28,834 results match your criteria Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair[Journal]


An enzyme-based electrochemical biosensor probe with sensitivity to detect astrocytic versus glioma uptake of glutamate in real time in vitro.

Biosens Bioelectron 2018 Nov 16;126:751-757. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Biomedical Engineering, PO Box 10157, Ruston, LA 71272, USA; Center for Biomedical Engineering and Rehabilitation Sciences, Louisiana Tech University, PO Box 10157, Ruston, LA 71272, USA. Electronic address:

Glutamate, a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is essential for regulation of thought, movement, memory, and other higher functions controlled by the brain. Dysregulation of glutamate signaling is associated with severe neuropathological conditions, such as epilepsy, and glioma, a form of brain cancer. Glutamate signals are currently detected by several types of neurochemical probes ranging from microdialysis-based to enzyme-based carbon fiber microsensors. Read More

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November 2018
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Telephone-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for veterans with chronic pain following traumatic brain injury: Rationale and study protocol for a randomized controlled trial study.

Contemp Clin Trials 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Box 356490, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-6490, USA; VA Puget Sound Healthcare System, 1660 S. Columbian Way, RCS-117, Seattle, WA 98108, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: Chronic pain is a highly prevalent and potentially disabling condition in Veterans who have had a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and access to non-pharmacological pain treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy is limited and variable. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to evaluate the efficacy of a telephone-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (T-CBT) for pain in Veterans with a history of TBI.

Methods: Veterans with a history of TBI and chronic pain of at least six months duration (N = 160) will be randomized to either T-CBT or a telephone-delivered pain psychoeducational active control condition (T-Ed). Read More

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December 2018
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Physical exercise enhances adult cortical plasticity in a neonatal rat model of hypoxic-ischemic injury: Evidence from BOLD-fMRI and electrophysiological recordings.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Health Sciences and Technology, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, 06351, South Korea; Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, 06351, South Korea; Center for Neuroscience Imaging Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Suwon, South Korea; Animal Research and Molecular Imaging, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, 06351, South Korea; Department of Global Biomedical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Neuroplasticity is considered essential for recovery from brain injury in developing brains. Recent studies indicate that it is especially effective during early postnatal development and during the critical period. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and local field potential (LFP) electrophysiological recordings in rats that experienced neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury during the critical period to demonstrate that physical exercise (PE) can improve cortical plasticity even when performed during adulthood, after the critical period. Read More

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December 2018

Treadmill exercise ameliorates focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced neurological deficit by promoting dendritic modification and synaptic plasticity via upregulating caveolin-1/VEGF signaling pathways.

Exp Neurol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, No. 109, Xueyuanxi Road, Wenzhou 325027, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Dendritic and synaptic plasticity in the penumbra are important processes and are considered to be therapeutic targets of ischemic stroke. Treadmill exercise is known to be a beneficial treatment following stroke. However, its effects and potential mechanism in promoting dendritic and synaptic plasticity remain unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Role of diffusional kurtosis imaging in grading of brain gliomas: a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e025123. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery UCL Hospitals NHS Trust, London, UK.

Introduction: Central nervous system (CNS) gliomas are the most common primary intra-axial brain tumours and pose variable treatment response according to their grade, therefore, precise staging is mandatory. Histopathological analysis of surgical tumour samples is still deemed as the state-of-the-art staging technique for gliomas due to the moderate specificity of the available non-invasive imaging modalities. A recently evolved analysis of the tissue water diffusion properties, known as diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI), is a dimensionless metric, which quantifies water molecules' degree of non-Gaussian diffusion, hence reflects tissue microenvironment's complexity by means of non-invasive diffusion-weighted MRI acquisitions. Read More

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December 2018

Electroacupuncture Regulates Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity via Inhibiting Janus-Activated Kinase 2/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 Signaling in Cerebral Ischemic Rats.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

College of Rehabilitation Medicine, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, Fujian, PR China; Rehabilitation Medical Technology Joint National Local Engineering Research Center, Fuzhou, Fujian, PR China.

Objective: To determine the mechanism(s) involved in electroacupuncture (EA)-mediated improvements in synaptic plasticity in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R)-induced cognitive deficits.

