4,211 results match your criteria Neuroscience Research [Journal]


Reinforcement schedules differentially affect learning in neuronal operant conditioning in rats.

Neurosci Res 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Laboratory of Neural Information, Graduate School of Brain Science, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, 610-0394, Kyoto, Japan. Electronic address:

Operant conditioning of neuronal activity is a core process for better operation of brain-machine interfaces. However, few studies have investigated the role of reinforcement schedules in neuronal operant conditioning, although they are very effective in behavioral operant conditioning. To test the effect of different reinforcement schedules, the authors trained single-neuron activity in the motor cortex using fixed ratio (FR) and variable ratio (VR) schedules in rats. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01680102193013
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.04.003DOI Listing
April 2019
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Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation ameliorates recognition memory impairment induced by hindlimb unloading in mice associated with BDNF/TrkB signaling.

Neurosci Res 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

College of Life Sciences and Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials Ministry of Education, Nankai University, 300071 Tianjin, PR China. Electronic address:

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), which could improve learning and memory, is widely used in psychiatry and neurology as a therapeutic approach. There are few studies reporting effective countermeasures to cognition decline in astronauts during space flight. Accordingly, we examined whether rTMS was able to significantly alleviate the learning and memory deficits induced by hindlimb unloading (HU), a general accepted rodent model to simulate microgravity, in mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.04.002DOI Listing

Oxytocin administration modulates rats' helping behavior depending on social context.

Neurosci Res 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Psychological Sciences, Kwansei Gakuin University, 1-1-155, Uegahara, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 662-8501, Japan. Electronic address:

The affiliative effect of oxytocin on behavior toward other individuals can be modulated by positive and negative aspects of those individuals. However, the context-dependent effect of oxytocin on helping behavior is still unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of oxytocin administration on helping behavior in rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.04.001DOI Listing

The motor engram as a dynamic change of the cortical network during early sequence learning: An fMRI study.

Neurosci Res 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Division of Cerebral Integration, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Aichi 444-8585, Japan; Department of Physiological Sciences, School of Life Sciences, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Kanagawa 240-0193, Japan. Electronic address:

Neural substrates of motor engrams in the human brain are hard to identify because their dormant states are difficult to discriminate. We utilized eigenvector centrality (EC) to measure the network information that accumulates as an engram during learning. To discriminate engrams formed by emphasis on speed or accuracy, we conducted functional MRI on 58 normal volunteers as they performed a sequential finger-tapping task with the non-dominant left hand. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.03.004DOI Listing

Dynamics of memory engrams.

Neurosci Res 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Laboratory of Neural Information, Graduate School of Brain Science, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe 610-0394, Kyoto, Japan. Electronic address:

In this update article, we focus on "memory engrams", which are traces of long-term memory in the brain, and emphasizes that they are not static but dynamic. We first introduce the major findings in neuroscience and psychology reporting that memory engrams are sometimes diffuse and unstable, indicating that they are dynamically modified processes of consolidation and reconsolidation. Second, we introduce and discuss the concepts of cell assembly and engram cell, the former has been investigated by psychological experiments and behavioral electrophysiology and the latter is defined by recent combination of activity-dependent cell labelling with optogenetics to show causal relationships between cell population activity and behavioral changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.03.005DOI Listing
March 2019
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Revisiting a theory of cerebellar cortex.

Neurosci Res 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, United States.

Long-term depression at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses plays a principal role in learning in the cerebellum, which acts as a supervised learning machine. Recent experiments demonstrate various forms of synaptic plasticity at different sites within the cerebellum. In this article, we take into consideration synaptic plasticity at parallel fiber-molecular layer interneuron synapses as well as at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses, and propose that the cerebellar cortex performs reinforcement learning, another form of learning that is more capable than supervised learning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.03.001DOI Listing

Adapting terminology Clarifying prism adaptation vocabulary, concepts, and methods.

