2,156 results match your criteria Neurotherapeutics [Journal]


Optimizing Trajectories for Cranial Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy Using Computer-Assisted Planning: A Machine Learning Approach.

Neurotherapeutics 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, 33 Queen Square, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.

Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is an alternative to open surgery for drug-resistant focal mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Studies suggest maximal ablation of the mesial hippocampal head and amygdalohippocampal complex (AHC) improves seizure freedom rates while better neuropsychological outcomes are associated with sparing of the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG). Optimal trajectories avoid sulci and CSF cavities and maximize distance from vasculature. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Two ancient neuropeptides, PACAP and AVP, modulate motivated behavior at synapses in the extrahypothalamic brain: a study in contrast.

Cell Tissue Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Section on Molecular Neuroscience, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Regulation, NIMH-IRP, Building 49, Room 5A-32, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD, USA.

We examine evolutionary aspects of two primordial neuropeptides, arginine vasopressin (AVP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP); the distribution of AVP and PACAP and their receptors in mammals; AVP and PACAP release patterns relevant to their roles in neuroendocrine control in brain and periphery; and finally the intricate interlocking of homeostatic and allostatic regulation created by extrahypothalamic AVP and PACAP projections to brain circuit nodes important in controlling appetitive, avoidance and aggressive motor responses. A cardinal feature of peptide neurotransmission important in regulatory control of organismic responses and emphasized in this review, is that neuropeptides are released from large dense-core vesicles docked not only within axonal varicosities and dendrites but also at presynaptic nerve terminal sites, along with small clear synaptic vesicles, at active zones. Peptide transmitter nerve terminals, from hypothalamic and other projections, are distributed widely to multiple brain areas important in integrative control of behavior. Read More

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December 2018

Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome is the Best Term for This Condition.

Pediatr Neurol 2018 Oct 16;87:9-10. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Departments of Neurology and Ophthalmology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Division of Ophthalmology, Neuro-ophthalmology Service, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

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October 2018

Spinal Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma With a QKI-RAF1 Fusion.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Pathology.

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a slow-growing neoplasm that predominantly affects the pediatric and young adult population. This neoplasm has a good prognosis, with a median 10-year survival rate of 70%. The majority of tumors are supratentorial and arise in the temporal lobe, while spinal tumors are extremely rare, with only 8 reported cases. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment Among Community-Dwelling African Americans Using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX USA.

Objective: To establish a cut score for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) that distinguishes mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal cognition (NC) in a community-based African American (AA) sample.

Methods: A total of 135 AA participants, from a larger aging study, diagnosed MCI (n = 90) or NC (n = 45) via consensus diagnosis using clinical history, Clinical Dementia Rating score, and comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Logistic regression models utilized sex, education, age, and MoCA score to predict MCI versus NC. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Heterogeneity and Variability in Pressure Autoregulation of Organ Blood Flow: Lessons Learned Over 100+ Years.

Crit Care Med 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Departments of Anesthesiology & Pain Management, Neurological Surgery, Neurology & Neurotherapeutics, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

Objectives: Pressure autoregulation is an organ's intrinsic ability to maintain blood flow despite changes in perfusion pressure. The purpose of this review is to discuss autoregulation's heterogeneity among different organs and variability under different conditions, a very clinically relevant topic.

Data Sources: Systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE; nonsystematic search of PubMed, Google Scholar, and reference lists. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

TET1 Overexpression Mitigates Neuropathic Pain Through Rescuing the Expression of μ-Opioid Receptor and Kv1.2 in the Primary Sensory Neurons.

Neurotherapeutics 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Anesthesiology, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 185 S. Orange Ave., MSB, E-661, Newark, NJ, 07103, USA.

Peripheral nerve injury downregulates the expression of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and voltage-gated potassium channel subunit Kv1.2 by increasing their DNA methylation in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (TET1) causes DNA demethylation. Read More

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December 2018

High-throughput brain activity mapping and machine learning as a foundation for systems neuropharmacology.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 3;9(1):5142. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, 999077, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Technologies for mapping the spatial and temporal patterns of neural activity have advanced our understanding of brain function in both health and disease. An important application of these technologies is the discovery of next-generation neurotherapeutics for neurological and psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe an in vivo drug screening strategy that combines high-throughput technology to generate large-scale brain activity maps (BAMs) with machine learning for predictive analysis. Read More

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December 2018

MRI Evaluation of the effects of Whole Brain Radiotherapy on Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis.