Methods: Focal cerebral ischemic stroke was induced by (MCAO/R) surgery. Rats were randomly split into 4 groups: control group (sham operation control), MCAO group, Baihui (GV 20) and Shenting (GV 24) acupoint EA group (verum acupuncture, MCAO + VA), and nonacupoint EA group (control acupuncture, MCAO + CA). Read More

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December 2018

Stochastic resonance improves visuomotor temporal integration in healthy young adults.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209382. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Neurorehabilitation Research Center, Kio University, Nara, Japan.

Mechanical and electrical noise stimulation to the body is known to improve the sensorimotor system. This improvement is related to stochastic resonance (SR), a phenomenon described as a "noise benefit" to various sensory and motor systems. The current study investigated the influence of SR on visuomotor temporal integration and hand motor function under delayed visual feedback in healthy young adults. Read More

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December 2018
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Subtle motor signs in children with chronic traumatic brain injury.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Kennedy Krieger Institute.

Objective: To characterize subtle motor signs in children with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the chronic phase of injury.

Design: Fourteen children with moderate (n=6) or severe (n=8) TBI, ages 11-18 years, who had sustained their injury at least 1-year prior to study participation (Range 1-14 years since injury), and 14 matched typically-developing controls were examined using the Physical and Neurological Examination of Subtle Signs (PANESS). To examine the neural correlates of subtle motor signs, measures of total cerebral volume and motor/premotor volume were derived from MRI. Read More

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December 2018
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NEUROMUSCULAR ELECTRICAL STIMULATION IN EARLY REHABILITATION OF GUILLAIN-BARRÉ SYNDROME: A PILOT STUDY.

Muscle Nerve 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Neurology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Introduction: In Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), patients often develop muscle atrophy from denervation and immobilization. We therefore conducted a pilot study of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) to evaluate feasibility, safety, and effect on muscle wasting in the early phase of GBS.

Methods: Seventeen patients were randomized to receive 20 minutes of muscle fiber stimulation followed by 40 minutes of MNES of the right or left quadriceps muscle with the untreated side as control. Read More

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December 2018

Why orthotic devices could be of help in the management of Movement Disorders in the young.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2018 Dec 14;15(1):118. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Condensed Matter Chemistry and Technologies for Energy, National Research Council of Italy (CNR-ICMATE), via Previati 1/E, 23900, Lecco, Italy.

Background: Movement Disorders (MD) are a class of disease that impair the daily activities of patients, conditioning their sensorimotor, cognitive and behavioural capabilities. Nowadays, the general management of patients with MD is based on rehabilitation, pharmacological treatments, surgery, and traditional splints. Although some attempts have been made to devise specific orthoses for the rehabilitation of patients affected by MD, especially the younger ones, those devices have received limited attention. Read More

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December 2018

Posterior cord syndrome associated with postoperative seroma: The case to perform a complete neurologic exam.

J Spinal Cord Med 2018 Dec 14:1-3. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

b Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department , Tufts Medical Center , Boston , Massachusetts , USA.

Context: Posterior cord syndrome (PCS) is the least common incomplete spinal cord injury. Findings of posterior cord syndrome include loss of proprioception and vibration, which are not routinely tested with the American Spinal Cord Injury Association's International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) exam and can easily be missed. Seromas may develop after spinal instrumentation and can cause cord compression. Read More

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December 2018

Guideline Approaches for Cardioendocrine Disease Surveillance and Treatment Following Spinal Cord Injury.

Curr Phys Med Rehabil Rep 2018 15;6(4):264-276. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

1The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL USA.

Purpose Of Review: Persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) commonly experience individual risks and coalesced health hazards of the cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS). This review will examinethe role of exercise and nutritional intervention as countermeasures to these disease risks.

Recent Findings: The CMS hazards of overweight/obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are strongly associated with physical deconditioning and are common after SCI. Read More

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November 2018

The contribution of neurologic disorders to the national prevalence of depression and anxiety problems among children and adolescents.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Purpose: Depression and anxiety are growing global public health issues and affect millions of children and adolescents in the United States. Although individuals with neurologic disorders (NDs) are at increased risk of adverse mental health disorders, they represent a minority of the population. The purpose of this study was to characterize the national prevalence of depression and anxiety problems in children and adolescents by the presence of various NDs. Read More

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November 2018

Evaluation of a method to scale muscle strength for gait simulations of children with cerebral palsy.

