352,096 results match your criteria Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews[Journal]


[Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A new treatment option?]

Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Klinikum der Universität München.

More than 40 % of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not respond to established treatments despite advances in psychopharmacology and psychotherapy. Since a couple of years, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques gain importance in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) uses weak constant direct current to modulate neuronal activation and changes the function of neuronal networks. Read More

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December 2018

Prospective study of clinical, neurophysiological and urodynamic findings in multiple scleosis patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal venous angioplasty.

Clin Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 26;130(1):138-144. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, Unit of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Siena, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: Verify whether Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) may affect neural conduction properties in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients, thereby modifying patients' disability, with prospective neurophysiological, urodynamic, clinical and subjective well-being evaluations.

Methods: In 55 out of 72 consecutively screened MS patients, the following procedures were carried out before (T0), at 2-6 months (T1) and at 6-15 months (T2) after a diagnostic phlebography, eventually followed by the PTA intervention if chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) was diagnosed: clinical/objective evaluation (Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS), ratings of subjective well-being, evaluation of urodynamic functions and multimodal EPs (visual, acoustic, upper and lower limbs somatosensory and motor evoked potentials).

Results: The number of dropouts was relatively high, and a complete set of neurophysiological and clinical data remained available for 37 patients (19 for urological investigations). Read More

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November 2018

Six-year outcome for children with ODD or CD treated with the coping power program.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 4;271:454-458. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL USA.

Children with severe aggressive behavioral problems are one of the groups most frequently referred to mental health clinics, and they engage in behaviors that put them at risk for substance use problems and a host of other negative outcomes. The present study aimed to assess the long-term outcome (six-year follow up) of the Coping Power Program delivered in a mental health hospital for children with behavioral disorders. We recruited one hundred and twenty children (mean age = 9. Read More

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December 2018

From cognitive and clinical substrates to functional profiles: Disentangling heterogeneity in schizophrenia.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 6;271:446-453. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Stamira d'Ancona 20, 20127 Milan, Italy; School of Medicine, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.

The relationship between neurocognition and functioning among patients with schizophrenia is well documented. However, integrating neuropsychological, clinical and psychopathological data to better investigate functional outcome still constitutes a challenge. Artificial neural network-based modeling might help to better capture clinical heterogeneity by analyzing the non-linear relationships among multiple variables. Read More

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December 2018

Patterns of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and social functioning in schizophrenia; a replication study.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 3;271:421-427. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht, the Netherlands; KU Leuven, Department of Neuroscience, Research Group Psychiatry, Leuven, Belgium.

Research has found that Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia are associated with either more or less negative symptoms and either better or poorer cognitive functioning. In order to explain these contradictory results, (Lysaker et al., 2004), performed a cluster analysis resulting in 2 OCS positive (OCSpos) clusters, one with higher functioning (HF) and one with poorer functioning (PF) compared to 2 OCS negative (OCSneg) clusters. Read More

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December 2018

Disentangling the effect of out-of-home care on child mental health.

Child Abuse Negl 2018 Dec 8;88:189-200. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Neuroscience, Psychology and Behaviour, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, England, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Children in out-of-home care are consistently found to have poor mental health compared to children in the general population. However, UK research has so far failed to disentangle the impact of the care system on children's mental health outcomes from the effects of the adverse circumstances that led to their admission to care.

Objective: This research investigated the association between care placement and the presence of child mental health problems after controlling for children's pre-care experiences. Read More

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December 2018

A roadmap towards a functional paradigm for learning & memory in plants.

J Plant Physiol 2018 Nov 8;232:209-215. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Institute of Applied Biosciences, Center for Research & Technology (CERTH), Thessaloniki, Greece.

In plants, the acquisition, processing and storage of empirical information can result in the modification of their behavior according to the nature of the stimulus, and yet this area of research remained relatively understudied until recently. As the body of evidence supporting the inclusion of plants among the higher organisms demonstrating the adaptations to accomplish these tasks keeps increasing, the resistance by traditional botanists and agricultural scientists, who were at first cautious in allowing the application of animal models onto plant physiology and development, subsides. However, the debate retains much of its heat, a good part of it originating from the controversial use of nervous system terms to describe plant processes. Read More

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November 2018

Children engage in competitive altruism.

J Exp Child Psychol 2018 Dec 8;179:176-189. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA.

