69,118 results match your criteria Neutropenia

Pralsetinib for patients with advanced or metastatic RET-altered thyroid cancer (ARROW): a multi-cohort, open-label, registrational, phase 1/2 study.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Earle A Chiles Research Institute, Providence Portland Medical Center, Portland, OR, USA.

Background: Oncogenic alterations in RET represent important therapeutic targets in thyroid cancer. We aimed to assess the safety and antitumour activity of pralsetinib, a highly potent, selective RET inhibitor, in patients with RET-altered thyroid cancers.

Methods: ARROW, a phase 1/2, open-label study done in 13 countries across 71 sites in community and hospital settings, enrolled patients 18 years or older with RET-altered locally advanced or metastatic solid tumours, including RET-mutant medullary thyroid and RET fusion-positive thyroid cancers, and an Eastern Co-operative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 (later limited to 0-1 in a protocol amendment). Read More

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Pralsetinib for RET fusion-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (ARROW): a multi-cohort, open-label, phase 1/2 study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Oncogenic alterations in RET have been identified in multiple tumour types, including 1-2% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and antitumour activity of pralsetinib, a highly potent, oral, selective RET inhibitor, in patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC.

Methods: ARROW is a multi-cohort, open-label, phase 1/2 study done at 71 sites (community and academic cancer centres) in 13 countries (Belgium, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Netherlands, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, the UK, and the USA). Read More

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Minimal contribution of the hepatic uptake transporter OATP1B1 to the inter-individual variability in SN-38 pharmacokinetics in cancer patients without severe renal failure.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Cancer Genome and Pharmacotherapy, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Showa University School of Pharmacy, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, 142-8555, Japan.

Purpose: SN-38, a pharmacologically active metabolite of irinotecan, is taken up into hepatocytes by organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1. The effects of functional OATP1B1 521T>C on the pharmacokinetics of SN-38 remain controversial. Here, we prospectively examined the effects of OATP1B1 function on the area under the plasma total or unbound concentration-time curve (tAUC or uAUC) of SN-38 by assessing OATP1B1 521T>C and the plasma levels of endogenous OATP1B1 substrates, coproporphyrin (CP)-I and III, in cancer patients treated with irinotecan. Read More

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Impact of skeletal muscle mass in patients with recurrent gastric cancer.

World J Surg Oncol 2021 Jun 11;19(1):170. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Gastrointestinal and Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Tottori University Faculty of Medicine, 36-1 Nishi-cho, Yonago, 683-8504, Japan.

Background: We retrospectively examined the relationship among skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), prognosis, and chemotherapy side effects in patients with recurrent gastric cancer (RGC).

Methods: Sixty-seven patients who developed recurrence after undergoing curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer at Tottori University Hospital and received palliative chemotherapy were included in this study. Pretreatment computed tomography was performed to measure the skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and cross-sectional SMM at the third lumbar vertebra. Read More

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Effectiveness of Herbal Medicine for Leukopenia/Neutropenia Induced by Chemotherapy in Adults with Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Integr Cancer Ther 2021 Jan-Dec;20:15347354211021654

Xiyuan Hospital,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) on leukopenia/neutropenia induced by chemotherapy in adults with colorectal cancer (CRC).

Methods: Eight electronic databases were searched from their inception to June 2020. Randomized controlled trials with clarified sequence generation were qualified. Read More

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Genetic variant within CDK6 regulates immune response to palbociclib treatment.

Clin Immunol 2021 Jun 8:108777. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Istituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica (IRGB), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), 09042 Monserrato, Sardinia, Italy. Electronic address:

Everyone carries a set of genetic variants that contribute to regulation of the levels of blood cells, with unknown clinical impact. One of them, rs445 within the cell-cycle checkpoint gene CDK6, reduces the levels of myeloid cell types including granulocytes. We treated CD3+ T cells and whole blood with palbociclib in 41 individuals, who were stratified by genotype for analyses. Read More

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Multidrug-resistant species: underestimated fungal pathogens posing imminent threats in clinical settings.

