3,142,245 results match your criteria New Genetics and Society [Journal]


Effect of an insect protein-based diet on clinical signs of dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions.

Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2018 Oct 12;46(5):297-302. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Objective: Edible insects (like mealworms, locusts and crickets) contain energy, protein, fatty acids, minerals and trace elements and have been found to be high quality food sources. They could provide a new food source for patients with adverse food reactions, as well as being of ecological and ethical interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a new commercially available, insect protein-based diet on the clinical signs in those dogs via Canine Atopic Dermatitis Lesion Index (CADLI), Pruritus Visual Analogue Scale (PVAS) and coat quality score. Read More

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October 2018
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[Diagnostic value of the BRAF variant V595E in urine samples, smears and biopsies from canine transitional cell carcinoma].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2018 Oct 12;46(5):289-295. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Objective: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common malignant tumour of the canine urinary tract. Previously, the mutation of the BRAF gene V595E was identified in approximately 85 % of canine TCC cases by DNA sequencing of TCC tumour cells, both in frozen and paraffin-embedded tissue sections, as well as in urine. The objective of this study was to establish these methods in cytological smears and to investigate the prevalence of BRAF mutation V595E in canine TCC in our cohort of patients. Read More

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October 2018
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[Sirolimus for LAM - A New MILEStone Reached?]

Authors:
M Kreuter H Wirtz

Pneumologie 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Universitätsklinikum Leipzig, Abteilung Pneumologie.

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December 2018

A multimodal (FACILE) classification for optical diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease associated neoplasia.

Endoscopy 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Gastroenterology, HSK Hospital, Wiesbaden, Germany.

Background:  Characterization of colonic lesions in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains challenging. We developed an endoscopic classification of visual characteristics to identify colitis-associated neoplasia using multimodal advanced endoscopic imaging (Frankfurt Advanced Chromoendoscopic IBD LEsions [FACILE] classification).

Methods:  The study was conducted in three phases: 1) development - an expert panel defined endoscopic signs and predictors of dysplasia in IBD and, using multivariable logistic regression created the FACILE classification; 2) validation - using 60 IBD lesions from an image library, two assessments of diagnostic accuracy for neoplasia were performed and interobserver agreement between experts using FACILE was determined; 3) reproducibility - the reproducibility of the FACILE classification was tested in gastroenterologists, trainees, and junior doctors after completion of a training module. Read More

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December 2018

Regulation of ATR activity via the RNA polymerase II associated factors CDC73 and PNUTS-PP1.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase is a key factor activated by DNA damage and replication stress. An alternative pathway for ATR activation has been proposed to occur via stalled RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). However, how RNAPII might signal to activate ATR remains unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Xenotransplantation: Progress Along Paths Uncertain from Models to Application.

ILAR J 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Translational Medicine and The Comparative Medicine Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.

For more than a century, transplantation of tissues and organs from animals into man, xenotransplantation, has been viewed as a potential way to treat disease. Ironically, interest in xenotransplantation was fueled especially by successful application of allotransplantation, that is, transplantation of human tissue and organs, as a treatment for a variety of diseases, especially organ failure because scarcity of human tissues limited allotransplantation to a fraction of those who could benefit. In principle, use of animals such as pigs as a source of transplants would allow transplantation to exert a vastly greater impact than allotransplantation on medicine and public health. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Altered sleep architecture, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and neural oscillation in a mouse model of human chromosome 16p11.2 microdeletion.

Sleep 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

Sleep abnormalities are common among children with neurodevelopmental disorders. The human chr16p11.2 microdeletion is associated with a range of neurological and neurobehavioral abnormalities. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Obese Patients Benefit, but do not Fare as Well as Nonobese Patients, Following Lumbar Spondylolisthesis Surgery: An Analysis of the Quality Outcomes Database.

Neurosurgery 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Background: Given recent differing findings following 2 randomized clinical trials on degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DLS) surgery, there is a need to better define how subsets of patients fare following surgery.

Objective: To investigate the impact of obesity on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following DLS surgery.

Methods: A total of 12 high-enrolling sites were queried, and we found 797 patients undergoing surgery for grade 1 DLS. Read More

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December 2018

The relationship between type 1 IFN and vasculopathy in anti-MDA5 antibody-positive dermatomyositis patients.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga, Japan.