Humans cultivate their reputations as good cooperators, sometimes even competing with group mates, to appear most cooperative to individuals during the process of selecting partners. To investigate the ontogenetic origins of such "competitive altruism," we presented 5- and 8-year-old children with a dyadic sharing game in which both children simultaneously decided how many rewards to share with each other. The children were either observed by a third-person peer or not. Read More

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December 2018

Neural architecture supporting active emotion processing in children: A multivariate approach.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Center for Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Background: Adaptive emotion processing is critical for nearly all aspects of social and emotional functioning. There are distinct developmental trajectories associated with improved emotion processing, with a protracted developmental course for negative or complex emotions. The specific changes in neural circuitry that underlie this development, however are still scarcely understood. Read More

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December 2018

Age-related differences in task-induced brain activation is not task specific: Multivariate pattern generalization between metacognition, cognition and perception.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, the Netherlands.

Adolescence is associated with widespread maturation of brain structures and functional connectivity profiles that shift from local to more distributed and better integrated networks, which are active during a variety of cognitive tasks. Nevertheless, the approach to examine task-induced developmental brain changes is function-specific, leaving the question open whether functional maturation is specific to the particular cognitive demands of the task used, or generalizes across different tasks. In the present study we examine the hypothesis that functional brain maturation is driven by global changes in how the brain handles cognitive demands. Read More

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December 2018
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Joint contractures and acquired deforming hypertonia in older people: Which determinants?

Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Medicine, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Ottawa, Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, ON, Canada.

Joint contractures and acquired deforming hypertonia are frequent in dependent older people. The consequences of these conditions can be significant for activities of daily living as well as comfort and quality of life. They can also negatively affect the burden of care and care costs. Read More

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December 2018
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Fluid and PET biomarkers for amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Molndal, Sweden; Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, University College, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid plaques and tau pathology (neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads). Amyloid plaques are primarily composed of aggregated and oligomeric β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides ending at position 42 (Aβ42). The development of fluid and PET biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD), has allowed for detection of Aβ pathology in vivo and marks a major advancement in understanding the role of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More

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December 2018

Distinct roles of GluA2-lacking AMPA receptor expression in dopamine D1 or D2 receptor neurons in animal behavior.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523, United States. Electronic address:

Dopaminergic signaling in the central nervous system regulates several aspects of animal behavior. In the dopaminergic circuits, there are two classes of neurons that can be differentiated by their expression of dopamine receptors, D1 or D2 receptors (D1Rs or D2Rs). Notably, Ca-permeable GluA2-lacking glutamate AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) are important for gating synaptic plasticity and gene expression in neurons, and their expression particularly in the striatum affects various forms of animal behavior. Read More

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December 2018

Sex differences in the temporal neuromolecular and synaptogenic effects of the rapid-acting antidepressant drug ketamine in the mouse brain.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Biology & Center for Tissue Regeneration and Engineering at Dayton (TREND), University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio, USA. Electronic address:

Preclinical evidence suggests that ketamine's rapid and sustained antidepressant actions are due to the induction of synaptogenesis in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the hippocampus (HIPP), two brain regions implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression. However, research on the neurobiological effects of ketamine has focused almost exclusively on males. Findings from our group and others indicate that female rodents are more reactive to ketamine's antidepressant effects, since they respond to lower doses in antidepressant-predictive behavioral models. Read More

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December 2018

Diabetes-induced neuropathic mechanical hyperalgesia depends on P2X4 receptor activation in Dorsal Root Ganglia.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Structural and Functional Biology, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Peripheral diabetic neuropathy (PDN) manifests in 50-60% of type I and II diabetic patients and is the major cause of limb amputation. Adequate therapy for PDN is a current challenge. There are evidences that the activation of the P2X4 receptor (P2X4R) expressed on microglial cells of the central nervous system takes part in the development of neuropathic pain. Read More

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December 2018
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Hyperexcitability of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in male offspring of a rat model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid: a possible involvement of Ih channel current.

