Nevus sebaceus of Jadassohn is a congenital tumour affecting the scalp and face. It is usually presented as a pigmented patch or plaque. It is a complex cutaneous hamartoma which involves pilosebaceous follicle, epidermis and adnexal structures. Read More
Mass spectrometry imaging can be successfully used for skin cancer diagnosis, particularly for the diagnosis of challenging melanocytic lesions. This method analyzes proteins within benign and malignant melanocytic tumor cells and, based on their differences, which constitute a unique molecular signature of 5 to 20 proteins, can render a diagnosis of benign nevus versus malignant melanoma. Mass spectrometry imaging may assist in the differentiation between metastases and nevi as well as between proliferative nodules in nevi and melanoma arising in a nevus. Read More
Dermatol Clin 2017 Oct 7;35(4):439-445. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, NYU School of Medicine, 240 East 38th Street, 11th Floor, New York, NY 10016, USA.
Identifying new or changing melanocytic lesions, particularly in patients with numerous or atypical nevi, can be challenging. Total-body photography and sequential digital dermoscopy imaging, together known as digital follow-up, are 2 prominent forms of noninvasive imaging technology used in mole mapping that have been found to improve diagnostic accuracy, detect earlier-stage melanomas, and reduce costs. Digital follow-up, in combination with direct-to-consumer applications and teledermatology, is already revolutionizing the ways in which physicians and patients participate in melanoma surveillance and will likely continue to enhance early detection efforts. Read More
Aims: The aim of this paper was to compare the features of both the classic, darkly pigmented and the atypical, more lightly pigmented optic disc melanocytoma with those of pigmented choroidal lesions.
Methods: We analyzed the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features of 9 eyes with optic disc melanocytoma and compared them with those of choroidal melanoma and nevus.
Results And Conclusion: We identified 2 categories of SD-OCT findings in optic disc melanocytoma: (a) type 1, the typical, prominent, hyperpigmented lesion with SD-OCT findings of a hyperreflective, disorganized overlying retina and a posterior hyporeflective shadow, and (b) the less common, atypical, minimally pigmented type 2 lesion overlaid by a relatively well-organized retina that lacks a posterior hyporeflective shadow. Read More
Oral pigmentations (OPs) are often neglected, although a meticulous examination of the oral cavity is important not only in the diagnosis of oral melanoma, but also for the detection of important clinical findings that may indicate the presence of a systemic disease. OPs may be classified into two major groups on the basis of their clinical appearance: focal and diffuse pigmentations, even though this distinction may not appear so limpid in some cases. The former include amalgam tattoo, melanocytic nevi, melanoacanthoma and melanosis, while the latter include physiological/racial pigmentations, smoker's melanosis, drug-induced hyperpigmentations, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations and OPs associated with systemic diseases. Read More
Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing TongRen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Ophthalmology&visual sciences key lab., Beijing 100005, China.
Objective: To describe the clinicopathologic characteristics of 422 conjunctival melanocytic nevi and detect the incidence of malignancy in those patients. Methods: Retrospective case series study. A retrospective study was conducted by reviewing 422 conjunctival melanocytic nevi specimens obtained at Beijing Tongren Eye Center from June, 2004 to May, 2016. Read More
Aim: Malignant melanoma is an aggressive disease and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Genetic predisposition and exposure to environmental factors, especially sunlight, are risk factors. Histopathologic distinction between nevi and melanomas can be difficult. Read More
aDepartment of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province bDepartment of Nephrology, Jilin City Central Hospital, Jilin, Jilin Province, China.
The aim of our study is to enhance the awareness of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) through the patients in our hospital and introduced a new measure of endoscopic intervention.A retrospective review of 5 patients, who were diagnosed as BRBNS in our hospital from January 2013 to January 2017, was conducted. Data were collected with regard to demographics, clinical presentation, endoscopic and imaging findings, management, and follow-up data. Read More
Department of Dermatology, University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine.