Objectives: Based on the antibody profiles of inflammatory myositis patients, we investigated the type 1 IFN (T1-IFN) signature in serum and DM skin to determine the relationship between T1-IFN and vasculopathy in anti-melanoma differentiation-associated 5 gene (MDA5) antibody-positive DM patients.

Methods: We examined 47 patients with new-onset inflammatory myositis. We divided them into three groups: the anti-MDA5 antibody-positive patients (MDA5 group, n = 16), the anti-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase antibody-positive patients (aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase group, n = 12), and the double-negative patients (n = 19). Read More

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December 2018
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Reconsidering the Latent Structure of Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: A Review of Evidence Supporting the 5 Consensus Domains.

Schizophr Bull 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychiatry, Reno School of Medicine, University of Nevada, Reno, NV.

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December 2018

A coronary artery disease-associated tRNAThr mutation altered mitochondrial function, apoptosis and angiogenesis.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Medical Genetics and Genomics, The Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China.

The tissue specificity of mitochondrial tRNA mutations remains largely elusive. In this study, we demonstrated the deleterious effects of tRNAThr 15927G>A mutation that contributed to pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. The m. Read More

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December 2018

The Cerebral Cortex is Bisectionally Segregated into Two Fundamentally Different Functional Units of Gyri and Sulci.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Cortical Architecture Imaging and Discovery Lab, Department of Computer Science and Bioimaging Research Center, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

The human cerebral cortex is highly folded into diverse gyri and sulci. Accumulating evidences suggest that gyri and sulci exhibit anatomical, morphological, and connectional differences. Inspired by these evidences, we performed a series of experiments to explore the frequency-specific differences between gyral and sulcal neural activities from resting-state and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Read More

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December 2018

Transfer RNA demethylase ALKBH3 promotes cancer progression via induction of tRNA-derived small RNAs.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, 929 East 57th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

Transfer RNA is heavily modified and plays a central role in protein synthesis and cellular functions. Here we demonstrate that ALKBH3 is a 1-methyladenosine (m1A) and 3-methylcytidine (m3C) demethylase of tRNA. ALKBH3 can promote cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Read More

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December 2018

Educational level and risk of chronic kidney disease: longitudinal data from the PREVEND study.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: The longitudinal association between low education and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its underlying mechanisms is poorly characterized. We therefore examined the association of low education with incident CKD and change in kidney function, and explored potential mediators of this association.

Methods: We analysed data on 6078 participants from the community-based Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease study. Read More

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December 2018

Processing of eukaryotic Okazaki fragments by redundant nucleases can be uncoupled from ongoing DNA replication in vivo.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA.

Prior to ligation, each Okazaki fragment synthesized on the lagging strand in eukaryotes must be nucleolytically processed. Nuclease cleavage takes place in the context of 5' flap structures generated via strand-displacement synthesis by DNA polymerase delta. At least three DNA nucleases: Rad27 (Fen1), Dna2 and Exo1, have been implicated in processing Okazaki fragment flaps. Read More

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December 2018

A coordinate-based meta-analysis comparing brain activation between ADHD and total sleep deprivation.

Sleep 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

Study Objectives: Sleep disruption is common in attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD). Likewise, deficits in attention are a hallmark of sleep deprivation in healthy individuals. Whether ADHD and sleep deprivation modulate common, or disparate, neural systems is unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Allosteric DNAzyme-based DNA logic circuit: operations and dynamic analysis.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Intelligent Computing, Dalian University, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116622, China.

Recently, due to the dual roles of DNA and enzyme, DNAzyme has been widely used in the field of DNA circuit, which has a wide range of applications in bio-engineered system, information processing and biocomputing. In fact, the activity of DNAzymes was regulated by subunits assembly, pH control and metal ions triggers. However, those regulations required to change the sequences of whole DNAzyme, as separating parts and inserting extra DNA sequence. Read More

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December 2018

The role of glutamine metabolism for host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Radboud university medical center, Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center of Infectious Diseases, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Background: Rewiring cellular metabolism is important for activation of immune cells during host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Glutamine has been implicated as an immunomodulatory nutrient, but its role in response to M. tuberculosis is unknown. Read More

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December 2018
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Validated screening tools for the assessment of cachexia, sarcopenia, and malnutrition: a systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Dec;108(6):1196-1208

Clinical Surgery, University of Edinburgh, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Background: There is great overlap between the presentation of cachexia, sarcopenia, and malnutrition. Distinguishing between these conditions would allow for better targeted treatment for patients.