Brain Res 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Neuroscience Research Center, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, which is characterized by impairment in social interaction and cognitive behaviors. However, there is not much electrophysiological data available on alterations of neuronal excitability in autism. Here, we assessed the pattern of neuronal excitability and the possible contribution of Ih current to the altered excitability of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in a rat model of VPA-induced ASD-like behavior. Read More

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December 2018

Microglia in the developing prefrontal cortex of rats show dynamic changes following neonatal disconnection of the ventral hippocampus.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Impaired ventral hippocampal (VH)-prefrontal cortex (PFC) connectivity is implicated in many cognitive and behavioral disorders. Excitotoxic neonatal VH (nVH) lesion in rat pups has been shown to induce synaptic pruning in the PFC as well as behavioral changes of relevance to developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. In the current study, we hypothesized that microglia, immune cells required for proper brain development and plasticity, may play a role in the development of abnormal behaviors in the nVH-lesioned animals. Read More

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December 2018
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Elevated resting blood pressure augments autonomic imbalance in posttraumatic stress disorder.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2018 Dec 10;315(6):R1272-R1280. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine , Atlanta, Georgia.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, blunted parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity, and impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), which contribute to accelerated cardiovascular disease. Patients with PTSD also have chronic stress-related elevations in resting blood pressure (BP), often in the prehypertensive range; yet, it is unclear if elevated resting blood pressure (ERBP) augments these autonomic derangements in PTSD. We hypothesized that compared with normotensive PTSD (N-PTSD), those with ERBP (E-PTSD) have further increased SNS, decreased PNS activity, and impaired BRS at rest and exaggerated SNS reactivity, PNS withdrawal, and pressor responses during stress. Read More

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December 2018

Comparison of vitamin D metabolites in wild and captive baboons.

Am J Primatol 2018 Dec;80(12):e22935

Department of Neuroscience, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri.

Vitamin D adequacy is essential for multiple physiologic processes. With limited exposure to sunlight for vitamin D synthesis, captive primates are supplemented with vitamin D (cholecalciferol). Vitamin D metabolite data from wild primates living indigenously could suggest optimum levels. Read More

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December 2018
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Targeting Peptide-Based Probes for Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis.

Adv Mater 2018 Dec 7:e1804827. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

CAS Key Laboratory of Standardization and Measurement for Nanotechnology, CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Beijing, 100190, P. R. China.

A series of novel peptide-based molecular probes for different biomarkers is highlighted herein. These probes can provide targeted recognition with high affinity, high specificity, high penetration, and rapid excretion ability. These sensitive peptides can achieve rapid and specific detection when they are conjugated with imaging moieties or are formed into nanoprobes, which can be adapted for in vivo molecular imaging in targeted diagnosis and therapy. Read More

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December 2018

Adalimumab efficacy for venous thrombosis in typical sites in Behçet's syndrome.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Neurosciences, Psychology, Pharmacology and Child Health (NEUROFARBA), University of Firenze, Italy.

In our work entitled "Adalimumab-based treatment versus DMARDs for venous thrombosis in Behçet syndrome. A retrospective study of 70 patients with vascular involvement" , we showed that Adalimumab (ADA)-based regimen is more effective and rapid than disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in inducing resolution of venous thrombosis in patients with Behçet syndrome (BS), also allowing significant reduction of steroid exposure. This article is protected by copyright. Read More

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December 2018

Neonatal neurology: bridging the gap.

Authors:
Brigitte Vollmer

Dev Med Child Neurol 2019 Jan;61(1)

Clinical Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

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January 2019

Magnetic resonance imaging in enterovirus-71, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody, aquaporin-4 antibody, and multiple sclerosis-associated myelitis in children.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Neuroimmunology Group, Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research, The Kids Research Institute, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Aim: We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare the neuroimaging of children with their first episode of clinical enterovirus 71-associated transverse myelitis (EV71-TM), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody positive transverse myelitis (MOG-TM), aquaporin-4 antibody positive transverse myelitis (AQP4-TM), transverse myelitis in multiple sclerosis (MS-TM), and unclassified transverse myelitis (UNC-TM).

Method: We performed a retrospective blinded radiological assessment and compared the neuroimaging of 52 children (32 females, 20 males; mean age 9y 8mo, SD 5y 5mo, range 5mo-17y) presenting with their first episode of myelitis caused by EV71-TM (n=11), MOG-TM (n=10), AQP4-TM (n=9), MS-TM (n=13), and UNC-TM (n=9).

Results: In the EV71-TM group, lesions were distributed throughout the cord and enhancement of nerve roots (ventral and dorsal) was common. Read More

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December 2018

Helping young people with cerebral palsy in pain.

