45,625 results match your criteria Nicotine & Tobacco Research[Journal]


Menthol cigarettes, tobacco dependence, and smoking persistence: The need to examine enhanced cognitive functioning as a neuropsychological mechanism.

Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Introduction: Despite the overall decline in the prevalence of cigarette use in the United States, menthol cigarette use among smokers is rising, and evidence shows that it may lead to more detrimental effects on public health than regular cigarette use. One of the mechanisms by which nicotine sustains tobacco use and dependence is due to its cognitive enhancing properties, and basic science literature suggests that menthol may also enhance nicotine's acute effect on cognition.

Aims And Methods: The purpose of this review is to suggest that the cognitive enhancing effects of menthol may be a potentially important neuropsychological mechanism that has yet to be examined. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The Acute Impact of Hatha Yoga on Craving among Smokers Attempting to Reduce or Quit.

Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

Introduction: Despite negative effects of smoking, smokers have difficulty quitting, suggesting a need for additional strategies to help them quit. A single-session hatha yoga intervention acutely reduced craving among nicotine-deprived smokers not attempting to reduce or quit, yet it is unknown if it reduces craving among those attempting to change their smoking. Thus, the current study tested the efficacy of a single-session hatha yoga intervention for acutely reducing craving among smokers attempting to reduce or quit smoking. Read More

View Article
December 2018

TRPC channels mediated calcium entry is required for proliferation of human airway smooth muscle cells induced by nicotine-nAChR.

Biochimie 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Respiratory Medicine, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital, No. 61 Jiefang Xi Road, Changsha, 410219, Hunan, PR China; Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Changsha Medical College, No. 1501 Leifeng Road, Changsha, 410219, Hunan, PR China. Electronic address:

The present study was designed to explore the role of transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3) in nicotine-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its underlying mechanism. In this study, the expression and localization of α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α5-nAchR) in lung tissues were determined by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis was performed to examine the mRNA expression levels of α5-nAchR and TRPC3 in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Nicotine enhances responding for conditioned reinforcement via α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the ventral tegmental area, but not the nucleus accumbens or the prefrontal cortex.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Section of Biopsychology and Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College St., M5T 1R8, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 100 St. George St., M5S 3G3, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 250 College St., M5T 1R8, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Nicotine enhances the conditioned reinforcing properties of reward-paired cues. We investigated the role of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic (IL) cortices in mediating this enhancement. Male Long-Evans rats were implanted with a bilateral guide cannula aimed at either the VTA, NAcc, PrL or IL cortex. Read More

View Article
December 2018

[New tobacco products, a threat for tobacco control and public health of Mexico].

Salud Publica Mex 2018 Sep-Oct;60(5):598-604

Departamento de Investigación sobre Tabaco, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública. Cuernavaca, Morelos. México.

The new tobacco products that include electronic cigarettes (called "E Cig", "e-hookahs", "mods", "vape-pens"), electronic nicotine delivery systems (SEAN, Spanish acronym), similar systems without nicotine (SSSN, Spanish acronym) and alternative nicotine consumption systems (SACN, Spanish acronym), are positioned in the global market with a discourse of harm reduction and risk minimization. This manuscript summarizes the scientific evidence and presents a regulatory proposal for this technological innovation, oriented to guide the decision making of legislators, government institutions and organized civil society. The scientific evidence concludes that there is no safe tobacco product for health. Read More

View Article

Synergistic effects of prenatal nicotine exposure and post-weaning high-fat diet on hypercholesterolaemia in rat offspring of different sexes.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071, China.

Hypercholesterolaemia is considered a disease with intrauterine origin. Recently, we reported that prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) induced an abnormal level of total cholesterol in rat offspring before and after birth. However, there was little data about sex differences in serum cholesterol level in PNE offspring. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A Modeling Approach to Gauging the Effects of Nicotine Vaping Product Use on Cessation from Cigarettes: What Do We Know, What Do We Need to Know?

Addiction 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.