J Biomech 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, United States. Electronic address:

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neurological disorder that results in life-long mobility impairments. Musculoskeletal models used to investigate mobility deficits for children with CP often lack subject-specific characteristics such as altered muscle strength, despite a high prevalence of muscle weakness in this population. We hypothesized that incorporating subject-specific strength scaling within musculoskeletal models of children with CP would improve accuracy of muscle excitation predictions in walking simulations. Read More

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November 2018

Reduced vision-related quality of life in people living with dystonia.

Disabil Rehabil 2018 Dec 13:1-5. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

e School of Psychology, University of South Australia , Adelaide , Australia.

Purpose: Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder with negative impact on function and quality of life. It is currently unclear whether vision-related quality of life is affected. The aim of this study was to determine whether vision-related quality of life is reduced by dystonia. Read More

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December 2018

Compressive radial neuropathy by a synovial cyst during pregnancy: A clinical case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Dec;97(49):e13455

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Tung's Taichung Metroharbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.

Rationale: Compressive radial neuropathy by a synovial cyst in the radial tunnel during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. The management of radial nerve compression caused by a synovial cyst in a pregnant patient is a surgical dilemma owing to the fetal and maternal risks of treatment.

Patient Concerns And Diagnosis: A 37-year-old pregnant woman presented with progressive forearm pain at the gestational age of 12 weeks. Read More

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December 2018
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Complete clinical and functional recovery following low-dose methotrexate related paraparesis in a patient with compound c.1298A>C AND c.677C>T MTHFR polymorphism: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Dec;97(49):e13350

Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Siena and Clinical Genetics Usl Sudest, Misericordia Hospital, Grosseto, Italy.

Rationale: The mechanisms of action of MTX (methotrexate) in the treatment of RA (rheumatoid arthritis) and PsA (psoriatic arthritis) is related to its antifolic activity, due to the high affinity for enzymes that require folate cofactors as dihydrofolate reductase and to the anti-inflammatory activity derivated from the inhibition of thymidylate synthetase that leads to the over-production of adenosine.

Patient Concerns: Our patient was a 41-year-old female, affected by PsA in treatment since 2 years with low-dose methylprednisolone and low-dose subcutaneous MTX. The treatment was effective. Read More

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December 2018

Combined aerobic exercise and task practice improve health-related quality of life after stroke: a preliminary analysis.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Cleveland Clinic, Lerner Research Institute, Department of Biomedical Engineering; Cleveland Clinic, Neurological Institute, Center for Neurological Restoration; Cleveland Clinic, Office of Clinical Transformation.

Objective: The aim of this project was to determine the effects of lower extremity aerobic exercise coupled with upper extremity repetitive task practice (RTP) on health related quality of life (HRQOL) and depressive symptomology in individuals with chronic stroke.

Design: Secondary analysis of data from two randomized controlled trials.

Setting: Research laboratory. Read More

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December 2018

Methotrexate-induced Acute Myelopathy in a Teenager With High-risk Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Pediatric Hemato-Oncology.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most frequent malignancies in childhood whose long-term survival has increased up to 80% thanks to modern therapy enhancements. Nevertheless, methotrexate (MTX) remains a mainstay of ALL therapy, but also represents one of the major causes of neurotoxicity in patients with ALL. MTX-induced toxicity occurs in about 9% of patients treated for ALL. Read More

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December 2018

Community ambulation of stroke survivors at 6 months follow-up: an observational study on sociodemographic and sub-acute clinical indicators.

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Neurorehabilitation, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Rome, Italy.

Background: Despite the importance of walking recovery in real life contexts, only 7% of stroke survivors at discharge from neuro-rehabilitation units recover independent walking in the community. However, studies on outcome indicators of walking ability restoration following stroke rarely regard the community ambulation.

Aim: To investigate how socio-demographic and sub-acute clinical characteristics of stroke survivors at admission and at discharge may predict a good participation in community walking activity 6 months post-stroke. Read More

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December 2018

Identifying clinical complexity in patients affected by severe acquired brain injury in neurorehabilitation: a cross sectional survey.

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Neurorehabilitation Unit, Department of Rehabilitation, HABILITA, Zingonia di Ciserano, Bergamo, Italy.