Objectives: The aim was to systematically review validated screening tools for cachexia, sarcopenia, and malnutrition in adults and, if a combined tool is absent, make suggestions for the generation of a novel screening tool. Read More

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December 2018
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Galapagos Islands Endemic Vertebrates: A Population Genetics Perspective.

Authors:
Philip W Hedrick

J Hered 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.

The organisms of the Galapagos Islands played a central role in the development of the theory of evolution by Charles Darwin. Examination of the population genetics factors of many of these organisms with modern molecular methods have expanded our understanding of their evolution. Here I provide a perspective on how selection, gene flow, genetic drift, mutation, and inbreeding have contributed to the evolution of six of the iconic Galapagos species; flightless cormorant, pink iguana, marine iguana, Galapagos hawk, giant tortoises, and Darwin's finches. Read More

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December 2018

In Vivo Imaging With Confirmation by Histopathology for Increased Rigor and Reproducibility in Translational Research: A Review of Examples, Options, and Resources.

ILAR J 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Radiology, Miller Research Building Molecular Imaging Service Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Preclinical noninvasive imaging can be an indispensable tool for studying animal models of disease. In vivo imaging to assess anatomical, functional, and molecular features requires verification by a comparison to the macroscopic and microscopic morphological features, since all noninvasive in vivo imaging methods have much lower resolution than standard histopathology. Comprehensive pathological evaluation of the animal model is underutilized; yet, many institutions have veterinary or human pathologists with necessary comparative pathology expertise. Read More

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December 2018

Factors that can influence the survival rates of coral snakes (Micrurus corallinus) for antivenom production.

J Anim Sci 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Laboratório de Herpetologia do Instituto Butantan, Av. Vital Brazil, São Paulo - Brasil.

Envenoming and deaths resulting from snakebites are a particularly important public health problem in rural tropical areas of Africa, Asia, Latin America and New Guinea. In 2015 The Lancet highlighted snake-bite envenoming as a neglected tropical disease and urged the world to increase antivenom production. In Brazil around 20,000 snakebites occur per year affecting mostly agricultural workers and children, of which 1% are caused by coral snakes (Micrurus sp). Read More

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December 2018

Health Burden, Instrumental and Emotional Support Adequacy, and Depressive Symptoms in Older Men With HIV.

Gerontologist 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Virginia Tech Center for Gerontology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg.

Background And Objectives: Older adults with HIV face greater health burden than HIV-uninfected counterparts. Little is known about resources that might mediate the influence of physiological health burden on psychological well-being. Informed by the stress process model, we assessed the influence of multifaceted health burden indicators on depressive symptoms and evaluated the mediating effects of social support adequacy. Read More

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December 2018

Implementation of a Stirling number estimator enables direct calculation of population genetics tests for large sequence data sets.

Authors:
Swaine L Chen

Bioinformatics 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; and Infectious Diseases Group, Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore.

Motivation: Stirling numbers enter into the calculation of several population genetics statistics, including Fu's Fs. However, as alignments become large (>∼50 sequences), the Stirling numbers required rapidly exceed the standard floating point range. Another recursive method for calculating Fu's Fs suffers from floating point underflow issues. Read More

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December 2018

Commentary: The Experience With Flow Diverters in the Treatment of Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysms.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas.

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December 2018
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Cancer stem cells in relation to treatment.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

The classical cancer therapies, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy, can initially show good results and tumor shrinkage; however, for most cancer patients disease recurrence is a common event. This tumor regrowth following therapy is now thought to depend on a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which, similar to other stem cells, have the capacity for self-renewal and multipotent differentiation. Cancer stem cells have been identified based on cell surface protein expression in many tumor types, and for all diseases studied, this specific cell population is required for serial transplantation in animal models. Read More

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December 2018

Agnostic Pathway/Gene Set Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Data Identifies Associations for Pancreatic Cancer.