Crit Rev Microbiol 2021 Jun 11:1-20. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Species of and related genera are widely used in biotechnology and, hence, many species have their genome sequenced. Importantly, yeasts of the genus have been increasingly identified as a cause of life-threatening invasive trichosporonosis (IT) in humans and are associated with an exceptionally high mortality rate. spp. Read More

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Heterozygous Variants of CLPB are a Cause of Severe Congenital Neutropenia.

Blood 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States.

Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is an inborn disorder of granulopoiesis. Approximately one-third of cases do not have a known genetic cause. Exome sequencing of 104 persons with congenital neutropenia identified heterozygous missense variants of CLPB (caseinolytic peptidase B) in 5 SCN cases, with 5 more cases identified through additional sequencing efforts or clinical sequencing. Read More

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High pyocyanin production and non-motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates are correlated with septic shock or death in bacteremic patients.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0253259. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Global Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

Studies of the outcome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia (Pab) have focused mainly on antibiotic appropriateness. However, P. aeruginosa possesses many virulence factors whose roles in outcomes have not been examined in humans, except for the type III secretion system (T3SS) toxins. Read More

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Clonal Dynamics and clinical implications of Post-Remission Clonal Hematopoiesis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML).

Blood 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States.

While clonal hematopoiesis (CH) can precede the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), it can also persist after achieving remission. Long-term clonal dynamics and clinical implications of persistent CH are not well understood. Here, we studied the prevalence, dynamics and clinical implications of post-remission CH in 164 AML patients who attained complete remission after induction chemotherapies. Read More

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Retrospective study of the efficacy of vascularized tissue transfer for treating antibiotic-resistant bacteria-infected wound: Comparison with clean and antibiotic-sensitive bacteria-infected wound.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e25907

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul.

Abstract: If wounds are infected with bacteria resistant to an empirical antibiotic regimen, effective wound treatment will be delayed. This can delay wound healing and lengthen hospital stays, increasing the costs to patients. Long-term antibiotic use can also result in minor and major complications, such as diarrhea, antibiotic resistance, or life-threatening leukopenia. Read More

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Prophylaxis and treatment strategies for optimizing chemotherapy relative dose intensity.

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.

Introduction: A decrease in relative dose intensity (RDI) of chemotherapy has been shown to be associated with poor patient outcomes in solid tumors and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The actual delivered chemotherapy dose received by patients can be influenced by dose reductions and treatment delays often due to toxicities, most commonly chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN).

Areas Covered: We review seminal evidence and more recent studies that have shown an association between higher RDI and improved patient survival. Read More

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Metronomic capecitabine as adjuvant therapy in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, open-label, parallel-group, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Diagnosis and Therapy, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma have a high risk of disease relapse, despite a high proportion of patients attaining complete clinical remission after receiving standard-of-care treatment (ie, definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy with or without induction chemotherapy). Additional adjuvant therapies are needed to further reduce the risk of recurrence and death. However, the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma remains controversial, highlighting the need for more effective adjuvant treatment options. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibitors "Leflunomide" and "Teriflunomide" in Covid-19: A narrative review.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jun 7:174233. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Pharmacology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India. Electronic address:

Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is rate-limiting enzyme in biosynthesis of pyrimidone which catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotate to orotate. Orotate is utilized in the biosynthesis of uridine-monophosphate. DHODH inhibitors have shown promise as antiviral agent against Cytomegalovirus, Ebola, Influenza, Epstein Barr and Picornavirus. Read More

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The Effect of Neutropenia and Filgrastim (G-CSF) in Cancer Patients With COVID-19 Infection.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY, USA.

Background: Neutropenia is commonly encountered in cancer patients. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim), a cytokine that initiates proliferation and differentiation of mature granulocytes, is widely given to oncology patients to counteract neutropenia, reducing susceptibility to infection. However, the clinical impact of neutropenia and G-CSF use in cancer patients with COVID-19 remains unknown. Read More

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Exploratory composite endpoint demonstrates benefit of trilaciclib across multiple clinically meaningful components of myeloprotection in patients with small cell lung cancer.

Int J Cancer 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Saint Luke's Cancer Institute, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO, USA.

Chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression is an acute, dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapy regimens used in the treatment of extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC). Trilaciclib protects haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from chemotherapy-induced damage (myeloprotection). To assess the totality of the myeloprotective benefits of trilaciclib, including analysis of several clinically relevant but low-frequency events, an exploratory composite endpoint comprising five major adverse haematological events (MAHE) was prospectively defined: all-cause hospitalisations, all-cause chemotherapy dose reductions, febrile neutropenia (FN), prolonged severe neutropenia (SN) and red blood cell (RBC) transfusions on/after week 5. Read More

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Phase 1a study of the CDK4/6 inhibitor, FCN-437c, in Chinese patients with HR + /HER2- advanced breast cancer.

Invest New Drugs 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Medical Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 270 Dong an Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Purpose This phase 1a, first-in-human study assessed the safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics (PK), and antitumor activity of FCN-437c, a cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor. Methods The study enrolled female patients with HR + /HER2- advanced breast cancer (BC) who failed standard of care therapy. A 3 + 3 dose-escalation design was utilized with a starting dose of 50 mg daily for 3 weeks on and 1 week off treatment in 28-day cycles. Read More

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Risk factors for the development of neonatal sepsis in a neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital of Nepal.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 9;21(1):546. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background: Sepsis is an overwhelming and life-threatening response to bacteria in bloodstream and a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Understanding the etiology and potential risk factors for neonatal sepsis is urgently required, particularly in low-income countries where burden of infection is high and its epidemiology is poorly understood.

Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted between April 2016 and October 2017 in a level three NICU at a tertiary care hospital in Nepal to determine the bacterial etiology and potential risk factors for neonatal sepsis. Read More

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Side effects of CDK4/6 inhibitors in the treatment of HR+/HER2- advanced breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May;10(5):5590-5599

Department of General Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Background: Although combination of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6(CDK4/6) inhibitors with endocrine therapy for advanced breast cancer (ABC) prolongs PFS in patients, but also has associated toxic side effects. However, few previous studies have summarized the toxic and side effects of CDK4/6 inhibitors. Therefore, this study summarized the corresponding toxic and side effects of CDK/6 inhibitors, which is of great importance for doctors and patients to understand how to balance the high survival rate brought by drugs with the decreased quality of life and improve the management of BC. Read More

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Intra-arterial chemotherapy for treatment of very low birthweight infants with retinoblastoma: Two case reports.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(19):e25870

Department of Interventional Radiology, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Introduction: Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) has been used successfully for unilateral and bilateral eye disease with advanced or less advanced intraocular disease and of children as young as 3 months of age. In this study, we expanded the use of IAC to eyes of two infants with very low birthweight (birth weight of 1000-1500 g) and retinoblastoma.

Patient Concerns: The ophthalmologists refused to give patients intravenous chemotherapy (IVC), considering the risk of IVC because of the low body weight. Read More

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Clinical Decision Support Trees Can Help Optimize Utilization of Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing.

J Clin Microbiol 2021 Jun 9:JCM0079121. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire, United States.

Anaplasmosis, a tick-borne illness caused by (AP), presents with nonspecific clinical symptoms including fever and headache and is often accompanied by laboratory abnormalities of leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and mildly elevated liver function tests (LFTs). Laboratory confirmation of acute infection occurs with nucleic acid amplification (NAAT) testing. This retrospective cohort study aimed to develop a clinical decision support algorithm to aid in decision-making about test ordering. Read More

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Febrile neutropenia after kidney transplantation.

Am J Transplant 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, USA.

Neutropenia is common after kidney transplant. There are few data on febrile neutropenia episodes (FNE) after kidney transplant. We studied FNE in a single-center retrospective cohort of 1,682 kidney transplant recipients. Read More

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[Therapeutic Effect of Spleen Low Molecular Weight Extracts on Leukopenia Caused by Epirubicin in Mice and Its Mechanism].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;29(3):969-974

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medicine, Peking University, Beijing 100191,

Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effect of spleen low molecular weight extracts on epileptics hydrochloride-induced leukopenia in mice and explore its mechanism.

Methods: The model of leukopenia in mice was established by the injection of epirubicin hydrochloride (10 mg/kg). After the injection of chemotherapeutic drugs, leukocytopenia mice were treated with different doses of spleen low molecular weight extract, Ganoderma oral solution and recombinant granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). Read More

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[The Relationship between Body Mass Index and Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;29(3):677-684

The First Clinical Medical College of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu Province, China.