Alkaptonuria is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by deficiency of homogentisic acid (HGA) oxidase, the only enzyme capable of catabolizing HGA. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to excess HGA which deposits in the connective tissue. We present a case of a 64-year-old woman who was referred to the dermatology clinic for a full body mole check and skin cancer screening. Read More
Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM) is a tumor encompassing epithelioid blue nevus of Carney complex (EBN of CNC) and was previously termed animal-type melanoma. Histologically PEMs are heavily pigmented spindled and epithelioid dermal melanocytic tumors with infiltrative borders, however, their origin remains unclear. Stem cells for the epidermis and hair follicle are located in the bulge area of the hair follicle with the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages. Read More
Clin Lab Med 2017 Sep 4;37(3):401-415. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
Lahey Clinic, 41 Mall Road, Burlington, MA 018056, USA; www.DermatopathologyConsultations.com, C/O Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates Laboratories, 152 2nd Avenue, Needhan, MA 02494, USA. Electronic address:
The major entities related to blue nevus are common blue nevus, cellular blue nevus, atypical blue nevus, and malignant blue nevus. These lesions share presence of dermal pigmented dendritic melanocytes derived from embryonal precursors to melanocytes, Schwann cells, and glial cells migrating to the skin from the ventral neural crest. Genetically, blue nevi harbor mutations in G-protein-coupled receptor subunits GNAQ and GNA11. Read More
Cellular blue nevus is an uncommon neoplasm in the conjunctiva. Here we present an unusual case of a cellular blue nevus that clinically resembled conjunctival melanoma. A 29-year-old Chinese male was found to have a giant pigmented lesion of the conjunctiva around the limbal area of right eye from birth. Read More
Aims: Early recognition and accurate diagnosis underpins melanoma survival. Identifying early melanomas arising in association with pre-existing lesions is often challenging. Clinically suspicious foci, however small, must be identified and examined histologically. Read More
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, The First Bethune Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.
Eyebrows play an important role in face expression and facial mimics by virtue of muscle contraction. Defects or deformity of the eyebrows result in abnormal facial expressions, and may lead to aesthetic issues for patients. The objective of this study is to report the case of a patient, with a congenital skin pigmented nevus at the right side of the eyebrow treated with direct surgical resection and followed by immediate reconstruction of the eyebrow with a V-Y advancement pedicle flap based on the orbicularis oculi muscle. Read More
Departments of *Pathology §Dermatopathology ∥Dermatology †Clinical Cancer Genomics Laboratory ‡Helen Diller Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA ¶Department of Pathology, Lahey Clinic, Burlington, MA.
Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM) is a rare cutaneous melanocytic tumor first described as epithelioid blue nevus in patients with the Carney Complex (CC). PEM was among the first established examples of an intermediate class of melanocytic tumors, including atypical Spitz tumors, with frequent metastasis to lymph nodes but only rare extranodal spread. Sporadic and CC-associated PEM are essentially histologically indistinguishable. Read More
Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2017 Jul 22;5(4):549-550. Epub 2017 Jul 22.
Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Medical University of Plovdiv, 15A Vasil Aprilov blvd., 4002 Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
We present a 6-month-old male patient, who was consulted with dermatologist by his parents, because of a pigmented lesion, present since birth, covering almost the all skin of the back and buttocks. A sharply bordered, unequally coloured congenital pigmented nevus, measuring approximately 21 cm in diameter was observed in the whole body skin examination. The lesion was affecting the lower 2/3 of the skin of the back and the top half of the gluteus area, extending to the lateral part of the tors, forward the abdomen and the upper lateral part of the hips, composed by multiple darker-pigmented nests and several lighter areas, with single depigmented zones, hairy surface, irregularly infiltrated on palpation. Read More
Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2017 Jul 18;5(4):533-534. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Friedrichstrasse 41, 01067, Dresden, Germany.