Authors:
Naomi Walsh Han Zhang Paula L Hyland Qi Yang Evelina Mocci Mingfeng Zhang Erica J Childs Irene Collins Zhaoming Wang Alan A Arslan Laura Beane-Freeman Paige M Bracci Paul Brennan Federico Canzian Eric J Duell Steven Gallinger Graham G Giles Michael Goggins Gary E Goodman Phyllis J Goodman Rayjean J Hung Charles Kooperberg Robert C Kurtz Núria Malats Loic LeMarchand Rachel E Neale Sara H Olson Ghislaine Scelo Xiao O Shu Stephen K Van Den Eeden Kala Visvanathan Emily White Wei Zheng Demetrius Albanes Gabriella Andreotti Ana Babic William R Bamlet Sonja I Berndt Ayelet Borgida Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault Lauren Brais Paul Brennan Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita Julie Buring Kari G Chaffee Stephen Chanock Sean Cleary Michelle Cotterchio Lenka Foretova Charles Fuchs J Michael M Gaziano Edward Giovannucci Michael Goggins Thilo Hackert Christopher Haiman Patricia Hartge Manal Hasan Kathy J Helzlsouer Joseph Herman Ivana Holcatova Elizabeth A Holly Robert Hoover Rayjean J Hung Vladimir Janout Eric A Klein Robert C Kurtz Daniel Laheru I-Min Lee Lingeng Lu Núria Malats Satu Mannisto Roger L Milne Ann L Oberg Irene Orlow Alpa V Patel Ulrike Peters Miquel Porta Francisco X Real Nathaniel Rothman Howard D Sesso Gianluca Severi Debra Silverman Oliver Strobel Malin Sund Mark D Thornquist Geoffrey S Tobias Jean Wactawski-Wende Nick Wareham Elisabete Weiderpass Nicolas Wentzensen William Wheeler Herbert Yu Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte Peter Kraft Donghui Li Eric J Jacobs Gloria M Petersen Brian M Wolpin Harvey A Risch Laufey T Amundadottir Kai Yu Alison P Klein Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon

J Natl Cancer Inst 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify associations of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with cancer risk but usually only explain a fraction of the inherited variability. Pathway analysis of genetic variants is a powerful tool to identify networks of susceptibility genes.

Methods: We conducted a large agnostic pathway-based meta-analysis of GWAS data using the summary-based adaptive rank truncated product method to identify gene sets and pathways associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in 9040 cases and 12 496 controls. Read More

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December 2018

Can a patient-focussed bookings approach reduce patient non-attendance in postnatal and continence physiotherapy?

J Public Health (Oxf) 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Innovation and Improvement, Monash Health, Clayton, Australia.

Background: There are unique life-stage and psychosocial barriers to attendance for women referred for postnatal and continence physiotherapy. These barriers affect access to care, clinic utilization and patient waiting lists. In a patient-focused bookings system, the patient is invited to contact the health service to book their appointment at a time and day that suits them, increasing patient choice and engagement in the booking process. Read More

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December 2018

DNA damage and repair in the female germline: contributions to ART.

Hum Reprod Update 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Science, Discipline of Biological Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.

Background: DNA integrity and stability are critical determinants of cell viability. This is especially true in the female germline, wherein DNA integrity underpins successful conception, embryonic development, pregnancy and the production of healthy offspring. However, DNA is not inert; rather, it is subject to assault from various environment factors resulting in chemical modification and/or strand breakage. Read More

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December 2018
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Effect modification of FADS2 polymorphisms on the association between breastfeeding and intelligence: results from a collaborative meta-analysis.

Int J Epidemiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Population Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that breastfeeding benefits children's intelligence, possibly due to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) present in breast milk. Under a nutritional adequacy hypothesis, an interaction between breastfeeding and genetic variants associated with endogenous LC-PUFAs synthesis might be expected. However, the literature on this topic is controversial. Read More

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December 2018
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Wide-area transepithelial sampling with computer-assisted 3-dimensional analysis (WATS) markedly improves detection of esophageal dysplasia and Barrett's esophagus: analysis from a prospective multicenter community-based study.

Dis Esophagus 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Gastroenterology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

The 4-quadrant forceps biopsy (FB) protocol for identifying Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal dysplasia (ED) suffers from poor sensitivity due to significant sampling error. We investigated the benefit of wide-area transepithelial sampling with 3-dimensional computer-assisted analysis (WATS) used adjunctively to the combination of random and targeted FB in the detection of ED, and as a secondary outcome, BE. In this multicenter prospective trial, community endoscopists at 21 sites utilized WATS as an adjunct to both targeted and random FB in patients undergoing BE screening and surveillance. Read More

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December 2018

Mucosal healing and bacterial composition in response to enteral nutrition versus steroid based induction therapy - a randomized prospective clinical trial in children with Crohn's disease.

J Crohns Colitis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, APHP.