Neurosci Res 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

INSERM U1028 CNRS UMR 5292, ImpAct Team, Lyon Neuroscience Research Center (CRNL), 69500, Bron, France; "Mouvement et Handicap" platform, Neurological Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 69500, Bron, France; Claude Bernard University of Lyon 1, 69100, Villeurbanne, France; Department of Experimental Psychology, Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

When individuals are exposed to a constant change of the interplay with their environment, they are able to develop compensatory alterations of visuo-motor coordination in order to counteract the perturbation. Prism adaptation (PA) is a very simple tool that has been used for several decades to investigate adaptive processes. However, the specific terminology used in PA literature has continuously evolved and is still subjected to broad inconsistency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.03.003DOI Listing
March 2019
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A methodology for discovering novel brain-relevant peptides: Combination of ribosome profiling and peptidomics.

Neurosci Res 2019 Mar 9. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

Departments of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Brain derived peptides function as signaling molecules in the brain and regulate various physiological and behavioral processes. The low abundance and atypical fragmentation of these brain derived peptides makes detection using traditional proteomic methods challenging. In this study, we introduce and validate a new methodology for the discovery of novel peptides derived from mammalian brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.02.006DOI Listing

Adolescent psychosocial stress enhances sensitization to cocaine exposure in genetically vulnerable mice.

Neurosci Res 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Pharmacology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Japan.

Development of drug addictive behaviors is modulated by both genetic and environmental risk factors. However, the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. To address the role of adolescent stress in the development of drug addiction, we combined a transgenic mouse model in which a putative dominant-negative form of DISC1 under expressional control of the prion protein promoter is used as a genetic risk factor and adolescent social isolation stress as a gene-environmental interaction (GXE). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.02.007DOI Listing
March 2019
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Circuits and neural dynamics underlying behavior.

Neurosci Res 2019 Mar;140:1-2

RIKEN Center for Brain Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.01.002DOI Listing

Postnatal development of the distribution of nitric oxide-producing neurons in the rat corpus callosum.

Neurosci Res 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Section of Experimental Pathology, Marche Polytechnic University, I-60020, Ancona, Italy.

The postnatal development of nitric oxide (NO)-producing intracallosal neurons was studied in rats by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry from postnatal day 0 (P0) to P30. NADPH-d-positive neurons (NADPH-d+) were detected already at P0, mainly in the rostral region of the corpus callosum (cc). Their location and the intensity of staining allowed them to be classified as type I NO-producing neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.02.005DOI Listing
February 2019
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Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation modulates the effect of cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation on the excitability of spinal reflex.

Neurosci Res 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Faculty of Health Science, Kio University, 4-2-2 Umami-naka, Koryo-cho, Kitakatsuragi-gun, Nara 635-0832, Japan; Neurorehabilitation Research Center of Kio University, Koryo-cho, Kitakatsuragi-gun, Nara 635-0832, Japan. Electronic address:

Cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (C-TMS) facilitates the ipsilateral soleus H-reflex, which reflects the excitability of the spinal motoneuron pool. This study aimed to investigate whether this facilitation of the spinal motoneuron pool excitability by C-TMS is affected by cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (ctDCS) in a polarity-specific manner. Eleven healthy adults participated in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.01.012DOI Listing
February 2019

Confocal and multiphoton calcium imaging of the enteric nervous system in anesthetized mice.

Neurosci Res 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama, 338-8570, Japan; Brain and Body System Science Institute, Saitama University, Saitama, 338-8570, Japan; RIKEN Center for Brain Science, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan; RIKEN Center for Advanced Intelligence Project, Tokyo, 103-0072, Japan. Electronic address:

Most imaging studies of the enteric nervous system (ENS) that regulates the function of the gastrointestinal tract are so far performed using preparations isolated from animals, thus hindering the understanding of the ENS function in vivo. Here we report a method for imaging the ENS cellular network activity in living mice using a new transgenic mouse line that co-expresses G-CaMP6 and mCherry in the ENS combined with the suction-mediated stabilization of intestinal movements. With confocal or two-photon imaging, our method can visualize spontaneous and pharmacologically-evoked ENS network activity in living animals at cellular and subcellular resolutions, demonstrating the potential usefulness for studies of the ENS function in health and disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.02.004DOI Listing
February 2019
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Internal structure of the rat subiculum characterized by diverse immunoreactivities and septotemporal differences.

Neurosci Res 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University, Japan.

The subiculum is one of output structures of the hippocampal formation and plays a pivotal role in learning and memory. Because its morphological features are less investigated than those of the hippocampus proper, we explored the internal structure of the rat subiculum using immunohistochemistry. The septal subiculum comprised one region, whereas the temporal subiculum consisted of two subregions, the distal subiculum (Sub1) and proximal subiculum (Sub2). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01680102183053
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Appearance and modulation of a reactive temporal-lobe 8-10-Hz tau-rhythm.

