California Children's Health Study participants in 2015-2016 (mean age = 18. Read More

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November 2018

Synthesis and characterization of pyridoxine, nicotine and nicotinamide salts of dithiophosphoric acids as antibacterial agents against resistant wound infection.

Bioorg Med Chem 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, 420008 Kazan, 18 Kremlyovskaya St., Russia. Electronic address:

The pyridine-derived biomolecules are of considerable interest in developing medicinal compounds with various specific activities. Novel ammonium salts of pyridoxine, (S)-(-)-nicotine and nicotinamide with O,O-diorganyl dithiophosphoric acids (DTPA) were synthesized and characterized. The complexation of chiral monoterpenyl DTPA, including (S)-(-)-menthyl, (R)-(+)-menthyl, (1R)-endo-(+)-fenchyl, (1S,2S,3S,5R)-(+)-isopinocampheolyl derivatives, with pyridoxine and nicotine provided effective antibacterial compounds 3a,b,e,f, and 5a,b,d,f with MIC values against Gram-positive bacteria as low as 10 µM (6 µg/mL). Read More

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November 2018

Nicotine-sensitive acetylcholine receptors are relevant pharmacological targets for the control of multidrug resistant parasitic nematodes.

Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2018 Dec 20;8(3):540-549. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

ISP, INRA, Université Tours, UMR1282, 37380, Nouzilly, France. Electronic address:

The control of parasitic nematodes impacting animal health relies on the use of broad spectrum anthelmintics. However, intensive use of these drugs has led to the selection of resistant parasites in livestock industry. In that respect, there is currently an urgent need for novel compounds able to control resistant parasites. Read More

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December 2018

Biomarkers of Exposure to Secondhand and Thirdhand Tobacco Smoke: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Nov 29;15(12). Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Spain.

Smoking is the leading preventable disease worldwide and passive smoking is estimated to be the cause of about 1.0% of worldwide mortality. The determination of tobacco smoke biomarkers in human biological matrices is key to assess the health effects related to the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Read More

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November 2018

Magnitude and Chronicity of Environmental Smoke Exposure Across Infancy and Early Childhood in a Sample of Low-Income Children.

Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Applied Psychology, New York University, New York, NY.

Introduction: Infants and young children may be at an increased risk for second- and thirdhand exposure to tobacco smoke because of increased respiration rate and exposure to surface residue. However, relatively fewer studies have examined biomarkers of exposure (cotinine) in children under age 4 years. This study examines the magnitude and chronicity of exposure across early childhood among children from low-income families in order to better characterize contextual risk factors associated with exposure. Read More

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December 2018
11 Reads

Disseminating a Smoke Free Homes program to low SES households in the US through 2-1-1: Results of a national impact evaluation.

Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Brown School, Washington University, St. Louis MO.

Introduction: Given homes are now a primary source of secondhand smoke exposure (SHS) in the US, research-tested interventions that promote smoke-free homes should be evaluated in real-world settings to build the evidence-base for dissemination. This study describes outcome evaluation results from a dissemination and implementation study of a research-tested program to increase smoke-free home rules through US 2-1-1 helplines.

Methods: Five 2-1-1 organizations, chosen through a competitive application process, were awarded grants of up to $70,000. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

E-cigarettes and the Nicotine Epidemic.

Authors:
Maher Karam-Hage

Am J Addict 2018 Dec;27(8):650-651

Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science Medical Director, Tobacco Treatment Program University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center.

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December 2018
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Onset, Comorbidity, and Predictors of Nicotine, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use Disorders Among North American Indigenous Adolescents.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Family Medicine and Biobehavioral Health, University of Minnesota Medical School, Duluth Campus, 231 SMed, 1035 University Drive, Duluth, MN, 55812, USA.