Authors:
Paul Eunson

Dev Med Child Neurol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Royal Hospital for Sick Children - Paediatric Neurosciences, Edinburgh, UK.

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December 2018

Nigral iron deposition in common tremor disorders.

Mov Disord 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Neurology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Objective: We investigated R2* relaxation rates as a marker of iron content in the substantia nigra in patients with common tremor disorders and explored their diagnostic properties.

Methods: Mean nigral R2* rates were measured in 40 patients with tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease (PD), 15 with tremor in dystonia, 25 with essential tremor, and 25 healthy controls.

Results: Tremor-dominant PD patients had significantly higher nigral R2* values (34. Read More

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December 2018

From nodes to networks: How methods for defining nodes influence inferences regarding network interactions.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida.

Functional connectivity (FC) analysis of fMRI data typically rests on prior identification of network nodes from activation profiles. We compared Activation Likelihood Estimate (ALE) and the Experimentally Derived Estimate (EDE) approaches to network node identification and functional inference for both verbal and visual forms of working memory. ALE arrives at canonical activation maxima that are assumed to reliably represent peaks of brain activity underlying a psychological process (e. Read More

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December 2018

Ting-Kai Li: In Memoriam.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Indiana University School of Medicine, Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 635 Barnhill Drive, MS4063, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Ting-Kai (T-K) Li, MD died on November 18, 2018, just five days after his 84 birthday. T-K had a wonderful and distinguished academic and public service career, spanning almost five decades. Born in Nanjing, China, T-K fled with his family to South Africa during World War II, while a young boy. Read More

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December 2018

Preservation of boar semen: An update.

Reprod Domest Anim 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine and Molecular Endocrinology, Center of Translational Medicine - Scientific and Technological Bioresource Nucleus (CEMT-BIOREN).

In the pork industry, artificial insemination and the storage of boar semen in liquid at 17°C are routinely applied to optimize the ejaculate and bring about rapid genetic changes that are reflected in the animal protein. Although the results are satisfactory, they are below what occurs with natural mating. It is currently possible to preserve boar semen with storage at 17°C and slow freezing, since to date there is only one study on vitrification, with negative results applicable only in the case of implementing an intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Read More

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December 2018
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The Fyn kinase inhibitor, AZD0530, suppresses mouse alcohol self-administration and seeking.

Addict Biol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Fyn is a member of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) that plays an important role not only in normal synaptic functions but also in brain pathologies including alcohol use disorder. We previously reported that repeated cycles of binge drinking and withdrawal activate Fyn in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of rodents, and that Fyn signaling in the DMS contributes to rat alcohol intake and relapse. Here, we used AZD0530, a CNS penetrable inhibitor of Src PTKs developed for the treatment of Alzheimer disease and cancer and tested its efficacy to suppress alcohol-dependent molecular and behavioral effects. Read More

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December 2018

Melatonin release by exocytosis in the rat parotid gland.

J Anat 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Division of Cytomorphology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Several beneficial effects on oral health are ascribed to melatonin. Due to its lipophilic nature, non-protein-bound circulating melatonin is usually thought to enter the saliva by passive diffusion through salivary acinar gland cells. Recently, however, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), melatonin was found in acinar secretory granules of human salivary glands. Read More

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December 2018
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Perturbed expression pattern of the immediate early gene Arc in the dentate gyrus of GluA1 C-terminal palmitoylation-deficient mice.

Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Section of Cellular Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Kodaira, Japan.

Background: AMPA receptors predominantly mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian brain. Post-translational protein S-palmitoylation of AMPA receptor GluA subunits at their C-termini reversibly controls the receptors trafficking to and from excitatory glutamatergic synapses. Excitatory inputs to neurons induce the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs), including Arc, with particular spatial patterns. Read More

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December 2018
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Does a bounding exercise program prevent hamstring injuries in adult male soccer players? - A cluster -RCT.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Utrecht University, University Medical Center Utrecht, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neurosciences, Department Rehabilitation, Physical Therapy Science & Sports, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Although the Nordic Hamstring Exercise (NHE) prevents hamstring injury in soccer players effectively, the annual incidence of these injuries still increases. This may be because of poor long-term compliance with the program. Furthermore, the timing and amplitude of gluteal and core muscle activation seem to play an important role in hamstring injury prevention, the NHE program was not designed to improve activation of these muscles. Read More

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December 2018

Determinants for Meaningful Clinical Improvement of Pain and Health-Related Quality of Life After Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Intractable Pain.