Neurosci Res 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-0812, Hokkaido, Japan.

Spontaneous 8- to 10-Hz "tau-rhythm" in magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings has been reported to originate in the auditory cortex and be suppressed by sound. For unknown reasons however, tau-rhythm is often difficult to detect. In this study, we sought to characterize its emergence and auditory reactivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.02.002DOI Listing
February 2019

Left, right, or bilateral amygdala activation? How effects of smoothing and motion correction on ultra-high field, high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data alter inferences.

Neurosci Res 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Psychology, 226 Thach Hall, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 36849, United States; Auburn University MRI Research Center, 560 Devall Drive, Auburn, AL, 36849, United States; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 36849, United States; Alabama Advanced Imaging Consortium, United States; Center for Neuroscience, Auburn University, AL, 36849, United States.

Given the amygdala's role in survival mechanisms, and its pivotal contributions to psychological processes, it is no surprise that it is one of the most well-studied brain regions. One of the common methods for understanding the functional role of the amygdala is the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, fMRI tends to be acquired using resolutions that are not optimal for smaller brain structures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.01.009DOI Listing
February 2019
1.937 Impact Factor

miR-1933-3p is upregulated in skeletal muscles of MuSK+ EAMG mice and affects Impa1 and Mrpl27.

Neurosci Res 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Neuroscience, Clinical Neurophysiology, Uppsala University, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

MuSK antibody seropositive (MuSK+) Myasthenia Gravis (MG) typically affects skeletal muscles of the bulbar area, including the omohyoid muscle, causing focal fatigue, weakness and atrophy. The profile of circulating extracellular microRNA (miRNA) is changed in MuSK + MG, but the intracellular miRNA profile in skeletal muscles of MuSK + MG and MuSK + experimental autoimmune MG (EAMG) remains unknown. This study elucidated the intracellular miRNA profile in the omohyoid muscle of mice with MuSK + EAMG. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019

Mechanism of neuroaxonal degeneration: from molecular signaling to therapeutic applications.

Neurosci Res 2019 Feb;139:1-2

Department of Molecular Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.12.006DOI Listing
February 2019

daf-16/FOXO isoform b in AIY neurons is involved in low preference for Bifidobacterium infantis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Neurosci Res 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Graduate School of Human Life Science, Osaka City University, Osaka, 558-8585, Japan. Electronic address:

The neural and molecular mechanisms underlying food preference have been poorly understood. We previously showed that Bifidobacterium infantis (B. infantis), a well-known probiotic bacterium, extends the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.01.011DOI Listing
February 2019

TNFR2 knockdown triggers apoptosis-induced proliferation in primarily cultured Schwann cells.

Neurosci Res 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Key Laboratory of Neuroregeneration of Jiangsu and Ministry of Education, Co-innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu, PR China. Electronic address:

After sciatic nerve injury, Schwann cells in the distal segments of injury site undergo apoptosis and meanwhile proliferation. Although apoptosis-induced proliferation (AiP) has been characterized in various models, whether the proliferation of Schwann cells in the distal segments is triggered by apoptosis remains unelucidated. In this study, we used small interfering RNA to knock down the expression of TNFR1 and TNFR2 in primarily cultured Schwann cells, respectively and observed its effects on apoptosis and proliferation. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01680102183059
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.01.010DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

Regulation of cortical blood flow responses by the nucleus basalis of Meynert during nociceptive processing.

Neurosci Res 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Chiropractic, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, 3351 Boul. Des Forges, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivières, QC, G9A 5H7, Canada; CogNAC Research Group, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, 3351 Boul. Des Forges, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivières, QC, G9A 5H7, Canada. Electronic address:

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is essential for neuronal metabolic functions. CBF is partly regulated by cholinergic projections from the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) during cortical processing of sensory information. During pain-related processing, however, this mechanism may be altered by large fluctuations in systemic mean arterial pressure (MAP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.01.008DOI Listing
January 2019
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Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord in rats with formalin-induced pain.