Objective: To analysis the relationship between different BMI (body mass index) and the clinical characteristics, laboratory examination indexes of newly diagnosed adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), so as to investigate the effects of BMI to the efficacy of first induction chemotherapy.

Methods: The clinical data of 145 newly diagnosed adult AML patients treated in the First Hospital of Lanzhou University from August 2015 to August 2019 were retrospective analyzed. According to the guidelines for prevention and control of overweight and obesity in Chinese adults, the BMI (kg/m) of the selected AML patients before induction chemotherapy was calculated and the patients were divided into the low body mass group (BMI<18. Read More

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Proton therapy for adult medulloblastoma: Acute toxicity and disease control outcomes.

J Neurooncol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, 2015 North Jefferson Street, Jacksonville, FL, 32206, USA.

Purpose: We report disease control, survival outcomes, and treatment-related toxicity among adult medulloblastoma patients who received proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI) as part of multimodality therapy.

Methods: We reviewed 20 adults with medulloblastoma (≥ 22 years old) who received postoperative proton CSI ± chemotherapy between 2008 and 2020. Patient, disease, and treatment details and prospectively obtained patient-reported acute CSI toxicities were collected. Read More

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Serum Lactate: A Predictor of Septic Shock in Childhood Cancers with Febrile Neutropenia.

Glob Pediatr Health 2021 31;8:2333794X211022711. Epub 2021 May 31.

Phramongkutklao Hospital and College of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand.

Early recognition and management are the key elements to prevent febrile neutropenia associated mortality. The prospective observational study aimed to investigate prognostic accuracy of serum lactate to predict septic shock within 48 hours among hemodynamically stable children with febrile neutropenia. In all, 99 pediatric oncology patients who developed febrile neutropenia were enrolled in the study. Read More

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Clozapine-associated neutropenia following augmentation with sodium valproate.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2021 30;9:2050313X211019791. Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Clozapine is gold standard for the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. It can offer life-changing symptom reduction where other antipsychotics have failed, and for these patients, treatment with clozapine should be maintained, if in any possible way. However, treatment with clozapine comes with a risk of developing potentially fatal adverse reactions, for example, severe neutropenia or agranulocytosis, in which case, treatment must be discontinued. Read More

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Hematological parameters abnormalities and associated factors in HIV-positive adults before and after highly active antiretroviral treatment in Goba Referral Hospital, southeast Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study.

SAGE Open Med 2021 28;9:20503121211020175. Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Institute of Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Objectives: Hematological abnormalities of the major blood cell lines are frequently reported in patients with HIV-1 infection, in patients without antiretroviral therapy, and during the advanced stages of the disease. Chronic immune activation and inflammation results in the progressive depletion of CD4+ T-cells play a significant role in the clinical progression and pathogenesis of this infection. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of hematological abnormalities and their associated factors before and after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy in adults with HIV-1 infection in a referral hospital. Read More

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An overview of lurbinectedin as a new second-line treatment option for small cell lung cancer.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2021 29;13:17588359211020529. Epub 2021 May 29.

Thoracic Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA 02215, USA Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly proliferative, aggressive form of lung cancer that carries a poor prognosis. Recent approvals with new therapeutic options represent the first in more than a decade for SCLC. Lurbinectedin, a newly approved second-line option, is a synthetic alkaloid that covalently binds DNA, generating double-strand breaks, and disrupts DNA-protein interactions and RNA transcription. Read More

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Is leukopenia and lymphopenia a characteristic feature of COVID-19 in children?

Pak J Med Sci 2021 May-Jun;37(3):869-873

Dr. Nazish Saqlain, (FCPS) Assistant Professor Hematology, Department of Pediatric Hematology, The Children's Hospital and The Institute of Child Health, Lahore, Pakistan.

Objectives: To analyze whether leucopenia and lymphopenia a characteristic feature of children with COVID-19 and to find out its association with the disease severity.

Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at The Children's Hospital Lahore from March 2020 to October 2020. All confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection and post-COVID MIS-C/Kawasaki Disease diagnosed on the basis of RT-PCR and Antibody test respectively were included. Read More

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