Int J Radiat Biol 2018 Nov 30:1-27. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

a Department of Biomedical Engineering , Wake Forest School of Medicine.

Purpose: To assess early changes in brain metastasis in response to whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) by longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).

Materials And Methods: Using a 7T system, MRI examination of brain metastases in a breast cancer MDA-MD231-Br mouse model were conducted before and 24 hours after 3 daily fractionations of 4 Gy WBRT. Besides anatomic MRI, diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI were applied to study cytotoxic effect and blood-tumor-barrier (BTB) permeability change, respectively. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Dyskinesia and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels after long-term levodopa and nicotinic receptor agonist treatments in female mice with near-total unilateral dopaminergic denervation.

BMC Neurosci 2018 Nov 29;19(1):77. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Division of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: The treatment of Parkinson's disease is often complicated by levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists can alleviate LID in animal models but may be less effective in conditions of severe dopaminergic denervation. While the mechanisms of LID remain incompletely understood, elevated corticostriatal levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been suggested to play a role. Read More

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November 2018

Focused Ultrasound for Neuromodulation.

Authors:
David P Darrow

Neurotherapeutics 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware St SE, MMC 96, Room D-429, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

For more than 70 years, the promise of noninvasive neuromodulation using focused ultrasound has been growing while diagnostic ultrasound established itself as a foundation of clinical imaging. Significant technical challenges have been overcome to allow transcranial focused ultrasound to deliver spatially restricted energy into the nervous system at a wide range of intensities. High-intensity focused ultrasound produces reliable permanent lesions within the brain, and low-intensity focused ultrasound has been reported to both excite and inhibit neural activity reversibly. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Noninvasive continuous optical monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow in critically ill adults.

Neurophotonics 2018 Oct 23;5(4):045006. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

University of Pennsylvania, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.

We investigate a scheme for noninvasive continuous monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) in adult human patients based on a combination of time-resolved dynamic contrast-enhanced near-infrared spectroscopy (DCE-NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) with semi-infinite head model of photon propogation. Continuous CBF is obtained via calibration of the DCS blood flow index (BFI) with absolute CBF obtained by intermittent intravenous injections of the optical contrast agent indocyanine green. A calibration coefficient ( ) for the CBF is thus determined, permitting conversion of DCS BFI to absolute blood flow units at all other times. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Development and Characterization of Nasal Delivery of Selegiline Hydrochloride Loaded Nanolipid Carriers for the Management of Parkinson's Disease.

Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Biotechnology, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga, 142001, Punjab. India.

Introduction Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders which are marked with the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Present study performed on the nose to brain delivery of selegiline hydrochloride loaded nano lipid carrier, suggests that the nasal route is a good mean of targeting the drug directly into the brain. Method and Materials Nanostructured lipid carriers were prepared by using hot homogenization. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Behavioral and Cognitive Improvement Induced by Novel Imidazoline I Receptor Ligands in Female SAMP8 Mice.

Neurotherapeutics 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Pharmacology Section, Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, and Institut de Neurociències, University of Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, 27-31, 08028, Barcelona, Spain.

As populations increase their life expectancy, age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease have become more common. I-Imidazoline receptors (I-IR) are widely distributed in the central nervous system, and dysregulation of I-IR in patients with neurodegenerative diseases has been reported, suggesting their implication in cognitive impairment. This evidence indicates that high-affinity selective I-IR ligands potentially contribute to the delay of neurodegeneration. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

The Evolution of Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy for the Management of Spasticity.

Neurotherapeutics 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Division of Neurosurgery, Grootte Schuur Hospital, OMB H53, University of Cape Town, Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa.