Neurosci Res 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Physiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea; Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) is based on neuronal activity-dependent manganese uptake, and provides information about nervous system function. However, systematic studies of pain processing using MEMRI are rare, and few investigations of pain using MEMRI have been performed in the spinal cord. Herein, we investigated the pain dependence of manganese ions administered in the rat spinal cord. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.01.007DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Sex differential effect of dexmedetomidine on fear memory extinction and anxiety behavior in adolescent rats.

Neurosci Res 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Science Education, Dankook University, 152 Jukjeon-ro, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 16890, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Exposure to stressful stimuli, including fear and anxiety, modulates the central noradrenergic system. Dexmedetomidine is a commonly used α2-adrenoreceptor agonist. Because the effect of fear acquisition varies between sexes, the present study was designed to investigate sex-related differences in the effects of dexmedetomidine on fear memory and anxiety-like behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.01.006DOI Listing
January 2019
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The effect of loss of the glucose-monitoring neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex: Physiologic challenges induce complex feeding-metabolic alterations after local streptozotocin microinjection in rats.

Neurosci Res 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Institute of Physiology, Pécs University, Medical School, Pécs, Hungary; Neuroscience Centre, Pécs University, Pécs, Hungary; Molecular Neuroendocrinology and Neurophysiology Research Group, Szentágothai Research Center, Pécs University, Pécs, Hungary.

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is interrelated to limbic structures, parts of the central glucose-monitoring (GM) network. GM neurons, postulated to exist here, are hypothesised to participate in regulatory functions, such as the central control of feeding and metabolism. In the present experiments, GM neurons were identified and examined in the ACC by means of the multibarreled microelectrophoretic technique. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.01.005DOI Listing
January 2019
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Uridine treatment prevents REM sleep deprivation-induced learning and memory impairment.

Neurosci Res 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Uludag University School of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Bursa, Turkey. Electronic address:

Previous studies have shown that sleep plays an important role in cognitive functions and sleep deprivation impairs learning and memory. Uridine is the main pyrimidine nucleoside found in human blood circulation and has beneficial effects on cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of uridine administration on learning and memory impairment in sleep-deprived rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.01.003DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads
1.937 Impact Factor

Regional and temporal regulation and role of somatostatin receptor subtypes in the mouse brain following systemic kainate-induced acute seizures.

Neurosci Res 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Life Science Tokyo Advanced Research Center (L-StaR), Hoshi University School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-4-41, Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, 142-8501, Japan. Electronic address:

Somatostatin reduces neuronal excitability via somatostatin receptors (Sst-Sst) and inhibits seizure activity. However, the expression status of the Sst subtypes in epileptic mice and their role in the antiepileptic effects of somatostatin remain unclear. Here, we show that the Sst subtypes are regulated differently by epileptic neuronal activity in mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.01.004DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Timing and shaping mechanisms of neural development.

Neurosci Res 2019 01;138:1-2

Keio University School of Medicine, Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.12.003DOI Listing
January 2019

Monocytes exposed to plasma from patients with Alzheimer's disease undergo metabolic reprogramming.

Neurosci Res 2019 Jan 12. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Trinity College Institute for Neuroscience, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland. Electronic address:

The search for a blood-based biomarker that identifies Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can replace current invasive and expensive diagnostic tests, continues. The most extensively-examined peripheral marker is β-amyloid (Aβ) but the results are inconsistent across studies and do not reflect the changes that take place in the brain. Several studies have assessed possible proteomic signatures but with inconsistent findings, although increases in circulating inflammatory molecules are generally observed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2019.01.001DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Improving working memory and pain inhibition in older persons using transcranial direct current stimulation.

Neurosci Res 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Chiropractic, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, 3351 Boul. Des Forges, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivières, QC, G9A 5H7, Canada; CogNAC Research Group, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, 3351 Boul. Des Forges, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivières, QC, G9A 5H7, Canada. Electronic address:

The aim of the present study was to examine whether transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) could enhance working memory and pain inhibition in older persons. Fifteen volunteers (7 women, 8 men; mean ± SD: 64 ± 4.4 y. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.12.007DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Vividness and accuracy: Two independent aspects of motor imagery.

Neurosci Res 2018 Dec 31. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama, 359-1192, Japan.