Neuromodulation 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Center for Applied Neuroscience (CeNAp), University Hospital (HU), Federal University of Santa Catarina State (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.

Objectives: Previous studies demonstrated significant improvement in mean pain scores and quality of life (QOL) scales in patients with chronic pain who underwent spinal cord stimulation (SCS). However, the number of individuals who experience relevant improvements in QOL, termed the meaningful clinical improvement (MCI), is not known. The present study investigated changes in pain measurements based on MCI after SCS. Read More

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December 2018

Maternal Perinatal and Concurrent Anxiety and Mental Health Problems in Early Childhood: A Sibling-Comparison Study.

Child Dev 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Norwegian Institute of Public Health and University of Oslo.

Do associations between maternal anxiety symptoms and offspring mental health remain after comparing differentially exposed siblings? Participants were 17,724 offspring siblings and 11,553 mothers from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. Mothers reported anxiety and depressive symptoms at 30 weeks' gestation, and 0.5, 1. Read More

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December 2018

Freezing of gait does not modulate beta oscillations in mesial cortical motor areas.

Mov Disord 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

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December 2018

Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging investigation of basal forebrain damage and cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease.

Mov Disord 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Brain and Spine Institute - ICM, Center for NeuroImaging Research - CENIR, Paris, France.

Background: Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) may result from damage in the cortex as well as in the dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic inputs to the cortex. Cholinergic inputs to the cortex mainly originate from the basal forebrain and are clustered in several regions, called Ch1 to Ch4, that project to the hippocampus (Ch1-2), the olfactory bulb (Ch3), and the cortex and amygdala (Ch4).

Objective: We investigated changes in basal forebrain and their role in cognitive deficits in PD. Read More

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December 2018

Novel features for capturing temporal variations of rhythmic limb movement to distinguish convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

Epilepsia 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of motor manifestation during convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), captured using a wrist-worn accelerometer (ACM) device. The main goal was to find quantitative ACM features that can differentiate between convulsive epileptic and convulsive PNES.

Methods: In this study, motor data were recorded using wrist-worn ACM-based devices. Read More

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December 2018

Brain structure and neurological and behavioural functioning in infants born preterm.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.

Aim: To examine: (1) relationships between brain structure, and concurrently assessed neurological and behavioural functioning, in infants born preterm at term-equivalent age (TEA; approximately 38-44wks); and (2) whether brain structure-function relationships differ between infants born very (24-29wks) and moderate-late (32-36wks) preterm.

Method: A total of 257 infants (91 very preterm, 166 moderate-late preterm; 120 males, 137 females) had structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurological and behavioural assessments (Prechtl's general movements assessment, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale [NNNS] and Hammersmith Neonatal Neurological Examination [HNNE]). Two hundred and sixty-three infants (90 very preterm, 173 moderate-late preterm; 131 males, 132 females) had diffusion MRI and assessments. Read More

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December 2018
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Age-related variability in decision-making: Insights from neurochemistry.

Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA.

Despite dopamine's significant role in models of value-based decision-making and findings demonstrating loss of dopamine function in aging, evidence of systematic changes in decision-making over the life span remains elusive. Previous studies attempting to resolve the neural basis of age-related alteration in decision-making have typically focused on physical age, which can be a poor proxy for age-related effects on neural systems. There is growing appreciation that aging has heterogeneous effects on distinct components of the dopamine system within subject in addition to substantial variability between subjects. Read More

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December 2018

Brain activations associated with scientific reasoning: a literature review.

Cogn Process 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Laboratory for Research in Neuroeducation, Département de didactique, Université du Québec à Montréal, P.O. Box 8888, succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, QC, H3C 3P8, Canada.

Scientifically literate individuals are defined as individuals who are able to apply scientific knowledge and use scientific reasoning skills to solve problems. In recent years, cognitive neuroscience has turned its attention to understanding the brain activation patterns associated with scientific reasoning skills, but this work has not been systematically reviewed for more than a decade. The present study reviews neuroimaging studies related to three types of scientific reasoning tasks: overcoming misconceptions, causal reasoning, and hypothesis generation. Read More

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December 2018

Time course of changes in corticospinal excitability induced by motor imagery during action observation combined with peripheral nerve electrical stimulation.