Background And Aims: The long term population health impact of nicotine vaping products (NVPs) use among smokers is unknown and subject to a range of plausible assumptions about the use and health consequences of NVPs. While NVPs use may substitute for cigarette smoking and thereby aid in quitting cigarette use, it is also possible that smokers who would have otherwise quit would instead delay quitting cigarettes. We aimed to develop a cohort-specific simulation model of the impact of NVPs on smoking cessation by adult smokers and resulting premature deaths (PD) and life-years lost (LYL). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Discussions between health professionals and smokers about nicotine vaping products: Results from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey.

Addiction 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Background And Aims: Debate exists about whether health professionals (HPs) should advise smokers to use nicotine vaping products (NVPs) to quit smoking. The objectives were to examine in four countries: (1) prevalence of HP discussions and recommendation to use an NVP; (2) who initiated NVP discussions; (3) the type of HP advice received about NVPs; and (4) smoker's characteristics related to receiving advice about NVPs.

Design: Cross-sectional study using multivariable logistic regression analyses on weighted data from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey (ITC 4CV1). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Methods of the ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey, Wave 1 (2016).

Addiction 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Aim: To describe the methods of the 2016 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Smoking and Vaping (4CV) Survey, conducted in 2016 in Australia (AU), Canada (CA), England (EN), and the United States (US).

Methods: The respondents were cigarette smokers, former smokers (quit within the previous two years), and at-least-weekly vapers, aged 18 and older. Eligible cohort members from the ITC Four Country Survey (4C) were retained. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Influence of tobacco dependence on caries development in young male adults: A cross-sectional study.

J Conserv Dent 2018 Nov-Dec;21(6):597-601

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background: A definite cause and effect relationship between tobacco use and caries are lacking in literature.

Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the influence of tobacco dependence on caries development in young male adults.

Materials And Methods: Three hundred healthy adult males in the age group of 20-40 years were divided into three groups containing 100 participants each. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Grass root approaches to control levels of carcinogenic nitrosamines, NNN and NNK in smokeless tobacco products.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Preventive Oncology, ICMR-National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research, Department of Health Research Govt. of India, Noida, India. Electronic address:

Due to the extensive ban on public smoking, tobacco companies focused their business on new smokeless tobacco (SLT) products promoting them as a harm reduction strategy and a safer alternative to cigarettes. Two nitrosamines, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK), present in SLT, listed as group 1 human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, are found to be the prime agents for most of cancers in SLT users. This review illustrates the mechanism of cancer induction by NNN and NNK in humans along with factors influencing the formation of NNN and NNK at various stages of tobacco manufacturing. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Gray matter volumes of insular subregions are not correlated with smoking cessation outcomes but negatively correlated with nicotine dependence severity in chronic smokers.

Neurosci Lett 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Radiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

The insula, a cortical region that integrates heterogeneous signals about internal states and contributes to executive functions, has been implicated as an important role in the maintenance of nicotine dependence. Previous studies have indicated that insula damage may contribute to quitting smoking successfully, but few studies have examined whether quitting successfully is related to cortical structural integrity of insular subregions before smoking cessation treatment. Moreover, although prior researches have shown group differences in insular cortex structure in chronic cigarette smokers compared to nonsmokers, less is known about how cortical structural integrity of insular subregions relate to smoking behaviors in smokers. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Cholinergic Receptor Nicotinic Alpha 5 (CHRNA5) RNAi is associated with cell cycle inhibition, apoptosis, DNA damage response and drug sensitivity in breast cancer.

PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208982. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey.

Cholinergic Receptor Nicotinic Alpha 5 (CHRNA5) is an important susceptibility locus for nicotine addiction and lung cancer. Depletion of CHRNA5 has been associated with reduced cell viability, increased apoptosis and alterations in cellular motility in different cancers yet not in breast cancer. Herein we first showed the expression of CHRNA5 was variable and positively correlated with the fraction of total genomic alterations in breast cancer cell lines and tumors indicating its potential role in DNA damage response (DDR). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Frequency of Use Among Middle and High School Student Tobacco Product Users - United States, 2015-2017.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Dec 14;67(49):1353-1357. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Tobacco product use during adolescence increases the risk for lifelong nicotine addiction and immediate adverse health effects (1,2). During 2011-2017, current use of cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and pipe tobacco decreased significantly among middle and high school students, but current use of e-cigarettes increased significantly from 1.5% to 11. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Smoking and HIV: what are the risks and what harm reduction strategies do we have at our disposal?