North American Indigenous (i.e., American Indian and Canadian First Nations) youth experience inequities in rates of substance abuse and dependence. Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads

Evidence of a Causal Relationship Between Smoking Tobacco and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

Front Psychiatry 2018 20;9:607. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

There has been emerging evidence of an association between tobacco smoking and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). Two meta-analyses have reported that people who smoke tobacco have an ~2-fold increased risk of incident schizophrenia or psychosis, even after adjusting for confounding factors. This study aimed to critically appraise the research which has examined the association between tobacco smoking and SSD against the Bradford Hill criteria for causality, to determine the strength of the evidence for a causal relationship. Read More

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November 2018
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Potential of an Interactive Drug Prevention Mobile Phone App (Once Upon a High): Questionnaire Study Among Students.

JMIR Serious Games 2018 Dec 4;6(4):e19. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Institute of Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.

Background: In recent years, drug prevention networks and drug education programs have started using Web-based or mobile phone apps as novel prevention tools, testing their efficacy compared with face-to-face prevention.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the potential of an interactive app called Once Upon a High (VoltEgySzer).

Methods: The app approaches drug prevention from 6 different aspects, and it addresses youngsters with 6 different modules: (1) interactive comics/cartoons, telling stories of recovery; (2) quiz game; (3) roleplay game; (4) introduction of psychoactive drugs; (5) information on the somatic and psychological effects of psychoactive substances; (6) list of available treatment units, rehabs, and self-support groups in Hungary. Read More

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December 2018

Exclusive versus dual use of tobacco and electronic cigarettes among adolescents in Poland, 2010-2016.

Addict Behav 2018 Nov 26;90:341-348. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.

Globally, electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among adolescents has increased, along with concerns about potential health implications from exclusive and concurrent tobacco and e-cigarette use (i.e., "dual use"). Read More

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November 2018

Alcohol and nicotine consumption trends in three U.S. communities determined by wastewater-based epidemiology.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Nov 24;656:174-183. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

The Biodesign Center for Environmental Health Engineering, Biodesign Institute and School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Mall, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. Electronic address:

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), an emerging tool for monitoring public health in near real-time, is used extensively in Europe but applications to U.S. populations are still scarce. Read More

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November 2018

Nicotine in action: cigarette smoking modulated homotopic functional connectivity in schizophrenia.

Brain Imaging Behav 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Laboratory for Neuroinformation, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054, People's Republic of China.

Cigarette smoking is intimately associated with both early onset and increased severity of schizophrenia. The self-medication hypothesis suggests that nicotine can relieve or restore neurocognitive deficits and symptoms associated with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects who smoked showed deficits in communication between their hemispheres. Read More

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December 2018

Cigarette butts: A small but hazardous waste, according to European regulation.

Waste Manag 2018 Dec 15;82:9-14. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

INERIS, Parc Technologique Alata - BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte, France.

The emergence of companies collecting cigarette butts (CB) leads to a new waste stream, exclusively made of butts, whereas they were previously mixed with household and municipal waste. In order to conclude on the classification of this new stream, according to the Waste Framework Directive, three cigarette butts samples were analyzed and submitted to ecotoxicological tests. Hazard properties HP 4 (irritant - skin irritation and eye damage), HP 5 (specific target organ toxicity/aspiration toxicity), HP 6 (acute toxicity), HP 7 (carcinogenic), HP 8 (corrosive), HP 10 (toxic for reproduction), HP 11 (mutagenic) and HP 13 (sensitising) have been assessed by calculation, thanks to the analytical results. Read More

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December 2018
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Longer duration of smoking abstinence is associated with waning cessation fatigue.