A 61-year-old woman, with a lifelong history of a giant congenital melanocytic nevus in the occipital region with secondary development of giant melanoma is presented. Surgical excision was performed, and the histopathological evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of Giant Malignant Melanoma (GMM) with a maximum tumour thickness of 16 mm. Nowadays, there is tremendous uncertainty regarding how giant congenital melanocytic nevi (GCMN) should be treated. Read More
Cutaneous vulvar neoplasms are commonly encountered at gynecology visits, with 2% of women having a benign vulvar melanocytic nevus and 10% to 12% of nevi being vulvar. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or 3) occurs in 5 per 100,000 women, with increasing incidence in the past 30 years. The recognition of these lesions and differentiation between benign, premalignant, and malignant stages are crucial for adequate diagnosis, clinical monitoring, and treatment. Read More
Aim: The effect of a gene-expression-based test on treatment of melanocytic neoplasms by dermatologists was evaluated.
Patients & Methods: Pathologists submitted diagnostically challenging melanocytic neoplasms to a clinical laboratory for testing accompanied by pretest surveys documenting the intended treatment recommendations. The actual treatment rendered by dermatologists was then documented after testing. Read More
Int J Med Inform 2017 Sep 27;105:1-10. Epub 2017 May 27.
Medical Image and Signal Processing Lab (MEDISP), Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Greece; Department of Medical Physics, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Patras, Rio, Patras, Greece. Electronic address:
Objective: The aim of this study was to propose features that evaluate pictorial differences between melanocytic nevus (mole) and melanoma lesions by computer-based analysis of plain photography images and to design a cross-platform, tunable, decision support system to discriminate with high accuracy moles from melanomas in different publicly available image databases.
Material And Methods: Digital plain photography images of verified mole and melanoma lesions were downloaded from (i) Edinburgh University Hospital, UK, (Dermofit, 330moles/70 melanomas, under signed agreement), from 5 different centers (Multicenter, 63moles/25 melanomas, publicly available), and from the Groningen University, Netherlands (Groningen, 100moles/70 melanomas, publicly available). Images were processed for outlining the lesion-border and isolating the lesion from the surrounding background. Read More
This is the first of three chapters that will be progressively published on Pathologica as updating activity of the Italian Study Group of Dermatopathology (GISD), Italian Society of Pathology and Cytology (SIAPeC IAP). The first chapter concerns non-neoplastic hyperpigmented skin lesions and nevi, the second will address the topics of dysplastic nevus, borderline and low malignant potential melanocytic proliferations and the third melanoma in its variants and differential diagnoses with a supplement on the immunohistochemistry and molecular support to diagnostic and prognostic definition of nevi and melanomas. Although we believe that great advances were made in the application of ancillary genetic, immunohistochemical and molecular techniques, for the diagnosis and biological characterization of melanocytic tumors the morphology still remains the gold standard. Read More
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease of hair follicles which is associated with various comorbidities. In order further to clarify the associations between HS and psychiatric disorders, we conducted a nationwide retrospective study that included 4381 patients with HS and 39554 psoriasis and 43248 melanocytic nevi patients as controls. Patient data were obtained from the statutory Finnish Care Register for Health Care. Read More
Trichostasis spinulosa is a rarely diagnosed disorder of the pilosebaceous unit, characterized by retention of telogen hairs within the dilated follicles. A hair tuft can be seen protruding from the follicles. We present a case of trichostasis spinulosa associated with intradermal melanocytic nevi, where dermoscopy helps to identify this entity. Read More
Ocular cytology specimens are relatively uncommon, adding to the difficulty of their evaluation by cytopathologists. While melanomas account for a majority of primary intraocular pigmented lesions, other diagnostic considerations must be included in the differential. This brief report highlights a case of a pigmented ocular lesion in a 24-year-old man and key morphologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical differences between melanoma, melanocytoma, choroidal nevus, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) adenoma. Read More
Purpose: To investigate the role of sunlight exposure in iris freckles formation.