AIDS Res Ther 2018 Dec 12;15(1):26. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

The World Health Organization estimates that smoking poses one of the greatest global health risks in the general population. Rates of current smoking among people living with HIV (PLHIV) are 2-3 times that of the general population, which contributes to the higher incidence of non-AIDS-related morbidity and mortality in PLHIV. Given the benefit of smoking cessation, strategies to assist individuals who smoke to quit should be a primary focus in modern HIV care. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Triple Smoking Cessation Therapy with Varenicline, Nicotine Patch and Nicotine Lozenge: A Pilot Study to Assess Tolerability, Satisfaction, and End-of-Treatment Quit Rates.

J Smok Cessat 2018 Sep 25;13(3):145-153. Epub 2017 Sep 25.

Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 1930 Monroe St, Suite 200, Madison, WI USA 53711.

Introduction: The majority of attempts to stop smoking end in failure. One way to improve success may be to explore different combinations of existing cessation medications.

Aims: This observational study examined "triple therapy" (varenicline + nicotine patch + nicotine lozenge) in 36 smokers trying to quit. Read More

View Article
September 2018

When kidneys and lungs suffer together.

J Nephrol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.

A significant interaction between kidneys and lungs has been shown in physiological and pathological conditions. The two organs can both be targets of the same systemic disease (eg., some vasculitides). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Mental Health Problems and Onset of Tobacco Use Among 12- to 24-Year-Olds in the PATH Study.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2018 Dec 4;57(12):944-954.e4. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Objective: To examine whether mental health problems predict incident use of 12 different tobacco products in a nationally representative sample of youth and young adults.

Method: This study analyzed Wave (W) 1 and W2 data from 10,533 12- to 24-year-old W1 never tobacco users in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Self-reported lifetime internalizing and externalizing symptoms were assessed at W1. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Reprint of: Prevention and Treatment of Tobacco Use: JACC Health Promotion Series.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 Dec;72(23 Pt B):2964-2979

Tobacco Research and Treatment Center, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both prevention of smoking initiation among youth and smoking cessation among established smokers are key for reducing smoking prevalence and the associated negative health consequences. Proven tobacco cessation treatment includes pharmacotherapy and behavioral support, which are most effective when provided together. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Electronic Cigarette Policy Recommendations: A Scoping Review.

Am J Health Behav 2019 Jan;43(1):88-104

College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ.

There is a lack of consensus on whether e-cigarettes facilitate or threaten existing tobacco prevention strategies. This uncertainty is reflected in organizations' conflicting e-cigarette position statements. We conducted a scoping review of position statements in published and gray literature to map the range and frequency of e-cigarette use recommendations. Read More

View Article
January 2019

Beliefs about E-cigarettes: A Focus Group Study with College Students.

Am J Health Behav 2019 Jan;43(1):76-87

Director, Tobacco Research Programs, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

In this study, we consider how best to prevent recreational uptake of e-cigarettes among tobacco nonusers; it is important to investigate the underlying beliefs that young adults have about e-cigarettes and package elements. Using the focus group method of belief elicitation, we explore underlying belief structures that undergraduate students at a large Midwestern public university have about e-cigarettes. Beliefs are analyzed using the constantcomparative approach and categorized using the theory of planned behavior. Read More

View Article
January 2019

Oral Vitamin C (500 mg/day) to Pregnant Smokers Improves Infant Airway Function at 3 Months (VCSIP): A Randomized Trial.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Oregon Health & Science University, Medical Informatics and Clinical Epidemiology, Portland, Oregon, United States.

Rationale: We reported a randomized trial demonstrating daily supplemental vitamin C to pregnant smokers significantly improved newborn pulmonary function tests. The current study tests these results in a new cohort utilizing infant pulmonary function tests.