Motor imagery is the mental execution of an action without any actual movement. Although numerous studies have utilized questionnaires to evaluate the vividness of motor imagery, it remains unclear whether it is related to the accuracy of motor imagery. To examine the relationship between vividness and accuracy, we investigated brain activity during kinesthetic and visual motor imagery, by using a novel sequential finger-tapping task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.12.005DOI Listing
December 2018

Whisker electromyograms signify awake and anesthetized states in mice.

Neurosci Res 2018 Dec 26. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan; Center for Information and Neural Networks, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Suita City, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan. Electronic address:

The behavioral state of animals is essential information for functional recordings of neuronal activity; practically, the exact timing when animals recover from anesthesia is important information. Recordings of cortical local field potentials and dorsal neck electromyograms (EMGs), a widely used method to identify behavioral states, requires at least two recording electrodes, one of which also requires a craniotomy procedure. In the present study, recordings of whisker EMGs alone are sufficient to detect the state switch from anesthesia to awakening in head-fixed mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.12.002DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Immunoreactivity of a G protein-coupled l-DOPA receptor GPR143, in Lewy bodies.

Neurosci Res 2018 Dec 24. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Laboratory of Neuropathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Sciences, Tokyo 156-8506, Japan. Electronic address:

l-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) has been believed to be an inert amino acid precursor of dopamine, and is the most effective therapeutic agent in Parkinson's disease (PD). We proposed l-DOPA as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Recently, the ocular albinism 1 gene product, OA1/GPR143 (GPR143), was identified as a receptor for l-DOPA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.12.004DOI Listing
December 2018

Evaluation of critical flicker-fusion frequency measurement methods using a touchscreen-based visual temporal discrimination task in the behaving mouse.

Neurosci Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Laboratory for Systems Neuroscience and Developmental Biology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, 525-8577, Japan; Laboratory for Systems Neuroscience and Developmental Biology, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, 525-8577, Japan; Center for Systems Vision Science, Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, 525-8577, Japan. Electronic address:

The critical flicker-fusion frequency (CFF), defined as the frequency at which a flickering light is indistinguishable from a continuous light, is a useful measure of visual temporal resolution. The mouse CFF has been studied by electrophysiological approaches such as recordings of the electroretinogram (ERG) and the visually evoked potential (VEP), but it has not been measured behaviorally. Here we estimated the mouse CFF by using a touchscreen based operant system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.12.001DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Oxytocin is indispensable for conspecific-odor preference and controls the initiation of female, but not male, sexual behavior in mice.

Neurosci Res 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Physiology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Animal Sciences, Teikyo University of Science, Yamanashi, Japan. Electronic address:

Oxytocin (OT) has been demonstrated to be involved in various social behaviors in mammals. However, OT gene knockout (OTKO) mice can conceive and deliver successfully, though females cannot rear their pups because of lack of lactation. Here, we investigated the sociosexual behavior of both sexes in two experimental setups: olfactory preference for sexual partner's odor and direct social interaction in an enriched condition. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01680102183058
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.11.008DOI Listing
November 2018
8 Reads

Decoding natural scenes based on sounds of objects within scenes using multivariate pattern analysis.

Neurosci Res 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

College of Intelligence and Computing, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cognitive Computing and Application, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300350, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Intelligent Technology and Systems, National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, PR China. Electronic address:

Scene recognition plays an important role in spatial navigation and scene classification. It remains unknown whether the occipitotemporal cortex could represent the semantic association between the scenes and sounds of objects within the scenes. In this study, we used the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique and multivariate pattern analysis to assess whether diff ;erent scenes could be discriminated based on the patterns evoked by sounds of objects within the scenes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.11.009DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Synaptic topography - Converging connections and emerging function.

Authors:
Naoya Takahashi

Neurosci Res 2019 Apr 20;141:29-35. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Institute for Biology, Neuronal Plasticity, Humboldt University of Berlin, D-10117, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Brain circuits are constituted of individual neurons that are interconnected with a vast array of synapses. In order to understand how brain function emerges from this complex synaptic network, immense efforts have been made to trace the synaptic topography, i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.11.001DOI Listing
April 2019
17 Reads

The mouse posterior parietal cortex: Anatomy and functions.