Exclusive Enteral Nutrition (EEN) is as efficacious as corticosteroids (CS) to induce remission in Crohn's disease (CD), without their adverse effects. EEN seems to be more efficient than steroids to induce mucosal healing, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are only sparsely understood. We aimed in the present work to study the anti-inflammatory effects of EEN with Modulen IBD® versus CS in active pediatric CD and to assess its modulatory effects on the intestinal microbiota as compared to steroids. Read More

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December 2018

CD33 in Alzheimer's Disease - Biology, Pathogenesis, and Therapeutics: A Mini-Review.

Authors:
Lingzhi Zhao

Gerontology 2018 Dec 12:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects nearly 50 million people worldwide, and currently no disease-modifying treatment is available. With continuous failure of anti-amyloid-beta- or tau-based therapies, identification of new targets has become an urgent necessity for AD prevention and therapy. Recently, conventional genetic approaches and computational strategies have converged on immune-inflammatory pathways as key events in the pathogenesis of AD. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Electronic Patient-Reported Outcomes: A New Standard of Care?

Oncology 2018 Dec 12:1-2. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, St. Gallen,

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December 2018

Electrical transport and gas sensing characteristics of dielectrophoretically aligned MBE grown catalyst free InAs nanowires.

Nanotechnology 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

DRDO Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi, Delhi, 110054, INDIA.

In this report, the precise alignment of catalyst free InAs nanowires (NWs) on pre-patterned Au microelectrodes by dielectrophoresis (DEP) technique for gas sensing applications is presented. The catalyst free InAs NWs have been grown on Si (111) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technique. The effect of dispersing solvents, electrode geometries and gaps, magnitude, frequency and duration of applied voltage etc. Read More

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December 2018

Self-assembled CpG oligodeoxynucleotides conjugated hollow gold nanospheres to enhance cancer-associated immunostimulation.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Dec 3;175:248-255. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion & New Carbon Materials of Hubei Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081, PR China. Electronic address:

To realize efficiently cellular uptake and enhance the immunostimulation, thiolated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) were self-assembled on hollow gold nanospheres (HGNs) to form CpG-HGNs. The cellular uptake of CpG-HGNs in immune cells was studied in RAW 264.7 cells. Read More

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December 2018

Development of a Human iPSC Cardiomyocyte-Based Scoring System for Cardiac Hazard Identification in Early Drug Safety De-risking.

Stem Cell Reports 2018 Dec;11(6):1365-1377

Global Safety Pharmacology, Non-Clinical Safety, Janssen Research & Development, A Division of Janssen Pharmaceutica NV, Turnhoutseweg 30, 2340 Beerse, Belgium.

Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) have emerged as a promising cardiac safety platform, demonstrated by numerous validation studies using drugs with known cardiac adverse effects in humans. However, the challenge remains to implement hiPSC-CMs into cardiac de-risking of new chemical entities (NCEs) during preclinical drug development. Here, we used the calcium transient screening assay in hiPSC-CMs to develop a hazard score system for cardiac electrical liabilities. Read More

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December 2018

Screening-Based Chemical Approaches to Unravel Stem Cell Biology.

Authors:
Shuibing Chen

Stem Cell Reports 2018 Dec;11(6):1312-1323

Department of Surgery and Biochemistry, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Cell-permeable compounds provide a convenient and efficient approach to manipulate biological processes. A number of compounds controlling stem cell self-renewal, survival, differentiation, and reprogramming have been identified through high-throughput/content screens. Using these powerful chemical tools, strategies have been developed to direct human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) differentiation to functional cells. Read More

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December 2018

New Approaches, New Opportunities at the 2019 ISSCR Annual Meeting.

Stem Cell Reports 2018 Dec;11(6):1305

2019 ISSCR Program Committee Chair.

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December 2018

The antiviral mechanism of viperin and its splice variant in spring viremia of carp virus infected fathead minnow cells.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China; Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovation Center of Hubei Province, Wuhan, 430070, China; Hubei Engineering Technology Research Center for Aquatic Animal Diseases Control and Prevention, Wuhan, 430070, China. Electronic address:

Viperin is known to play an important role in innate immune and its antiviral mechanisms are well demonstrated in mammals. Fish Viperin mediates antiviral activity against several viruses. However, little has been done to the underlying mechanism. Read More

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December 2018

V2-Directed Vaccine-like Antibodies from HIV-1 Infection Identify an Additional K169-Binding Light Chain Motif with Broad ADCC Activity.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3123-3135.e6

National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg 2131, South Africa; Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa; Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa. Electronic address:

Antibodies that bind residue K169 in the V2 region of the HIV-1 envelope correlated with reduced risk of infection in the RV144 vaccine trial but were restricted to two ED-motif-encoding light chain genes. Here, we identify an HIV-infected donor with high-titer V2 peptide-binding antibodies and isolate two antibody lineages (CAP228-16H/19F and CAP228-3D) that mediate potent antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Both lineages use the IGHV5-51 heavy chain germline gene, similar to the RV144 antibody CH58, but one lineage (CAP228-16H/19F) uses a light chain without the ED motif. Read More

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December 2018

KLF4, A Gene Regulating Prostate Stem Cell Homeostasis, Is a Barrier to Malignant Progression and Predictor of Good Prognosis in Prostate Cancer.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3006-3020.e7

Department of Cell Biology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; Department of Urology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address:

There is a considerable need to identify those individuals with prostate cancer who have indolent disease. We propose that genes that control adult stem cell homeostasis in organs with slow turnover, such as the prostate, control cancer fate. One such gene, KLF4, overexpressed in murine prostate stem cells, regulates their homeostasis, blocks malignant transformation, and controls the self-renewal of tumor-initiating cells. Read More

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December 2018

Novel therapeutic approaches in primary hyperoxaluria.

Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 2018 Dec 12:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

a Division of Pediatric Nephrology , University Childrens Hospital, Universitatsklinikum Bonn , Bonn , Germany.

Introduction: Currently, three types of primary hyperoxaluria (PH I-III) are known, all based on different gene-mutations affecting the glyoxylate metabolism in the liver. Disease hallmark is an increased endogenous oxalate production and thus massively elevated urinary excretion of oxalate and other type-specific metabolites. Hyperoxaluria induces the formation of calcium-oxalate kidney stones and/or nephrocalcinosis. Read More

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December 2018

3D Quantification of the Facet Evolution of Pt Nanoparticles in a Variable Gaseous Environment.

Nano Lett 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Pt nanoparticles play an essential role in a wide variety of catalytic reactions. The activity of the particles strongly depends on their three-dimensional (3D) structure and exposed facets, as well as on the reactive environment. High resolution electron microscopy has often been used to characterize nanoparticle catalysts, but unfortunately, most observations so far have been either performed in vacuum and/or using conventional (2D) in situ microscopy. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Synthesis of Aryl Trimethylstannane via BF3·OEt2-mediated Cross-Coupling of Hexaalkyl Distannane Reagent with Aryl Triazene at Room Temperature.

J Org Chem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

BF3·OEt2-mediated cross-coupling of (SnMe3)2 with aryl triazene offers a new strategy for the synthesis of aryl stannane. A variety of synthetically useful aryl trimethylstannanes were produced in moderate to good yields with this metal-free approach. One-pot sequential Stille cross-coupling with different aryl bromides provides a short entry to both symmetrical and unsymmetrical biaryl compounds. Read More

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December 2018

Biphenyl Gal and GalNAc FmlH Lectin Antagonists of Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC): Optimization through iterative rational drug design.

J Med Chem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

The F9/Yde/Fml pilus, tipped with the FmlH adhesin, has been shown to provide Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) a fitness advantage in urinary tract infections (UTIs). Here, we used X-ray structure guided design to optimize our previously described ortho-biphenyl Gal and GalNAc FmlH antagonists such as compound 1, by replacing the carboxylate with a sulfonamide as in 50. Other groups which can accept H-bonds were also tolerated. Read More

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December 2018

Optimizing the Nonlinear Optical Response of Plasmonic Metasurfaces.

Nano Lett 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Controlling the nonlinear optical response of nanoscale metamaterials opens new exciting applications such as frequency conversion or flat metal optical elements. To utilize the already well-developed fabrication methods, a systematic design methodology for obtaining high nonlinearities is required. In this paper we consider an optimization-based approach, combining a multiparameter genetic algorithm with 3D Finite-Difference Time Domain simulations. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of bendable surgical suction devices made of shape-memory alloy for the endonasal transsphenoid removal of pituitary tumors.

Ear Nose Throat J 2018 Dec;97(12):413-416

Department of Medical Engineering, Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology, Nöthnitzer Straße 44, 01187 Dresden, Germany.

In minimally invasive surgeries, it can be difficult to reach desired anatomic areas with rigid instruments, especially when obstacles are present in the surgical corridor (e.g., during transnasal pituitary surgery). Read More

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December 2018
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