Objective: To determine if infants of pregnant smokers randomized to daily supplemental vitamin C would have improved forced expiratory flows (FEFs) at 3 months of age compared to those randomized to placebo, and to investigate the association of the α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Tracking significant modules and key genes for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma based on differential modules.

J Cancer Res Ther 2018 Dec;14(Supplement):S1135-S1140

Department of General Surgery, Peking University International Hospital, Beijing 100026, China.

Background: The exact molecular mechanism of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still unknown, and the prognosis of ESCC has not been significantly improved.

Objective: To understand the molecular mechanism of ESCC, differential modules (DMs) and key genes were identified through conducting analysis on the differential co-expression network (DCN) based on the gene expression profiles of ESCC and protein-protein interaction (PPI) data.

Materials And Methods: First, gene expression profiles of ESCC and PPI data recruiting and preprocessing were conducted; then, a DCN was constructed based on the gene co-expression and gene differential expression in ESCC; in the following, candidate DMs were mined from DCN through a systemic module searching strategy, and significance analysis was performed on candidate DMs to identify DMs; moreover, significant genes contained in the DMs were analyzed to identify the underlying biomarkers for ESCC. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Nicotine Modulates the Release of Inflammatory Cytokines and Expression of TLR2, TLR4 of Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2018 Aug 12;17(4):372-378. Epub 2018 Aug 12.

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran AND Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of  Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The underlying mechanisms of how nicotine affects cord umbilical cells remain largely elusive. Nicotine rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier (10 to 20 s) and binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Nicotine considered as a major compound found in cigarette smoke and the mechanism of nicotine action in immune response is not well understood. Read More

View Article

Differences in perceptions of e-cigarettes across daily and non-daily users.

Addict Behav 2018 Dec 5;90:415-420. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, TX, United States; Department of Behavioral Science, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States; Health Institute, University of Houston, Houston, TX, United States. Electronic address:

Objective: E-cigarette use has increased significantly over the past decade. Among the growing population of e-cigarette users, several pattern-based subgroups have emerged, including daily and non-daily users. Daily users are at greater risk for experiencing negative health consequences from use. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Withdrawal Symptom, Treatment Mechanism, and/or Side Effect? Developing an Explicit Measurement Model for Smoking Cessation Research.

Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

University at Buffalo, The State University of New York.

Introduction: Assessment of withdrawal symptoms, treatment mechanisms, and side effects is central to understanding and improving smoking cessation interventions. Though each domain is typically assessed separately with widely-used questionnaires to separately assess each domain (e.g. Read More

View Article
December 2018
3 Reads

Does smoking intensity predict cessation rates? A study of light-intermittent, light-daily, and heavy smokers enrolled in two telephone-based counseling interventions.

Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY.

Introduction: Though many interventions have been shown to be effective in helping smokers quit, outcomes may differ between light and heavy smokers. We identified differences in baseline characteristics and post-intervention cessation rates among smoker groups at two safety-net hospitals.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed cessation rates in 1,604 patients randomized to either a quitline referral (1-2 telephone counseling sessions) or intensive counseling program (7 telephone sessions). Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Clinical, histological and therapeutic modern approach of Ledderhose disease.

Rom J Morphol Embryol 2018 ;59(3):691-697

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Emergency Clinical Hospital of Bucharest, Romania;

Ledderhose disease or plantar fibromatosis is a rare hyperproliferative disorder of the plantar aponeurosis, clinically characterized by nodules situated especially on the medial border of the foot. It is histopathologically associated with Dupuytren's disease. This disease has some risk factors, like old age, alcohol or nicotine abuse, liver dysfunction, trauma or exposure to vibrations and autoimmune disorders, but the exact etiology is still unknown. Read More

View Article
January 2018
3 Reads

Nicotine and Cotinine Inhibit Catalase and Glutathione Reductase Activity Contributing to the Impaired Osteogenesis of SCP-1 Cells Exposed to Cigarette Smoke.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018 6;2018:3172480. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Traumatology, University of Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstraße 95, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

Cigarette smoking has been identified as a major risk factor for osteoporosis decades ago. Several studies have shown a direct relationship between cigarette smoking, decreased bone mineral density, and impaired fracture healing. However, the mechanisms behind impaired fracture healing and cigarette smoking are yet to be elucidated. Read More

View Article
November 2018

First comparative results about the direct effect of traditional cigarette and e-cigarette smoking on lung alveolocapillary membrane using dynamic ventilation scintigraphy.