Methods: We prospectively examined volunteers attending a skin cancer screening program conducted by ophthalmologists and dermatologists. Frequency and topographical variability of iris freckles were noted and associated with behavioral and dermatologic characteristics indicating high sun exposure. Read More
An 88-year-old Caucasian man recently sought medical attention due to recrudescence of skin disease in the area of previously excised nodule (in 2002) on the nose dorsum. The original lesion was clinically considered as a pigmented basal cell carcinoma, after which histological examination revealed a superficial spreading melanoma in vertical growth face (Clark level IV; Breslow thickness 2.1 mm) arising from a pre-existing nevus. Read More
Background/objectives: Spitz nevi are melanocytic lesions with clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathologic presentations that may resemble those of melanoma. The evolution of Spitz nevi is a well-known feature. The objectives of this study were to investigate the clinical and dermoscopic features of Spitz nevi and define their evolution. Read More
The deep penetrating nevus (DPN) is a rare benign melanocytic tumor often clinically and histopathologically mistaken for malignant melanoma (MM) and other nevus types. This report describes an extremely rare case of multiple lesions of a large DPN in the oral cavity with extensive infiltration to the minor salivary gland, buccal fat pad, buccinators, and masseter muscles, yet with preservation of the normal anatomic architecture. After receiving a diagnosis of MM in another hospital, the patient was at risk for receiving a wide excision that included the masticatory muscles, facial nerve, and overlying skin. Read More
Background: Recent molecular advances suggest that Spitz nevi and other spitzoid neoplasms are biologically distinct from melanoma and conventional nevi. The ubiquitin ligase UBE2C and the homeobox transcription factor HOXA1 are candidate oncogenes in melanoma.
Methods: Using RNA expression analysis and immunohistochemistry, we evaluated these biomarkers in Spitz nevi (n = 20), melanoma (n = 20), and by immunohistochemistry in conventional nevi (n = 20). Read More
Background: FISH has recently emerged as a technique to better assess the malignant potential of histologically ambiguous melanocytic lesions. However, the usefulness of FISH has not been conclusively established. The purpose of this study was to further explore the diagnostic value of FISH in distinguishing the borderline melanocytic tumor (BMT) from melanoma. Read More
Eruptive melanocytic nevi (EMN) are a rare clinical finding characterized by sudden-onset nevi that often present in a grouped distribution. They have been associated with chemotherapy, immunosuppression, bullous diseases, and medications including multikinase and BRAF inhibitors. It is important for dermatologists to be able to identify patients with sudden development of new melanocytic nevi secondary to particular medications. Read More
Although microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as potent mediators of melanoma development and progression, a precise understanding of their oncogenic role remains unclear. In this study, we analysed formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues from two separate melanoma cohorts and from a series of benign melanocytic nevi. Using three different quantification methods [array analysis, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and in-situ hybridization (ISH) quantified by digital image analysis], we found considerable miRNA dysregulation in tumours. Read More
Approximately 33% of melanomas are derived directly from benign, melanocytic nevi. Despite this, the vast majority of melanocytic nevi, which typically form as a result of BRAF(V600E)-activating mutations, will never progress to melanoma. Herein, we synthesize basic scientific insights and data from mouse models with common observations from clinical practice to comprehensively review melanocytic nevus biology. Read More
Purpose:: To compare measurements of lesions clinically diagnosed as choroidal nevi using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and 10- and 20-MHz ultrasound (US).