Exp Brain Res 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Tokyo Bay Rehabilitation Hospital, 4-1-1 Yatsu, Narashino-shi, Chiba, 275-0026, Japan.

While previous studies assessed corticospinal excitability changes during and after motor imagery (MI) or action observation (AO) combined with peripheral nerve electrical stimulation (ES), we examined, for the first time, the time course of corticospinal excitability changes for MI during AO combined with ES (AO-MI + ES) using transcranial magnetic stimulation to measure motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in healthy individuals. Fourteen healthy volunteers participated in the following three sessions on different days: AO-MI alone, ES alone, and AO-MI + ES. In the AO-MI task, participants imagined squeezing and relaxing a ball, along with the respective actions shown in a movie, while passively holding the ball. Read More

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December 2018

Efficacy of Invasive and Non-Invasive Brain Modulation Interventions for Addiction.

Neuropsychol Rev 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, PA3.227, PO box 22660, 1100DD, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

It is important to find new treatments for addiction due to high relapse rates despite current interventions and due to expansion of the field with non-substance related addictive behaviors. Neuromodulation may provide a new type of treatment for addiction since it can directly target abnormalities in neurocircuits. We review literature on five neuromodulation techniques investigated for efficacy in substance related and behavioral addictions: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), (repetitive) transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), EEG, fMRI neurofeedback and deep brain stimulation (DBS) and additionally report on effects of these interventions on addiction-related cognitive processes. Read More

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December 2018
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Gait festination in parkinsonism: introduction of two phenotypes.

J Neurol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Neurology, Centre of Clinical Neuroscience, First Faculty of Medicine, General University Hospital, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Gait festination is one of the most characteristic gait disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease or atypical parkinsonism. Although festination is common and disabling, it has received little attention in the literature, and different definitions exist. Here, we argue that there are actually two phenotypes of festination. Read More

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December 2018

An experimental medicine study of the phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, roflumilast, on working memory-related brain activity and episodic memory in schizophrenia patients.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Kings College London, London, SE5 8AF, UK.

Rationale: Schizophrenia is associated with impairments in cognitive functioning yet there are no approved drugs to treat these deficits.

Objectives: Based on animal models, we investigated the potential for roflumilast, a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4), to improve cognition, which may act by increasing intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate in brain regions underlying cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

Methods: This study consisted of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design involving 15 schizophrenia patients. Read More

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December 2018

Effect of caffeine on long-term potentiation-like effects induced by quadripulse transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Exp Brain Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Neuro-Regeneration, Fukushima Medical University, 1 Hikarigaoka, Fukushima, Fukushima, Japan.

Caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, is known to affect sleep-awake cycles, the stress response, and learning and memory. It has been suggested that caffeine influences synaptic plasticity, but the effects of caffeine on synaptic plasticity in the human brain remain unexplored. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of caffeine on long-term potentiation (LTP)-like effects in the primary motor cortex of healthy humans. Read More

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December 2018

The complexity of neuroinflammation consequent to traumatic brain injury: from research evidence to potential treatments.

Acta Neuropathol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Wicking Dementia Research and Education Centre, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia.

This review recounts the definitions and research evidence supporting the multifaceted roles of neuroinflammation in the injured brain following trauma. We summarise the literature fluctuating from the protective and detrimental properties that cytokines, leukocytes and glial cells play in the acute and chronic stages of TBI, including the intrinsic factors that influence cytokine responses and microglial functions relative to genetics, sex, and age. We elaborate on the pros and cons that cytokines, chemokines, and microglia play in brain repair, specifically neurogenesis, and how such conflicting roles may be harnessed therapeutically to sustain the survival of new neurons. Read More

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December 2018

NOP Ligands for the Treatment of Anxiety and Mood Disorders.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Pharmacology, and National Institute of Neuroscience, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Many studies point toward the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) and the N/OFQ peptide receptor (NOP) as targets for the development of innovative drugs for treating anxiety- and mood-related disorders. Evidence supports the view that the activation of NOP receptors with agonists elicits anxiolytic-like effects, while its blockade with NOP antagonists promotes antidepressant-like actions in rodents. Genetic studies showed that NOP receptor knockout mice display an antidepressant-like phenotype, and NOP antagonists are inactive in these animals. Read More

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December 2018