Nucl Med Commun 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Scanomed Ltd.

Introduction: Dynamic inhalation scintigraphy (DIS) with technetium-99m-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate aerosol is a useful nuclear medicine procedure for staging and monitoring the damage of alveolocapillary membrane. The e-cigarette is a new popular smoking device producing vapor from the nicotine solution. Many studies have shown that e-cigarettes appear to be safer than smoking, but there are still debates to what extent e-cigarettes are less harmful than smoking. Read More

View Article
December 2018

α4β2 Nicotinic receptor desensitizing compounds can decrease self-administration of cocaine and methamphetamine in rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Drug Discovery Program and Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20057, USA.

Sazetidine-A [6-(5(((S)-azetidine-2-yl)methoxy)pyridine-3-yl)hex-5-yn-1-ol] is a selective α4β2 nicotinic receptor desensitizing agent and partial agonist. Sazetidine-A has been shown in our previous studies to significantly reduce nicotine and alcohol self-administration in rats. The question arises whether sazetidine-A would reduce self-administration of other addictive drugs as well. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The modulatory role of nicotine on cognitive and non-cognitive functions.

Brain Res 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Cognitive and Neuroscience Research Center (CNRC), Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Nicotine, as the main component of tobacco, plays a key role in various behaviors of both humans and animals including reward, addiction, learning and memory, anxiety, pain as well as body weight and temperature. Nicotine exerts its function by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) which one highly expressed throughout the nervous system. The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system mediates the processing of reward, learning and memory behaviors produced by nicotine. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Blood-to-Retina Transport of Imperatorin Involves the Carrier Mediated Transporter System at the Inner Blood-Retinal Barrier.

J Pharm Sci 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

College of Pharmacy and Research Center for Cell Fate Control, Sookmyung Women's University, Chungpa-dong 2-ga, Yongsan-gu, Seoul, 04310, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study investigated the mechanism of transporting imperatorin across the inner blood-retinal barrier (iBRB). The carotid artery single injection method was used to calculate the retinal uptake index (RUI) of [H]imperatorin in vivo while the retinal capillary endothelial cell lines were used for the in vitro uptake and mRNA expression assays. RUI value of [H]imperatorin was greater than that of the reference compound ([C]n-butanol). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Emissions of free radicals, carbonyls, and nicotine from the NIDA Standardized Research Electronic Cigarette and comparison to similar commercial devices.

Chem Res Toxicol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

E-cigarettes (e-cigs) are a diverse and continuously evolving group of products with four generations currently in the market. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) standardized research e-cigarette (SREC) is intended to provide researchers with a consistent e-cig device with known characteristics. Thus, we conducted laboratory-based characterizations of oxidants and nicotine in aerosols produced from SREC and other closed-system, breath-activated, commercially available e-cigs (Blu and Vuse). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Tobacco and cannabis co-use and interrelatedness among adults.

Addict Behav 2018 Nov 27;90:354-361. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Charleston, SC, USA.

Cannabis and tobacco co-use is prevalent, but consensus regarding the reasons for co-use among adults and the degree of interrelatedness between these substances is lacking. Reasons for co-use have been explored with younger users, but little data exists for more experienced users with entrenched patterns of co-use. The goal of this study was to examine characteristics and patterns of cannabis-tobacco co-use among adults in the Southeastern United States (US), where there is a legal landscape of generally restrictive cannabis legislation coupled with more permissive tobacco control compared to other US regions. Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Classic Psychedelics: An integrative review of epidemiology, mystical experience, brain network function, and therapeutics.

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.