Selective dorsal rhizotomy is a key technique in the surgical management of spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy. The technique evolved from the late 1800s when pioneers like Dana and Abbe performed dorsal rhizotomy in their treatment of refractory pain. These surgeons noted a reduction in muscle tone associated with the operation. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Active full-length DNA Aβ immunization in 3xTg-AD mice reduces not only amyloid deposition but also tau pathology.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2018 Nov 20;10(1):115. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX, 75390-8813, USA.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most well-known and most common type of age-related dementia. Amyloid deposition and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein are both pathological hallmarks of AD. Using a triple-transgenic mouse model (3xTg-AD) that develops plaques and tangles in the brain similar to human AD, we provide evidence that active full-length DNA amyloid-β peptide 1-42 (Aβ) trimer immunization leads to reduction of both amyloid and tau aggregation and accumulation. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Fabrication of peptide-linked albumin nanoconstructs for receptor-mediated delivery of asiatic acid to the brain as a preventive measure in cognitive impairment: optimization, in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2018 Nov 19:1-15. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

a Institute of Pharmacy, Nirma University , Ahmedabad , India.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the neuroprotective activity of glutathione (GU)-conjugated asiatic acid (AA) loaded albumin nanoparticles and establishing the drug targeting efficiency (DTE) of GU as a selective ligand for brain-targeted delivery. Albumin nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation technique and optimized using quality by design (QbD) approach. GU was conjugated with nanoparticles by carbodiimide reaction and characterized by its size and zeta potential using dynamic light scattering phenomenon. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Dose-dependent effects of isoflurane on TrkB and GSK3β signaling: Importance of burst suppression pattern.

Neurosci Lett 2018 Nov 15;694:29-33. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Laboratory of Neurotherapeutics, Molecular and Integrative Biosciences Research Programme, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, and Division of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

Objectives: Deep burst-suppressing isoflurane anesthesia regulates signaling pathways connected with antidepressant responses in the rodent brain: activation of TrkB neurotrophin receptor and inhibition of GSK3β kinase (glycogen synthase kinase 3β). The main objective of this study was to investigate whether EEG (electroencephalogram) burst suppression correlates with these intriguing molecular alterations induced by isoflurane.

Methods: Adult male mice pre-implanted with EEG recording electrodes were subjected to varying concentrations of isoflurane (1. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Galcanezumab in chronic migraine: The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled REGAIN study.

Neurology 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

From Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN (H.C.D., S.W., K.J.S., S.K.A.); Department of Neurology (P.J.G.), NIHR-Wellcome Trust King's Clinical Research Facility, King's College London, UK; University of California (P.J.G.), San Francisco; and Departments of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics and Ophthalmology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of galcanezumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to calcitonin gene-related peptide, in the preventive treatment of chronic migraine.

Methods: A phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of LY2951742 in patients with chronic migraine (Evaluation of Galcanezumab in the Prevention of Chronic Migraine [REGAIN]) was a phase 3 study with a 3-month double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment phase and a 9-month open-label extension. Eligible patients 18 to 65 years of age with chronic migraine were randomized 2:1:1 to monthly subcutaneous injections of placebo (n = 558), galcanezumab 120 mg (with a 240-mg loading dose, n = 278), or galcanezumab 240 mg (n = 277). Read More

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November 2018
16 Reads

Nanoparticle-Induced Controlled Drug Delivery Using Chitosan-Based Hydrogel and Scaffold: Application to Bone Regeneration.

Mol Pharm 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

School of Materials Science and Technology , Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University) , Varanasi 221 005 , India.

The novel chitosan nanohybrid hydrogel and scaffold have been developed with high mechanical strength and tailor the drug release ability for their applications in the biomedical arena. Nanohybrid hydrogels are prepared in dilute acetic acid medium using two different types of two-dimensional-layered nanoparticles. Scaffolds are prepared through lyophilization of hydrogels. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Ultrasound-based detection of glucocorticoid-induced impairments of muscle mass and structure in Cushing's disease.

J Endocrinol Invest 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Oncological Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Purpose: To investigate the glucocorticoid-induced impairments of muscle mass and structure in patients presenting different stages of steroid myopathy progression.

Methods: Thirty-three patients (28 women) affected by active (N = 20) and remitted (N = 13) Cushing's disease were recruited and the following variables were assessed: walking speed, handgrip strength, total body and appendicular muscle mass by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), thickness and echo intensity of lower limb muscles by ultrasonography.