Behav Res Ther 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; Cancer Control, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Background: Cessation fatigue, a construct theorized to reflect exhaustion of coping resources due to quitting smoking, has been found to predict relapse. This study examines the association between cessation fatigue and duration of abstinence among 1397 adult former smokers who participated in the 2016 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Smoking and Vaping Wave 1 Survey (4CV). We hypothesized lower levels of cessation fatigue will be correlated with longer duration of abstinence. Read More

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November 2018

Chronic tobacco smoking and neuropsychological impairments: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Nov 28;96:143-154. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

University of St Andrews, School of Medicine, Division of Population and Behavioural Science, UK. Electronic address:

The link between neuropsychological impairments and chronic tobacco smoking is not clear and in the current literature there is a lack of robust analyses investigating this association. A systematic review of the literature was conducted in order to identify relevant longitudinal and cross-sectional studies conducted from 1946 to 2017. A meta-analysis was performed from 24 studies testing the performance of chronic tobacco smokers compared with non-smokers on neuropsychological tests related to eight different neuropsychological domains. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Impact of e-cigarette sampling on cigarette dependence and reinforcement value.

Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), Charleston, South Carolina.

Introduction: E-cigarettes have risen in prevalence in recent years, and most public health experts agree they deliver fewer toxicants than combustible tobacco products such as cigarettes. Thus, it is important to understand how use of e-cigarettes by current smokers impacts dependence on combustible cigarettes.

Methods: The present study is a secondary analysis of a randomized pilot trial of e-cigarette sampling. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Age of tobacco use initiation and association with current use and nicotine dependence among US middle and high school students, 2014-2016.

Tob Control 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Introduction: Tobacco use mostly begins in adolescence and young adulthood. Earlier age of initiation of cigarette smoking is associated with greater nicotine dependence and sustained tobacco use. However, data are limited on the age of initiation of non-cigarette tobacco products, and the association between using these products and nicotine dependence and progression to established use. Read More

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November 2018

Dyskinesia and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels after long-term levodopa and nicotinic receptor agonist treatments in female mice with near-total unilateral dopaminergic denervation.

BMC Neurosci 2018 Nov 29;19(1):77. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Division of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: The treatment of Parkinson's disease is often complicated by levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists can alleviate LID in animal models but may be less effective in conditions of severe dopaminergic denervation. While the mechanisms of LID remain incompletely understood, elevated corticostriatal levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been suggested to play a role. Read More

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November 2018

The impact of genome evolution on the allotetraploid Nicotiana rustica - an intriguing story of enhanced alkaloid production.

BMC Genomics 2018 Nov 29;19(1):855. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Philip Morris International R&D, Philip Morris Products S.A, 2000, Neuchatel, Switzerland.

Background: Nicotiana rustica (Aztec tobacco), like common tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), is an allotetraploid formed through a recent hybridization event; however, it originated from completely different progenitor species. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of wild type N. rustica (5 Gb; 2n = 4x = 48) with its three putative diploid progenitors (2. Read More

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November 2018

E-cigarette devices used by high-school youth.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 Nov 15;194:395-400. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 George St. #901, New Haven, CT, 06511, USA.

Background E-cigarette use rates are high among youth, but there is limited information on the types of e-cigarette devices that are used by youth. Methods During Spring 2017, students from 4 high schools completed surveys on use of e-cigarette devices (cig-a-like, vape/hookah pen, modified devices or mods, and JUUL). Among youth who endorsed ever (lifetime) use of an e-cigarette and of at least one device (n = 875), we assessed 1) prevalence rates of ever and current (past-month) use of each device, 2) use of nicotine in each device, and 3) predictors [age, sex, race, socioeconomic status (SES), other tobacco use] of ever use of each device and of use of single versus multiple devices. Read More

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November 2018

Considerations when selecting pharmacotherapy for nicotine dependence.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2018 Nov 29:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

a School of Medicine , IMPACT SRC, Deakin University , Geelong , Australia.

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November 2018

The 2016 Tips From Former Smokers® Campaign: Associations With Quit Intentions and Quit Attempts Among Smokers With and Without Mental Health Conditions.

Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Office on Smoking and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

Introduction: People living with mental health conditions (MH+) are more likely to smoke cigarettes than people without mental health conditions (MH-) and to experience tobacco-related disparities. The Tips From Former Smokers® (Tips®) campaign is a proven population-level strategy for motivating smokers to quit. In 2016, Tips included ads featuring Rebecca, a former smoker with depression. Read More

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November 2018

Effect of GAD1 genotype status on auditory attention and acute nicotine administration in healthy volunteers.

Hum Psychopharmacol 2018 Nov 29:e2684. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

University of Ottawa Institute of Mental Health Research, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: The effects of GABA modulating drugs and nicotine, the prototypical nicotinic cholinergic agonist, on attention have been investigated using subcomponents of the P300 event-related potentials (ERP), which index involuntary (P3a) and voluntary attention (P3b). However, investigations into how such pharmacologic effects interact with genetic features in the GABA system remain unclear. This study examined the moderating effects of a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs7557793) in the glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD1) gene, which is implicated in the conversion of glutamate to GABA, on P300-indices of auditory attentional processing; the influence of nicotine administration was also assessed. Read More

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November 2018

Vaping as an alternative to smoking relapse following brief lapse.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

New Nicotine Alliance, London, UK.

Background And Aims: E-cigarettes are the most popular aid to quitting smoking in the UK. Although many smokers quit, relapse is common. Historically, the literature has reported strong associations between tobacco smoking lapse and relapse following a quit attempt. Read More

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November 2018
10 Reads

GWAS and network analysis of co-occurring nicotine and alcohol dependence identifies significantly associated alleles and network.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Alcohol dependence (AD) and nicotine dependence (ND) co-occur frequently (AD+ND). We integrated SNP-based, gene-based, and protein-protein interaction network analyses to identify shared risk genes or gene subnetworks for AD+ND in African Americans (AAs, N = 2,094) and European Americans (EAs, N = 1,207). The DSM-IV criterion counts for AD and ND were modeled as two dependent variables in a multivariate linear mixed model, and analyzed separately for the two populations. Read More

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November 2018

Validity evidence of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale-Short Form among depressed smokers.

Int J Clin Health Psychol 2018 May-Aug;18(2):162-169. Epub 2018 Apr 22.

Universidad de Oviedo, Spain.

A measure of Behavioral Activation (BA) is highly recommended when evaluating BA treatment effects for smokers with depression. Recently, a short version of the Behavioral Activation for Depression scale (BADS-SF) has been developed as a means of assessing changes in activation and avoidance patterns. To date there is no validated version of this questionnaire in Spanish. Read More

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FDA Seeks Tighter Restrictions on E-cigarettes.

Authors:

Cancer Discov 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

The FDA recently announced a plan to combat underage use of nicotine products by targeting flavors that appeal to adolescents. The proposal outlines restrictions on sales of flavored cartridges for electronic cigarettes, and a ban on menthol-flavored combustible cigarettes and all flavored cigars. Read More

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November 2018

The Role of Allograft Bone in Foot and Ankle Arthrodesis and High-Risk Fracture Management.

Foot Ankle Spec 2018 Nov 28:1938640018815227. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey (SH).

Allogenic bone graft has long been accepted as a standard of care in the surgical arthrodesis of the foot and ankle and treatment of certain high-risk, comminuted fracture types that have greater potential for delayed union or nonunion. It has been shown in multiple studies to be equivalent to autograft in regard to union rates without the morbidity associated with bone graft harvest. We present a retrospective study on the efficacy of an allogenic cancellous/periosteal cellular bone matrix with mesenchymal stem cells and angiogenic growth factors. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Inmates with Harmful Substance Use Increase Both Exercise and Nicotine Use Under Incarceration.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Nov 27;15(12). Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research, Pb 1039 Blindern, 0135 Blindern, Norway.