Background: Literature shows that occurrence of comorbidities in people with severe acquired brain injury (sABI) is a common problem in rehabilitation stay. Consequently, patients could require an increase of interventions for diagnosis and treatment of clinical conditions, with a reduction of the rehabilitative take in charge for both clinical and organizational aspects.

Aim: The first aim was to evaluate the rate of clinical conditions of sABI patients at admission in rehabilitation and the types of rehabilitative interventions performed in the first week; second objective was to explore the impact of clinical conditions on real rehabilitative take in charge. Read More

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December 2018

The Temporal Relationship of Mental Health Problems and Functional Limitations Following mTBI: A TRACK-TBI Study.

J Neurotrauma 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

San Francisco, California, United States ;

Mental health problems such as depression and anxiety are often associated with functional limitations following traumatic brain injury (TBI), prompting researchers to explore which of these TBI-related sequelae tends to precede the other. Past studies among patients with injuries ranging in severity have predominantly reported that functional impairments predict subsequent psychological concerns, rather than the other way around; however, it remains unclear whether this directionality holds for individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The present study utilized a cross-lagged panel design within a structural equation modeling analytical framework to explore the longitudinal relationships of symptoms of depression and anxiety to functional status among 717 adult mTBI patients, with assessments occurring at 2 weeks and 3 months post-injury. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of Changes in the Motor Network Following BCI Therapy Based on Graph Theory Analysis.

Front Neurosci 2018 27;12:861. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States.

Despite the established effectiveness of the brain-computer interface (BCI) therapy during stroke rehabilitation (Song et al., 2014a, 2015; Young et al., 2014a,b,c, 2015; Remsik et al. Read More

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November 2018

Atypical cerebral palsy: genomics analysis enables precision medicine.

Genet Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Purpose: The presentation and etiology of cerebral palsy (CP) are heterogeneous. Diagnostic evaluation can be a prolonged and expensive process that might remain inconclusive. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic yield and impact on management of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in 50 individuals with atypical CP (ACP). Read More

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December 2018
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Evaluation of the Keeogo exoskeleton for assisting ambulatory activities in people with multiple sclerosis: an open-label, randomized, cross-over trial.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2018 Dec 12;15(1):117. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA.

Background: Although physical activity and exercise is known to benefit people with multiple sclerosis (MS), the ability of these individuals to participate in such interventions is difficult due to the mobility impairments caused by the disease. Keeogo is a lower-extremity powered exoskeleton that may be a potential solution for enabling people with MS to benefit from physical activity and exercise.

Methods: An open-label, randomized, cross-over trial was used to examine the immediate performance effects when using the device, and the potential benefits of using the device in a home setting for 2 weeks. Read More

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December 2018

Adjunctive levetiracetam in the treatment of Chinese and Japanese adults with generalized tonic-clonic seizures: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

Epilepsia Open 2018 Dec 29;3(4):474-484. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

UCB Pharma Tokyo Japan.

Objective: To assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of adjunctive levetiracetam (LEV) in Chinese and Japanese adults with generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures (N01159; NCT01228747).

Methods: This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter phase III trial comprised: 4-week retrospective and 4-week prospective baseline, 12-week dose-adjustment, and 16-week evaluation periods. Chinese and Japanese patients ≥16 years old with idiopathic generalized, symptomatic generalized, or undetermined epilepsy with GTC seizures received a single-blind placebo during the prospective baseline, and then were randomized 1:1 to placebo or LEV 1,000 mg/day administered twice daily. Read More

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December 2018

Perturbation-Based Balance Training to Improve Step Quality in the Chronic Phase After Stroke: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

Front Neurol 2018 22;9:980. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Rehabilitation, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

People with stroke often have impaired stepping responses following balance perturbations, which increases their risk of falling. Computer-controlled movable platforms are promising tools for delivering perturbation-based balance training under safe and standardized circumstances. This proof-of-concept study aimed to identify whether a 5-week perturbation-based balance training program on a movable platform improves reactive step quality in people with chronic stroke. Read More

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November 2018

Lithium Treatment Is Safe in Children With Intellectual Disability.