Results: The two groups of patients showed comparable values of both handgrip strength [median (interquartile range) values: active disease: 27. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Myopathy: Recent Progress, Current Therapies, and Future Directions.

Neurotherapeutics 2018 Oct;15(4):837-839

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

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October 2018
2 Reads

Author Correction: Neuroimmune disorders of the central nervous system in children in the molecular era.

Nat Rev Neurol 2018 Dec;14(12):749

Department of Neurology and Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Clinic, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

In the original version of this Review published online and in print, the contribution of attendees of the International Neuroimmune Meeting to the content of the Review was not acknowledged. The author list has been corrected in the PDF and HTML versions of this article to acknowledge that the Review was written on behalf of attendees of the International Neuroimmune Meeting, and the names of the attendees have been added to the HTML version. Read More

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December 2018

Cluster Enrollment: A Screening Tool for Stroke Risk Factors in Minority Women Caregivers.

J Natl Med Assoc 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Neurology and Institute for Stroke and Cerebrovascular Disease, McGovern Medical School at UTHealth, Houston, TX, USA.

Background And Purpose: Women minorities have an overall increased lifetime incidence of cerebrovascular disease. The provision of risk factor modification in this group can prove difficult. In a population-based study, we used cluster enrollment to identify vascular risk factors in the female caregivers of stroke survivor study participants. Read More

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November 2018

Dynamin 2 (DNM2) as Cause of, and Modifier for, Human Neuromuscular Disease.

Neurotherapeutics 2018 Oct;15(4):966-975

Genetics and Genome Biology Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5G 0A4, Canada.

Dynamin 2 (DNM2) belongs to a family of large GTPases that are well known for mediating membrane fission by oligomerizing at the neck of membrane invaginations. Autosomal dominant mutations in the ubiquitously expressed DNM2 cause 2 discrete neuromuscular diseases: autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy (ADCNM) and dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT). CNM and CMT mutations may affect DNM2 in distinct manners: CNM mutations may cause protein hyperactivity with elevated GTPase and fission activities, while CMT mutations could impair DNM2 lipid binding and activity. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Correction to: The Therapy of Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes.

Authors:
Andrew G Engel

Neurotherapeutics 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

The third paragraph in the left column of page 256 of the article pertaining to the treatment of congenital choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) deficiency states that "Because apneic attacks occur suddenly in infants and children, the parents should be provided with an inflatable rescue bag." Read More

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November 2018

Strategies for brain-targeting liposomal delivery of small hydrophobic molecules in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Drug Discov Today 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Mr & Mrs Ko Chi-Ming Centre for Parkinson's Disease Research, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), threaten the health of an ever-growing number of older people worldwide; so far, there are no effective cures. Significant efforts have been devoted to developing new drugs for NDs in recent years, and some small molecules have been shown to be promising in preclinical studies. However, the major challenge for brain-targeting drugs is how to efficiently deliver the drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to desired targets. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Emerging Strategies in the Treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

Authors:
Perry B Shieh

Neurotherapeutics 2018 Oct;15(4):840-848

Department of Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles, 300 Medical Plaza, Suite B-200, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive X-linked degenerative muscle disease due to mutations in the DMD gene. Genetic confirmation has become standard in recent years. Improvements in the standard of care for DMD have led to improved survival. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

The Impact of Head-of-Bed Positioning and Transducer Location on Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Measurement.

J Neurosci Nurs 2018 Dec;50(6):322-326

Sarah Livesay, DNP ACNP FNCS, is Associate Professor, Rush University, Chicago, IL. Susan Yeager, MS ACNP FNCS, is Nurse Practitioner Lead, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. Cristina Moran, MSN RN CCRN, is Clinical Nurse, The MetroHealth System, Cleveland, OH. Erin Supan, MSN RN, is Clinical Nurse Specialist, Neurosciences, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH. Stefany Ortega, MSc RN, is Assistant Professor, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia. DaiWai M. Olson, PhD RN CCRN FNCS, is Professor of Neurosurgery and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX.

Introduction: Head-of-bed (HOB) elevation is the standard of care for patients with intracranial pressure monitoring at risk for intracranial hypertension. Measurement of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) based on HOB elevation and arterial transducer position has not been adequately studied.