The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrative review and offer novel insights regarding human research with classic psychedelics (classic hallucinogens), which are 5HT2AR agonists such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin. Classic psychedelics have been administered as sacraments since ancient times. They were of prominent interest within psychiatry and neuroscience in the 1950s to 1960s, and during this time contributed to the emergence of the field of molecular neuroscience. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

Pediatric Office Delivery of Smoking Cessation Assistance for Breast-Feeding Mothers.

Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Division of General Academic Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston, MA.

Introduction: National and international organizations have done an excellent job of advocating and promoting breast feeding for all mothers. This study assessed to what extent an intervention increased delivery of cessation assistance to breast-feeding mothers who smoke.

Methods: Data were collected between April and October 2015 in five US states as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial in 10 pediatric practices. Read More

View Article
December 2018
3 Reads

The Role of Sirt1 in Ischemic Stroke: Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Strategies.

Front Neurosci 2018 21;12:833. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Neurology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Sirt1), a nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent enzyme, is well-known in playing a part in longevity. Ischemic stroke is a major neurological disorder and is a leading cause of death and adult disability worldwide. Recently, many studies have focused on the role of Sirt1 in ischemic stroke. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Mitochondrial functioning abnormalities observed in blood platelets of chronic smoke-exposed guinea pigs - a pilot study.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2018 9;13:3707-3717. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Pneumology and Allergy, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland,

Background: COPD represents a major global health issue, which is often accompanied by cardiovascular diseases. A considerable body of evidence suggests that cardiovascular risk is elevated by the activation of blood platelets, which in turn is exacerbated by inflammation. As reactive oxygen species are believed to be an important factor in platelet metabolism and functioning, the aim of our study was to perform a complex assessment of mitochondrial function in platelets in chronic smoke exposed animals with COPD-like lung lesions. Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Modulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Annexin A2 in Response to 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-Butanone -Induced Inflammation via Swimming Training.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2018 Oct 7;17(5):418-427. Epub 2018 Oct 7.

Department of Physical Education and Sport, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.

The nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK; nicotine derived nitrosamine ketone) is one of the strongest carcinogens in tobacco which is involved in induction of lung cancer by changing the stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and annexin A2 expression. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in resting levels of annexin A2 and VEGF in lung tissues of rats exposed NNK after 12 weeks of aerobic submaximal swimming training. For this purpose, 46 Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups consist of training, training + NNK, NNK, saline and control. Read More

View Article
October 2018
3 Reads

Behavioral effects of psychostimulants in mutant mice with cell-type specific deletion of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in dopamine neurons.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Biology, William Paterson University, Wayne, New Jersey, 07470, USA. Electronic address:

Activation of the endocannabinoid system modulate dopaminergic pathways that are involved in the effects of psychostimulants including amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine and other drugs of abuse. Genetic deletion or pharmacological activation of CB2 cannabinoid receptor is involved in the modulation of the effects of psychostimulants and their rewarding properties. Here we report on the behavioral effects of psychostimulants in DAT-Cnr2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice with selective deletion of type 2 cannabinoid receptors in dopamine neurons. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

A machine-learning approach to predicting smoking cessation treatment outcomes.

Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, Roanoke, VA, USA.

Aims: Most cigarette smokers want to quit smoking and more than half make an attempt every year, but less than 10% remain abstinent for at least 6 months. Evidence-based tobacco use treatment improves the likelihood of quitting, but more than two-thirds of individuals relapse when provided even the most robust treatments. Identifying for whom treatment is effective will improve the success of our treatments and perhaps identify strategies for improving current approaches. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

An evaluation of a pilot specialist smoking cessation clinic in a mental health setting.

Australas Psychiatry 2018 Dec 3:1039856218816372. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Consultant Psychiatrist, Great Southern Mental Health Service, Western Australia Country Health Service, Albany, WA, and; Clinical Senior Lecturer, The Rural Clinical School of Western Australia and University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA, Australia.

Objectives:: Smoking rates in people with mental illness in Australia remain alarmingly high whilst they have been declining in the general population. This study reviews a smoking cessation programme in a mental health service, as a pilot for future studies and program development. We aim to assess the effectiveness of this intervention and the ease of implementation after upskilling the clinical workforce. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: Oral Health Implications and Oral Cancer Risk.