Neurosci Res 2019 Mar 20;140:14-22. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

RIKEN Center for Brain Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan. Electronic address:

In recent years, the number of studies on decision-making in mice has increased dramatically. Many of these studies focus on the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), an area that has been implicated in sensory and multisensory processing, navigation, motion planning, and decision-making. In this review we summarize recent anatomical and functional studies of mouse PPC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.10.008DOI Listing
March 2019
20 Reads

Gestational stress induced differential expression of HDAC2 in male rat offspring hippocampus during development.

Neurosci Res 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Central South University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Changsha, Hunan, PR China. Electronic address:

Accumulating evidence from preclinical and clinical studies indicates prenatal exposure to stress or excess glucocorticoids can affect offspring brain. HDAC2 is an important target of glucocorticoid. Here we detected HDAC2 expression in male offspring hippocampus from gestational restraint stressed rat during development and the relationship between HDAC2 expression and behaviors and neurogenesis in male offspring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.11.006DOI Listing
November 2018
20 Reads

Apoptosis versus axon pruning: Molecular intersection of two distinct pathways for axon degeneration.

Neurosci Res 2019 Feb 16;139:3-8. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA; Neuroscience Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA. Electronic address:

Neurons are capable of degenerating their axons for the physiological clearance and refinement of unnecessary connections via the programmed degenerative pathways of apoptosis and axon pruning. While both pathways mediate axon degeneration they are however distinct. Whereas in apoptosis the entire neuron, both axons and cell body, degenerates, in the context of axon pruning only the targeted axon segments are selectively degenerated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.11.007DOI Listing
February 2019
19 Reads

ADAR2-dependent A-to-I RNA editing in the extracellular linear and circular RNAs.

Neurosci Res 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan. Electronic address:

Currently, no reliable biomarkers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) exist. In sporadic ALS, RNA editing at the glutamine/arginine site of GluA2 mRNA is specifically reduced in the motor neurons due to the downregulation of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2). Furthermore, TDP-43 pathology, the pathological hallmark of ALS, is observed in the ADAR2-lacking motor neurons in ALS patients and conditional ADAR2 knockout mice, suggesting a pivotal role of ADAR2 downregulation in the ALS pathogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.11.005DOI Listing
November 2018
15 Reads

Recurrent short-term hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia induce apoptosis and oxidative stress via the ER stress response in immortalized adult mouse Schwann (IMS32) cells.

Neurosci Res 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Laboratory of Medicine, Aichi Gakuin University School of Pharmacy, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8650, Japan. Electronic address:

Hypoglycemia and fluctuating high or low glucose conditions are under-appreciated sources of oxidative stress contributing to diabetic neuropathy. We investigated the effects of recurrent short-term hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, on apoptosis and oxidative stress in Schwann cells. Immortalized adult mouse Schwann (IMS32) cells were exposed to five different glucose treatments over 3 days: 1) normal glucose (NG), 2) constant low glucose (LG), 3) constant high glucose (HG), 4) intermittent low glucose (ILG; 1 h three times per day), 5) intermittent high glucose (IHG; 1 h three times per day). Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Function of local circuits in the hippocampal dentate gyrus-CA3 system.

Authors:
Yuta Senzai

Neurosci Res 2019 Mar 5;140:43-52. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Physiology, University of California San Francisco, United States. Electronic address:

Anatomical observations, theoretical work and lesioning experiments have supported the idea that the CA3 in the hippocampus is important for encoding, storage and retrieval of memory while the dentate gyrus (DG) is important for the pattern separation of the incoming inputs from the entorhinal cortex. Study of the presumed function of the dentate gyrus in pattern separation has been hampered by the lack of reliable methods to identify different excitatory cell types in the DG. Recent papers have identified different cell types in the DG, in awake behaving animals, with more reliable methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.11.003DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

Neuronal mechanisms regulating the critical period of sensory experience-dependent song learning.

Neurosci Res 2019 Mar 3;140:53-58. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University, Japan; International Research Center for Neurointelligence (WPI-IRCN), The University of Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Neuronal circuits are intensively shaped depending on experiences received during developmental critical periods. How neuronal circuits are sculpted can even affect the later development of higher cognitive functions, such as vocal communication skills. Here, we propose songbirds that learn to sing from early auditory experiences as a model for understanding the neuronal mechanisms underlying the development of multistep vocal learning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.11.002DOI Listing
March 2019
9 Reads

Non-coding RNA Neat1 and Abhd11os expressions are dysregulated in medium spiny neurons of Huntington disease model mice.