Methods: This is a planned secondary analysis of prospectively collected data in which paired, serial arterial blood pressure (ABP), intracranial pressure, and CPP measures were obtained once per day for 3 days, with measures leveled at the tragus (Tg) and the phlebostatic axis (PA). Read More

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December 2018
8 Reads

Ryanodine Receptor 1-Related Myopathies: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches.

Neurotherapeutics 2018 Oct;15(4):885-899

Neuromuscular Symptoms Unit, National Institute of Nursing Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Ryanodine receptor type 1-related myopathies (RYR1-RM) are the most common class of congenital myopathies. Historically, RYR1-RM classification and diagnosis have been guided by histopathologic findings on muscle biopsy. Main histological subtypes of RYR1-RM include central core disease, multiminicore disease, core-rod myopathy, centronuclear myopathy, and congenital fiber-type disproportion. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Diagnosis and Treatment of Mitochondrial Myopathies.

Neurotherapeutics 2018 Oct;15(4):943-953

Wellcome Centre for Mitochondrial Research, Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Mitochondrial myopathies are progressive muscle conditions caused primarily by the impairment of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in the mitochondria. This causes a deficit in energy production in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), particularly in skeletal muscle. The diagnosis of mitochondrial myopathy is reliant on the combination of numerous techniques including traditional histochemical, immunohistochemical, and biochemical testing combined with the fast-emerging molecular genetic techniques, namely next-generation sequencing (NGS). Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Applications of Focused Ultrasound in Cerebrovascular Diseases and Brain Tumors.

Neurotherapeutics 2018 Nov 7. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Focused Ultrasound Foundation, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

Oncology and cerebrovascular disease constitute two of the most common diseases afflicting the central nervous system. Standard of treatment of these pathologies is based on multidisciplinary approaches encompassing combination of interventional procedures such as open and endovascular surgeries, drugs (chemotherapies, anti-coagulants, anti-platelet therapies, thrombolytics), and radiation therapies. In this context, therapeutic ultrasound could represent a novel diagnostic/therapeutic in the armamentarium of the surgeon to treat these diseases. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Infection Augments Expression of Mechanosensing Piezo1 Channels in Amyloid Plaque-Reactive Astrocytes.

Front Aging Neurosci 2018 22;10:332. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Neuroimmulology & Neurotherapeutics Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Brighton, United Kingdom.

A defining pathophysiological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the amyloid plaque; an extracellular deposit of aggregated fibrillar Aβ peptides. Amyloid plaques are hard, brittle structures scattered throughout the hippocampus and cerebral cortex and are thought to cause hyperphosphorylation of tau, neurofibrillary tangles, and progressive neurodegeneration. Reactive astrocytes and microglia envelop the exterior of amyloid plaques and infiltrate their inner core. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Clinical Utility of Reinterpreting Previously Reported Genomic Epilepsy Test Results for Pediatric Patients.

JAMA Pediatr 2018 Nov 5:e182302. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas.

Importance: Clinical genomic tests that examine the DNA sequence of large numbers of genes are commonly used in the diagnosis and management of epilepsy in pediatric patients. The permanence of genomic test result interpretations is not known.

Objective: To investigate the value of reinterpreting previously reported genomic test results. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Myopathies Related to Glycogen Metabolism Disorders.

Neurotherapeutics 2018 Oct;15(4):915-927

Division of Neuromuscular & Neurometabolic Disorders, Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton Health Sciences Centre, Rm 2H26, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4L8, Canada.

Most of the glycogen metabolism disorders that affect skeletal muscle involve enzymes in glycogenolysis (myophosphorylase (PYGM), glycogen debranching enzyme (AGL), phosphorylase b kinase (PHKB)) and glycolysis (phosphofructokinase (PFK), phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM2), aldolase A (ALDOA), β-enolase (ENO3)); however, 3 involve glycogen synthesis (glycogenin-1 (GYG1), glycogen synthase (GSE), and branching enzyme (GBE1)). Many present with exercise-induced cramps and rhabdomyolysis with higher-intensity exercise (i.e. Read More

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October 2018
9 Reads

Volumetric Analysis of the Basal Ganglia and Cerebellar Structures in Patients with Phelan-McDermid Syndrome.