J Oral Pathol Med 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Australian Centre for Oral Oncology Research & Education, UWA Dental School, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA, Australia.

There is a paucity of evidence surrounding the potential detrimental effects of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) for both systemic and oral health. The effects of conventional cigarettes on the development of oral cancer are well known, however the role of ENDS in oral carcinogenesis is yet to be elucidated. Furthermore, the exponential rise of the use of ENDS by the general public means that dental healthcare providers are more likely to encounter questions on their safety in the oral cavity, and on their effectiveness as a smoking cessation aid. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

The efficacy of smoking cessation interventions in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Addiction 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Center for Global Health, Northwestern University, 645 N Michigan Avenue, Chicago, USA.

Aims: To summarize evidence for the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials SETTING: LMICs as defined by the World Bank PARTICIPANTS: Adult current cigarette smokers residing in LMICs INTERVENTIONS: Behavioral and/or pharmacotherapy smoking cessation interventions.

Measurements: PubMed MEDLINE, EMBASE (embase. Read More

View Article
December 2018
3 Reads

Metabolomic Analysis Of Human Follicular Fluid: Potential Follicular Fluid Markers Of Reproductive Aging.

J Pak Med Assoc 2018 Dec;68(12):1769-1781

The Department of Gynecology, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, China.

Objective: To assess the difference in the metabolomics profiles of follicular fluid between older and younger reproductive-aged women.

Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Centre of Reproduction and Genetics, Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, China and comprised patient data related to the period between July and October 2015. Follicular fluid was obtained from male-factor infertility women aged 28-35 years as the younger group A, and those aged 35-42 years as the older group B. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

MicroRNA cluster miR199a/214 are differentially expressed in female and male rats following nicotine self-administration.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 30;8(1):17464. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

Previous research has established sex differences associated with nicotine intake, however a significant gap in knowledge remains regarding the molecular mechanisms that govern these differences at the transcriptional level. One critical regulator of transcription are microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are a family of non-coding RNAs that regulate an array of important biological functions altered in several disease states, including neuroadaptive changes within the brain associated with drug dependence. Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

The impact of local regulation on reasons for electronic cigarette use among Southern California young adults.

Addict Behav 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Objective: Tobacco control policies have decreased tobacco use among youth and young adults. We aimed to identify whether specific local tobacco retail licensing ordinances were associated with reasons for e-cigarette use, in order to examine whether strong local policies may reduce e-cigarette initiation rates by influencing the appeal of these products.

Methods: Online questionnaires were completed by Southern California Children's Health Study participants in 2015-2016 (mean age = 18. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Synthesis and characterization of pyridoxine, nicotine and nicotinamide salts of dithiophosphoric acids as antibacterial agents against resistant wound infection.

Bioorg Med Chem 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, 420008 Kazan, 18 Kremlyovskaya St., Russia. Electronic address:

The pyridine-derived biomolecules are of considerable interest in developing medicinal compounds with various specific activities. Novel ammonium salts of pyridoxine, (S)-(-)-nicotine and nicotinamide with O,O-diorganyl dithiophosphoric acids (DTPA) were synthesized and characterized. The complexation of chiral monoterpenyl DTPA, including (S)-(-)-menthyl, (R)-(+)-menthyl, (1R)-endo-(+)-fenchyl, (1S,2S,3S,5R)-(+)-isopinocampheolyl derivatives, with pyridoxine and nicotine provided effective antibacterial compounds 3a,b,e,f, and 5a,b,d,f with MIC values against Gram-positive bacteria as low as 10 µM (6 µg/mL). Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Nicotine-sensitive acetylcholine receptors are relevant pharmacological targets for the control of multidrug resistant parasitic nematodes.

Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2018 Dec 20;8(3):540-549. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

ISP, INRA, Université Tours, UMR1282, 37380, Nouzilly, France. Electronic address:

The control of parasitic nematodes impacting animal health relies on the use of broad spectrum anthelmintics. However, intensive use of these drugs has led to the selection of resistant parasites in livestock industry. In that respect, there is currently an urgent need for novel compounds able to control resistant parasites. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read