Front Mol Neurosci 2018 22;11:425. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Henan Key Laboratory of Child Brain Injury, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Lithium is a widely used and effective treatment for individuals with psycho-neurological disorders, and it exhibits protective and regenerative properties in multiple brain injury animal models, but the clinical experience in young children is limited due to potential toxicity. As an interim analysis, this paper reports the safety/tolerability profiles of low-dose lithium treatment in children with intellectual disability (ID) and its possible beneficial effects. In a randomized, single-center clinical trial, 124 children with ID were given either oral lithium carbonate 6 mg/kg twice per day or the same dose of calcium carbonate as a placebo ( = 62/group) for 3 months. Read More

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November 2018

A comprehensive review of EEG-based brain-computer interface paradigms.

J Neural Eng 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2210, USA, Knoxville, Tennessee, UNITED STATES.

Advances in brain science and computer technology in the past decade have led to exciting developments in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI), thereby making BCI a top research area in applied science. The renaissance of BCI opens new methods of neurorehabilitation for physically disabled people (e.g. Read More

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November 2018

Behind the wheel safety in palliative care: a literature review.

BMJ Support Palliat Care 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Cicely Saunders Institute of Palliative Care, Policy and Rehabilitation, Brixton, London, UK.

Background: Driving is a complex activity that requires physical abilities and adequate executive and cognitive functioning. There is concern among specialist palliative care services about patients continuing to drive despite having progressive incurable illnesses, comorbidities and medications to manage their symptoms.

Objectives: To determine the quality of literature available about driving that would apply to palliative care patients, specifically in relation to road test or simulated driving scores and neurocognitive testing. Read More

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December 2018
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Generalizing remotely supervised transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS): feasibility and benefit in Parkinson's disease.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2018 Dec 7;15(1):114. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

New York University Langone Health, New York, USA.

Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that has been shown to improve common symptoms of neurological disorders like depressed mood, fatigue, motor deficits and cognitive dysfunction. tDCS requires daily treatment sessions in order to be effective. We developed a remotely supervised tDCS (RS-tDCS) protocol for participants with multiple sclerosis (MS) to increase accessibility of tDCS, reducing clinician, patient, and caregiver burden. Read More

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December 2018

Short- and long-term reproducibility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of lower extremity musculature in asymptomatic individuals and a comparison to individuals with spinal cord injury.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2018 Dec 6;19(1):433. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Physical Therapy and Human Movement Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) of skeletal muscle has the potential to be a sensitive diagnostic and/or prognostic tool in complex, enigmatic neuromusculoskeletal conditions such as spinal cord injury and whiplash associated disorder. However, the reliability and reproducibility of clinically accessible DW-MRI parameters in skeletal muscle remains incompletely characterized - even in individuals without neuromusculoskeletal injury - and these parameters have yet to be characterized for many clinical populations. Here, we provide normative measures of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in healthy muscles of the lower limb; assess the rater-based reliability and short- and long-term reproducibility of the ADC in the same muscles; and quantify ADC of these muscles in individuals with motor incomplete spinal cord injury. Read More

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December 2018

Gait festination in parkinsonism: introduction of two phenotypes.

J Neurol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Neurology, Centre of Clinical Neuroscience, First Faculty of Medicine, General University Hospital, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Gait festination is one of the most characteristic gait disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease or atypical parkinsonism. Although festination is common and disabling, it has received little attention in the literature, and different definitions exist. Here, we argue that there are actually two phenotypes of festination. Read More

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December 2018
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Predictors of cognitive function in the acute phase after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, P.B. 4950, Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Cognitive dysfunction is the most common form of neurological impairment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) in the chronic phase. Cognitive deficits in the acute phase after aSAH, however, remain scarcely investigated. The aim of the present study was to test cognitive function and to identify medical predictors of cognitive deficits in the acute phase of aSAH. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Sex and Race Differences in the Association of Incident Ischemic Stroke With Risk Factors.

JAMA Neurol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Medicine, Larner College of Medicine, Colchester, Vermont.

Importance: Race-specific and sex-specific stroke risk varies across the lifespan, yet few reports describe sex differences in stroke risk separately in black individuals and white individuals.