Pediatr Neurol 2018 Sep 21. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Objective: Phelan-McDermid syndrome is caused by haploinsufficiency of SHANK3 on terminal chromosome 22. Knowledge about altered neuroanatomic circuitry in Phelan-McDermid syndrome comes from mouse models showing striatal hypertrophy in the basal ganglia, and from humans with evidence of cerebellar atrophy. To date, no studies have performed volumetric analysis on Phelan-McDermid syndrome patients. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

A novel gain-of-function Na1.7 mutation in a carbamazepine-responsive patient with adult-onset painful peripheral neuropathy.

Mol Pain 2018 Jan-Dec;14:1744806918815007. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

1 Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Voltage-gated sodium channel Na1.7 is a threshold channel in peripheral dorsal root ganglion (DRG), trigeminal ganglion, and sympathetic ganglion neurons. Gain-of-function mutations in Na1. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Outcome of human peripheral nerve repair interventions using conduits: a systematic review.

J Neurol Sci 2018 Oct 10;396:18-24. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Dhanvanthari Nagar, Puducherry, India.

Background & Objective: Peripheral nerve injury is very common, but repair is a challenging medical problem. Advances in medical sciences and technologies have however made tremendous breakthroughs in understanding repair mechanisms in nerve injury making this a fascinating area in neurotherapeutics. However, a systematic analysis of existing data is lacking, the present study was attempted to review existing literature in nerve repair studies in human beings and analyse outcome systematically. Read More

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October 2018
14 Reads

Role of the Fractalkine Receptor in CNS Autoimmune Inflammation: New Approach Utilizing a Mouse Model Expressing the Human CX3CR1 Variant.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 17;12:365. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Biology, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States.

Multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) is the leading cause of non-traumatic neurological disability in young adults. Immune mediated destruction of myelin and oligodendrocytes is considered the primary pathology of MS, but progressive axonal loss is the major cause of neurological disability. In an effort to understand microglia function during CNS inflammation, our laboratory focuses on the fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling as a regulator of microglia neurotoxicity in various models of neurodegeneration. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Antisense oligonucleotides targeting mutant Ataxin-7 restore visual function in a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 7.

Sci Transl Med 2018 Oct;10(465)

Department of Neurology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cerebellar and retinal degeneration, and is caused by a CAG-polyglutamine repeat expansion in the gene. Patients with SCA7 develop progressive cone-rod dystrophy, typically resulting in blindness. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are single-stranded chemically modified nucleic acids designed to mediate the destruction, prevent the translation, or modify the processing of targeted RNAs. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Closed-Loop Brain Stimulation for Drug-Resistant Epilepsy: Towards an Evidence-Based Approach to Personalized Medicine.

Neurotherapeutics 2018 Oct 30. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Brain Modulation Lab, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Closed-loop brain stimulation is one of the few treatments available for patients who are ineligible for traditional surgical resection of the epileptogenic zone, due to having generalized epilepsy, multifocal epilepsy, or focal epilepsy localized to an eloquent brain region. Due to its clinical efficacy and potential to delivery personalized therapy based on an individual's own intracerebral electrophysiology, this treatment is becoming an important part of clinical practice, despite a limited understanding of how to program detection and stimulation parameters for optimal, patient-specific benefit. To bring this challenge into focus, we review the evolution of neural stimulation for epilepsy, provide a technical overview of the RNS System (the only FDA-approved closed-loop device), and discuss the major challenges of working with a closed-loop device. Read More

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October 2018

Invasive Neuromodulation for the Treatment of Pediatric Epilepsy.

Neurotherapeutics 2018 Oct 30. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, 1503 555 University Ave., Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada.

Neuromodulatory strategies are increasingly adopted for the treatment of intractable epilepsy in children. These encompass a wide range of treatments aimed at externally stimulating neural circuitry in order to decrease seizure frequency. In the current review, the authors discuss the evidence for invasive neuromodulation, namely vagus nerve and deep brain stimulation in affected children. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Reversal of ApoE4-induced recycling block as a novel prevention approach for Alzheimer's disease.