Exercise is increasingly understood as an important resource for people who engage in harmful substance use, including those in prison. Little is known about how inmates adopt various health behaviors during incarceration, without interventions. This cross-sectional study analyzed self-reports from 1464 inmates in Norwegian prisons in 2013⁻2014, compared them according to harmful substance use pre-incarceration, and explored changes in exercise and nicotine use during incarceration. Read More

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November 2018

Smoking prevalence and trends among a U.S. national sample of women of reproductive age in rural versus urban settings.

PLoS One 2018 28;13(11):e0207818. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Vermont Center on Behavior and Health, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America.

U.S. smoking prevalence is declining at a slower rate in rural than urban settings and contributing to regional health disparities. Read More

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November 2018

Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, risky substance use and substance use disorders: a follow-up study among young men.

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

La Source, School of Nursing Sciences, University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Western Switzerland, Lausanne, Switzerland.

We investigated whether adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predicts risky substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs), and its impact on the course of these problematic substance use patterns. Our sample included 4975 Swiss men (mean age 20 ± 1.2 years) who participated in the baseline and 15-month follow-up assessments of the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Effect of menthol on nicotine intake and relapse vulnerability in a rat model of concurrent intravenous menthol/nicotine self-administration.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22902, USA.

Rationale: Epidemiological data suggest that menthol may increase vulnerability to cigarette/nicotine use and relapse. While menthol's sensory properties are often attributed as the underlying cause of the enhanced vulnerability, an alternative possibility is that they are mediated via pharmacological interactions with nicotine.

Objective: This study addressed the possibility that menthol enhances nicotine intake and relapse vulnerability via pharmacological interactions with nicotine using a concurrent intravenous menthol/nicotine self-administration procedure. Read More

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November 2018

The profile of persons with alcohol and drug problems in Spain From "Proyecto Hombre Observatory Report 2014".

Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi 2016 Jun;51(3):241-248

This article is an extension of a presentation with the same title given at the Japanese Alcohol, Nicotine & Drug Addiction Conference in Kobe on October 13th 2015: Firstly, a brief overview of support activities and services within Proyecto Hombre is given outlining the advanced assistance programs for supporting and treating addiction. problems. Secondly, it lays out the profile of persons with alcohol and drug problems as taken from "Proyecto Hombre Observatory Report 2014" vhich has informed the reality of adult users' life situation based on a series of indicators from the EuropASI, while they were being treated at Proyecto Hombre 27 Centers in Spain between 1 January, 2014 and 31 December, 2014. Read More

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Interventions Targeting Smoking Cessation for Patients with Chronic Pain: An Evidence synthesis.

Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

School of Medicine and Public Health, Hunter Medical Research Institute, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia.

Introduction: Smoking is a risk factor for chronic pain conditions. Epidemiological evidence suggests that smoking cessation may be an important treatment target in people with chronic pain. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in people with chronic pain. Read More

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November 2018

Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use, and Perceptions among Cancer Patients.

OTO Open 2018 Apr-Jun;2(2):2473974X18774543. Epub 2018 May 9.

Department of Otolaryngology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

Objective: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are an emerging trend, yet little is known about their use in the cancer population. The objectives of this study were (1) to describe characteristics of e-cig use among cancer patients, (2) to define e-cig advertising exposure, and (3) to characterize perceptions of traditional cigarettes versus e-cigs.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Read More

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Expression of a tobacco nicotine biosynthesis gene depends on the JRE4 transcription factor in heterogenous tomato.

J Plant Res 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Biological Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Takayama 8916-5, Ikoma, Nara, 630-0101, Japan.

The jasmonate-responsive transcription factor ERF189 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and its ortholog JRE4 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) regulate a series of biosynthetic genes involved in the nicotine and steroidal glycoalkaloid pathways. In tobacco, QUINOLINATE PHOSPHORIBOSYL TRANSFERASE 2 (NtQPT2) is regulated by ERF189; however, we found that the tomato QPT gene is not regulated by JRE4. Here, we explored whether and how NtQPT2 is regulated in a heterogenous tomato host. Read More

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November 2018