Neurosci Res 2018 Nov 2. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Laboratory of Structural Neuropathology, Doshisha University Graduate School of Brain Science, 1-3 Miyakodanitatara, Kyotanabe-shi, Kyoto, 610-0394, Japan. Electronic address:

Huntington Disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by expanded CAG repeats in the exon1 of huntingtin gene (HTT). The mutant HTT affects the transcriptional profile of neurons by disrupting the activities of transcriptional machinery and alters expression of many genes. In this study, we identified dysregulated non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in medium spiny neurons of 4-week-old HD model mouse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.10.013DOI Listing
November 2018
7 Reads

Comparative neuroanatomy: Integrating classic and modern methods to understand association fibers connecting dorsal and ventral visual cortex.

Neurosci Res 2018 Oct 30. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA; Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Comparative neuroanatomy studies improve understanding of brain structure and function and provide insight regarding brain development, evolution, and also what features of the brain are uniquely human. With modern methods such as diffusion MRI (dMRI) and quantitative MRI (qMRI), we are able to measure structural features of the brain with the same methods across human and non-human primates. In this review article, we discuss how recent dMRI measurements of vertical occipital connections in humans and macaques can be compared with previous findings from invasive anatomical studies that examined connectivity, including relatively forgotten classic strychnine neuronography studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.10.011DOI Listing
October 2018
12 Reads

Neuronal, mathematical, and molecular bases of perceptual decision-making in C. elegans.

Neurosci Res 2019 Mar 30;140:3-13. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Biological Sciences, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043, Japan. Electronic address:

Animals process sensory information from the environment to make behavioral decisions. Although environmental information may be ambiguous or gradually changing, animals can still choose one behavioral option among several through perceptual decision-making. Perceptual decision-making has been intensively studied in primates and rodents, and neural activity that accumulates sensory information has been shown to be crucial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.10.010DOI Listing

Neural circuits regulating sexual behaviors via the olfactory system in mice.

Neurosci Res 2019 Mar 30;140:59-76. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan; ERATO Touhara Chemosensory Signal Project, JST, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan. Electronic address:

Reproduction is essential for any animal species. Reproductive behaviors, or sexual behaviors, are largely shaped by external sensory cues exchanged during sexual interaction. In many animals, including rodents, olfactory cues play a critical role in regulating sexual behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.10.009DOI Listing
March 2019
9 Reads

Insulin growth factor 2 (IGF2) as an emergent target in psychiatric and neurological disorders. Review.

Neurosci Res 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Miami, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent evidence highlights the role of IGF2 in the brain, sustained by data showing its alterations as a common feature across a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Previous studies emphasize the potential role of IGF2 in psychiatric and neurological conditions as well as in memory impairments, targeting IGF2 as a pro-cognitive agent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.10.012DOI Listing
October 2018

Optical consequences of a genetically-encoded voltage indicator with a pH sensitive fluorescent protein.

Neurosci Res 2018 Oct 17. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Center for Functional Connectomics. Korea Institute of Science and Technology. Seoul, Republic of Korea; Division of Bio-Medical Science & Technology, KIST School, Korea University of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Genetically-Encoded Voltage Indicators (GEVIs) are capable of converting changes in membrane potential into an optical signal. Here, we focus on recent insights into the mechanism of ArcLight-type probes and the consequences of utilizing a pH-dependent Fluorescent Protein (FP). A negative charge on the exterior of the β-can of the FP combined with a pH-sensitive FP enables voltage-dependent conformational changes to affect the fluorescence of the probe. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.10.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6470055PMC
October 2018
1 Read
1.940 Impact Factor

Endurance training on rodent brain antioxidant capacity: A meta-analysis.

Neurosci Res 2018 Oct 13. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Center of Biosciences, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil; Graduate Program in Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

The influence of physical exercise on brain antioxidant defense mechanisms has been studied. Nevertheless, the effect of training volume on the brain`s redox balance remains unclear. In this meta-analysis, we compared the effect of training volume on antioxidant enzymatic resource and lipid peroxidation on various brain regions. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01680102183038
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2018.09.002DOI Listing
October 2018
14 Reads
1.940 Impact Factor