Elife 2018 10 30;7. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, United States.

ApoE4 genotype is the most prevalent and also clinically most important risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Available evidence suggests that the root cause for this increased risk is a trafficking defect at the level of the early endosome. ApoE4 differs from the most common ApoE3 isoform by a single amino acid that increases its isoelectric point and promotes unfolding of ApoE4 upon endosomal vesicle acidification. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Non-invasive optical neuromonitoring of the temperature-dependence of cerebral oxygen metabolism during deep hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in neonatal swine.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2018 Oct 30:271678X18809828. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

3 Division of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Management of deep hypothermic (DH) cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), a critical neuroprotective strategy, currently relies on non-invasive temperature to guide cerebral metabolic suppression during complex cardiac surgery in neonates. Considerable inter-subject variability in temperature response and residual metabolism may contribute to the persisting risk for postoperative neurological injury. To characterize and mitigate this variability, we assess the sufficiency of conventional nasopharyngeal temperature (NPT) guidance, and in the process, validate combined non-invasive frequency-domain diffuse optical spectroscopy (FD-DOS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) for direct measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ( CMRO). Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Venlafaxine Mitigates Depressive-Like Behavior in Ovariectomized Rats by Activating the EPO/EPOR/JAK2 Signaling Pathway and Increasing the Serum Estradiol Level.

Neurotherapeutics 2018 Oct 25. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Reduced estradiol levels are associated with depression in women during the transition to and after menopause. A considerable number of studies focusing on the theme of treating depression through the activation of erythropoietin (EPO)-induced signaling pathways have been published. Venlafaxine is an approved antidepressant drug that inhibits both serotonin and norepinephrine transporters. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy: Update on Pathogenesis and Future Treatments.

Neurotherapeutics 2018 Oct;15(4):863-871

Department of Neurology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 673, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA.

A reliable model of a disease pathomechanism is the first step to develop targeted treatment. In facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), the third most common muscular dystrophy, recent advances in understanding the complex genetics and epigenetics have led to the identification of a disease mechanism, moving the field towards targeted therapy development. FSHD is caused by expression of DUX4, a retrogene located on the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat array on chromosome 4q35, a gene expressed in the germline but typically repressed in somatic tissue. Read More

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October 2018

Variations of the lung microbiome and immune response in mechanically ventilated surgical patients.

PLoS One 2018 24;13(10):e0205788. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Genetics, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas, United States of America.

Mechanically ventilated surgical patients have a variety of bacterial flora that are often undetectable by traditional culture methods. The source of infection in many of these patients remains unclear. To address this clinical problem, the microbiome profile and host inflammatory response in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from the surgical intensive care unit were examined relative to clinical pathology diagnoses. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Maternal immune activation alters brain microRNA expression in mouse offspring.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2018 Oct 19;5(10):1264-1276. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Laboratory for Neurotherapeutics Department of Neurology Comprehensive Epilepsy Center Biomedical Research Institute Seoul National University Hospital Seoul South Korea.

Objective: Maternal immune activation (MIA) is associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring. Herein, we investigate the altered expression of microRNAs (miRNA), and that of their target genes, in the brains of MIA mouse offspring.

Methods: To generate MIA model mice, pregnant mice were injected with polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid on embryonic day 12. Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads

Neurosphere Development from Hippocampal and Cortical Embryonic Mixed Primary Neuron Culture: A Potential Platform for Screening Neurochemical Modulator.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Nov 2;9(11):2870-2878. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Organic & Medicinal Chemistry Division , CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology , 4, Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 , West Bengal , India.

Reconstitution of a complex biological structure or system following a simple and facile strategy using minimum physiochemical cues is challenging for an in-depth understanding of the system. In particular, the brain is a highly sophisticated and complex network of trillions of neurons and glial cells that controls function of our body. Understanding this complex machinery requires an innovative and simple bottom-up approach. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Correction to: Migraine Aura Without Headache.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2018 Oct 20;22(12):85. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, MC 9322, Dallas, TX, 75390-9322, USA.

The original version of this article contains an error in the title. The title should be: Migraine Aura Without Headache. The title is corrected in this correction article. Read More

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October 2018