Objective: To examine incidence and risk factors for ischemic stroke by sex for black and white individuals.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This prospective cohort study included participants 45 years and older who were stroke-free from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort, enrolled from the continental United States 2003 through 2007 with follow-up through October 2016. Read More

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December 2018

The Role of the Human Auditory Corticostriatal Network in Speech Learning.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Communication Science and Disorders, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

We establish a mechanistic account of how the mature human brain functionally reorganizes to acquire and represent new speech sounds. Native speakers of English learned to categorize Mandarin lexical tone categories produced by multiple talkers using trial-by-trial feedback. We hypothesized that the corticostriatal system is a key intermediary in mediating temporal lobe plasticity and the acquisition of new speech categories in adulthood. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Strengthening nursing role and functions in stroke rehabilitation 24/7: A mixed-methods study assessing the feasibility and acceptability of an educational intervention programme.

Nurs Open 2019 Jan 19;6(1):162-174. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Copenhagen Centre for Arthritis Research (COPECARE) Centre for Rheumatology and Spine Diseases VRR, Head and Orthopaedics Centre, Rigshospitalet Glostrup Denmark.

Aim: To assess the feasibility of a nursing educational intervention for inpatient stroke rehabilitation and its acceptability from the nursing staff's perspective.

Background: There is currently a lack of interventions that integrate the diversity of nurses' role and functions in stroke rehabilitation and explore their effect on patient outcomes.

Design: We used a convergent, parallel, mixed-method design with data interviews and questionnaires. Read More

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January 2019

Methodological Challenges in Developmental Human Behavioral Epigenetics: Insights Into Study Design.

Front Behav Neurosci 2018 23;12:286. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Scientific Institute, IRCCS Eugenio Medea, 0-3 Center for the at-Risk Infant, Bosisio Parini, Italy.

Developmental human behavioral epigenetics (DHBE) holds potential for contributing to better understanding of how early life exposures contribute to human developmental trajectories and to inform clinical practice and early interventions. Nonetheless, DHBE research to date is challenged by two major issues: (a) the frequent use of retrospective study designs; and (b) the major focus on epigenetic variations associated with early life adversities, rather than protective care exposures. In order for DHBE research to maintain its promises, these issues need to be addressed in a systematic way according to a careful methodological planning of study design. Read More

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November 2018

The molecular landscape of glioma in patients with Neurofibromatosis 1.

Nat Med 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute for Cancer Genetics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common tumor predisposition syndrome in which glioma is one of the prevalent tumors. Gliomagenesis in NF1 results in a heterogeneous spectrum of low- to high-grade neoplasms occurring during the entire lifespan of patients. The pattern of genetic and epigenetic alterations of glioma that develops in NF1 patients and the similarities with sporadic glioma remain unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Brain pathways of pain empathy activated by pained facial expressions: a meta-analysis of fMRI using the activation likelihood estimation method.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Jan;14(1):172-178

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Objective: The objective of this study is to summarize and analyze the brain signal patterns of empathy for pain caused by facial expressions of pain utilizing activation likelihood estimation, a meta-analysis method.

Data Sources: Studies concerning the brain mechanism were searched from the Science Citation Index, Science Direct, PubMed, DeepDyve, Cochrane Library, SinoMed, Wanfang, VIP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and other databases, such as SpringerLink, AMA, Science Online, Wiley Online, were collected. A time limitation of up to 13 December 2016 was applied to this study. Read More

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January 2019

Telomere length and salivary cortisol stress reactivity in very preterm infants.

Early Hum Dev 2018 Dec 6;129:1-4. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

0-3 Center for the at-Risk Infant, Scientific Institute IRCCS Eugenio Medea, via Don Luigi Monza 20, 23842 Bosisio Parini, Lecco, Italy.

During the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay, very preterm (VPT) infants are exposed to life-saving yet pain-inducing skin-breaking procedures (i.e., NICU pain-related stress) which contribute to the programming of hypo-responsive HPA axis development during the first months of life. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Patterns of care for Multiple Sclerosis in a setting of universal care access: A cross-sectional study.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Dec 2;28:17-25. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, University of Zurich, Hirschengraben 84, 8001 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Current guidelines recommend regular neurological MS care in persons diagnosed with MS, but little is known about implementation of this recommendation or potential access barriers. This study examined disease-specific and sociodemographic differences between MS patients in Neurological Care (NeC), General Practitioner Care (GPC), or no Physician Care (NoPC) to identify group differences and characteristics that may suggest care access barriers.

Methods: Patient-reported data were analyzed from 1038 Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Registry participants by means of multivariable regression to identify systematic differences across the three care groups. Read More

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December 2018
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HMGB1 and repair: focus on the heart.