Methods:: This prospective study, which was conducted between May 2011 and December 2011, evaluated eyes diagnosed with choroidal nevus via photographic documentation using 10- or 20-MHz A- and B-mode US (experienced examiner using both the transpalpebral technique and direct contact) or SD-OCT in the enhanced depth imaging mode (performed by a different examiner blinded to the US results). Anteroposterior (AP) and transverse (T) US sections corresponded to sections adjusted perpendicularly on SD-OCT. Read More
Intra- and subcorneal hematoma, a skin alteration seen palmar and plantar after trauma or physical exercise, can be challenging to distinguish from in situ or invasive acral lentiginous melanoma. Thus, careful examination including dermoscopic and histologic assessment may be necessary to make the correct diagnosis. We here present a case of a 67-year-old healthy female patient who presented with a pigmented plantar skin alteration. Read More
A 40-year-old woman presented with a pigmented nodule on a previously existing yellowish, verrucous plaque on the scalp. The histological diagnosis was consistent with a pigmented trichoblastoma developed within a sebaceous nevus (SN). A multigene hotspot mutational profiling of the BRAF, NRAS, HRAS and KRAS genes was carried out, and a shared G13R HRAS mutation in both the trichoblastoma and the sebaceous nevus components was found. Read More
Background: The differential diagnosis between regressing nevi and melanoma might be challenging; regressing areas can represent a confounding factor for the diagnosis and the histology still remain mandatory to rule out melanoma. Reflectance confocal microscopy may add valuable information by revealing features suggestive of the nature of the melanocytic proliferation.
Objective: To assess the impact of confocal microscopy in the management of regressive melanocytic lesions. Read More
Although giant congenital melanocytic nevus is a rare lesion, it causes significant deformity and carries a risk of malignant degeneration. Different surgical techniques for the lesion removal are described, including serial resection, resection with skin grafting, and resection and coverage with expanded skin flap (skin expanders). The aim of this study is to report the author's 40 years of experience with cases requiring at least 4 serial excisions to complete the treatment. Read More
Proliferative nodules can occasionally arise on congenital and acquired melanocytic nevi. At first sight their clinical and pathologic features cause alert to both dermatologist and dermatopathologist. However, proliferative nodules are typically benign, regression is common and there is minimum risk of malignization. Read More
Background:: Large congenital melanocytic nevus (LCMN) is considered a risk factor for melanoma, although the magnitude of this risk is controversial.
Objective:: To evaluate the risk of melanoma development in patients with LCMN seen at a dermatology referral center in Brazil during a twelve-year period. To the best of our knowledge, there are no published similar studies on large congenital melanocytic nevus in South America. Read More
Objective: To analyze prodromal phase and prodromal events of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. Methods: Clinical data of 179 patients hospitalized and diagnosed during 2010-2016 including adults and children in Peking Union Medical College Hospital and Beijing Children's Hospital were collected.Patients with prodromal phase or prodromal events were selected. Read More
J Invest Dermatol 2017 Sep 18;137(9):2017-2018. Epub 2017 May 18.
QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Cancer and Population studies, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute and University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester, UK.
Background: Many efforts have been spent attempting to define clinical, histopathological and molecular markers for differential diagnosis of Spitz nevus and melanoma. Dermoscopy has been widely used but it may be not always sufficient.
Methods: A retrospective study was performed evaluating Spitzoid-looking lesions showing symmetry at clinical and dermoscopic examination in patients ≥ 12 years attending our Clinic from 2004 to 2014. Read More
Longitudinal melanonychia is not frequently observed in children, and few studies exist on longitudinal melanonychia in paediatric patients, especially in Asian populations. We aimed to evaluate the clinical and histological findings of longitudinal melanonychia in Korean paediatric patients. A retrospective review of paediatric patients (≤18 years old) with longitudinal melanonychia who underwent nail biopsy between January 2010 and October 2015 was performed. Read More
Retin Cases Brief Rep 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
*Vitreous Retina Macula Consultants of New York, New York, New York; †LuEsther T. Mertz Retinal Research Center, Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital, New York, New York; ‡Unit of Macula, Health Research Institute, University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain; §Department of Ophthalmology, Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York; and ¶Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York.
Purpose: To report a case of "posterior scleral melanocytosis," a pigmented lesion of the posterior sclera that clinically resembles a flat choroidal nevus.
Methods: Case report of a patient with posterior scleral melanocytosis. Multimodal imaging, including swept source optical coherence tomography, was used to demonstrate the scleral location of the pigmented lesion and to distinguish its features from a typical choroidal nevus present in the same eye. Read More