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Pathology, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Rome and San Raffaele Open University, Rome, Italy(6,7). Electronic address:

High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is one of the most abundant proteins in eukaryotes and the best characterized damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP). The biological activities of HMGB1 depend on its subcellular location, context and post-translational modifications. Inside the nucleus, HMGB1 is engaged in many DNA events such as DNA repair, transcription regulation and genome stability; in the cytoplasm, its main function is to regulate the autophagic flux while in the extracellular environment, it possesses more complicated functions and it is involved in a large variety of different processes such as inflammation, migration, invasion, proliferation, differentiation and tissue regeneration. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of high- and low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor recovery in early stroke patients: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial with clinical, neurophysiological and functional imaging assessments.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing 210002, China. Electronic address:

Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can modulate cortical excitability, and may be beneficial for motor recovery after stroke. However, the neuroplasticity effects of rTMS have not been thoroughly investigated in the early stage after stroke.

Objective: To comprehensively assess the effects of high- and low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulations on motor recovery in early stroke patients, using a randomized controlled trial based on clinical, neurophysiological and functional imaging assessments. Read More

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December 2018

Stroke risk and outcomes in epilepsy patients: Two retrospective cohort studies based on National Health Insurance in Taiwan.

Atherosclerosis 2018 Nov 23;280:147-154. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shuan Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Anesthesiology, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Health Policy Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: The risk of stroke in epileptic patients and the impact of epilepsy history on stroke patients' outcome have not been studied completely. Our purpose is to evaluate whether patients with epilepsy have increased risk of stroke or post-stroke mortality.

Methods: In Study I, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 6746 patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy and 26,984 persons without epilepsy between 2000 and 2008, in the database of National Health Insurance in Taiwan. Read More

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November 2018
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Paths to successful translation of new therapies for severe TBI in the golden age of traumatic brain injury research: A Pittsburgh vision.

J Neurotrauma 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

University of Pittsburgh, Neurosurgery , 3434 Fifth Ave , Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States , PA ;

New neuroprotective therapies for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not translated from pre-clinical to clinical success. Numerous explanations have been suggested in both the pre-clinical and clinical arenas. Coverage of TBI in the lay press has reinvigorated interest creating a golden age of TBI research with innovative strategies to circumvent roadblocks. Read More

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December 2018
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Force analysis of shoulder joint muscles in the early phase of brain stroke.

Acta Bioeng Biomech 2018 ;20(4):107-113

Department of Physical Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland.

Purpose: Upper limb impairment in the early phase of brain stroke is one of the key problems in rehabilitation. An estimation of muscle force can be a helpful factor for functional improvement after a stroke. The primary goals of this study were to determine the muscles with the lowest force in the affected (A) and non-affected (non-A) upper limb. Read More

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January 2018
4 Reads

Acupuncture Regulates the Balance of CD4 T Cell Subtypes in Experimental Asthma Mice.

Chin J Integr Med 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Integrative Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200040, China.

Objective: To evaluate the involvement of different CD4 T cell subtypes in the anti-asthmatic effects of acupuncture in asthmatic mice.

Methods: BALB/c mice were challenged by ovalbumin (OVA) for the establishment of experimental asthma model. Mice were divided into 4 groups by a random number table including the normal control, asthma model, acupuncture and sham acupuncture groups (14 per group). Read More

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December 2018
6 Reads

Prevalence of poststroke depression in Iranian patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2018 13;14:3073-3080. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Science, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.

Background: Poststroke depression (PSD) is the most common and important neuropsychiatric consequences of stroke, which can result in longer hospital stay, compromise the effectiveness of rehabilitation, and reduce the patients' quality of life. However, Iranian studies have reported different and conflicting prevalence rates for PSD.

Objective: The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the overall prevalence of PSD in Iranian patients. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Oriental Herbal Medicine for Neurological Disorders in Children: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.

Am J Chin Med 2018 Dec 6:1-26. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

* Department of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Korean Medicine Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul 05278, Republic of Korea.

Oriental herbal medicine (OHM) has been widely used in pediatric neurological disorders and has attracted attention as a safe and effective treatment. We aim to summarize and evaluate the evidence for OHM in pediatric neurological disorders for evidence-based decision-making. Without language restrictions, up-to-date research data were obtained from nine electronic databases. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads