1,937 results match your criteria Neuropsychology[Journal]


We see the orange not the lemon: typicality effects in ultra-rapid categorization in adults with and without autism spectrum disorder.

J Neuropsychol 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

NOVA Medical School, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal.

Semantic meaning can be extracted from pictures presented very briefly, in the order of tens of milliseconds. This ultra-rapid categorization processing appears to respect a coarse-to-fine path where lower level representations of concepts, or more detailed information, need additional time. We question whether variations in the levels of typicality of the target-item would implicate additional processing for correct classification, both in neurotypical (NT) individuals and with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Read More

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December 2018

Semantic network function captured by word frequency in nondemented APOE ε4 carriers.

Neuropsychology 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain.

Objective: Accurate identification of the earliest cognitive changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is critically needed. Item-level information within tests of category fluency, such as lexical frequency, harbors valuable information about the integrity of semantic networks affected early in AD. To determine the potential of lexical frequency as a cognitive marker of AD risk, we investigated whether lexical frequency of animal fluency output differentiated ε4 carriers from noncarriers in a cross-sectional design among older African-American adults without dementia. Read More

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November 2018

The influence of aerobic fitness on top-down and bottom-up mechanisms of interference control.

Neuropsychology 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Institute of Physical Education, Health and Leisure Studies.

Objective: Extensive evidence has demonstrated the relationship between aerobic fitness and cognitive function in early adulthood. Little is known, however, about whether the cognitive benefits of aerobic fitness are related to the modulation of top-down or bottom-up mechanisms in the control of executive attention. The present study aimed to shed light on this question by evaluating the phase-locking factor (PLF) of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal during cognitive control. Read More

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November 2018

Lesion symptom mapping at the regional level in patients with a meningioma.

Neuropsychology 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Cognitive Neuropsychology, Tilburg University.

Objective: The majority of meningioma patients suffer from presurgical cognitive deficits. Since meningiomas do not directly damage the brain, this is presumably caused by a functional integrity reduction of the surrounding brain tissue through perilesional edema and/or mass effect of the tumor. Tumor location is a key feature in determining neurological symptoms in brain tumor patients, but the relationship between meningioma location and cognitive performance remains unclear. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Contributions of olfactory and neuropsychological assessment to the diagnosis of first-episode schizophrenia.

Neuropsychology 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.

Objective: First-episode schizophrenia and schizoaffective patients (SZ+) show olfactory impairments, but how these relate to cognitive dysfunction remains unclear. We examined the relationship between cognitive and olfactory dysfunction in SZ+ and the clinical utility of these measures in the assessment of SZ+ patients.

Method: First-episode SZ+ patients (n = 63) and controls (n = 63) were administered tests of odor identification and discrimination in addition to measures of manual dexterity, processing speed, attention and working memory, executive functioning, ideational fluency, and memory. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Information processing deficit in older adults with HIV infection: A comparison with Parkinson's disease.

Neuropsychology 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Neuroscience Program, Center for Health Sciences, Bioscience Division, SRI International.

Objective: Individuals with HIV treated with antiretroviral therapy can expect to reach average life span, making them susceptible to combined disease and aging effects on cognitive and motor functions. Slowed processing speed in HIV is a concern for cognitive and everyday functioning and is sensitive to declines in aging. We hypothesized that information processing (IP) deficits, over and above that expected with normal aging, would occur in older HIV patients similar to those observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, with both conditions affecting frontostriatal pathways. Read More

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November 2018
9 Reads

Multimethod assessment of everyday functioning and memory abilities in Parkinson's disease.

Neuropsychology 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Psychology, Washington State University.

Objective: This study compared functional abilities in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) with normal cognition (PD-CN) and mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) using multiple assessment methods. Cognitive and physical correlates were also examined.

Method: Participants were 42 nondemented individuals with PD (24 PD-CN, 18 PD-MCI) and 42 age-matched healthy controls. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

The role of hippocampus in the retrieval of autobiographical memories in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment due to Alzheimer's disease.

J Neuropsychol 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Clinical and Behavioural Neurology, Santa Lucia Foundation, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

The role of the hippocampus and neocortical areas in the retrieval of past memories in pre-dementia Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients was investigated. The aim was to assess whether the hippocampus has a temporary role in memory trace formation, according to the Cortical Reallocation Theory (CRT), or whether it continuously updates and enriches memories, according to the Multiple Trace Theory. According to the former theory, hippocampal damage should affect more recent memories, whereas the association cortex is expected to affect memories of the entire lifespan. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Salience network connectivity and social processing in children with nonverbal learning disability or autism spectrum disorder.

Neuropsychology 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Irving Medical Center.

Objective: Nonverbal learning disability (NVLD) is a putative neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by spatial processing deficits as well as social deficits similar to those characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Nonetheless, NVLD may be a distinct disorder that is differentially associated with the functioning and connectivity of the salience (SN) and default mode (DMN) networks that support social processing. Thus, we sought to assess and compare connectivity across these networks in children with NVLD, ASD, and typically developing children. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

The effects of integrated single- and dual-task training on automaticity and attention allocation in Parkinson's disease: A secondary analysis from a randomized trial.

Neuropsychology 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet.

Objective: People with Parkinson's disease (PwPD) demonstrate impaired automaticity of motor and cognitive tasks, with unclear prioritization strategies when exposed to dual-task situations. However, no randomized trials have investigated the effects of training on automaticity and prioritization strategies in this population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of training on the automaticity of gait and cognitive processing in PwPD and the allocation of attention between gait and a cognitive task. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

The interactive effect of autism and psychosis severity on theory of mind and functioning in schizophrenia.

Neuropsychology 2018 Oct 22. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Institute of Psychology, University of Lausanne.

Objective: Autism and schizophrenia are characterized by impairments in social cognition and functioning. They can co-occur at both the trait/symptom and diagnostic levels. We investigated the concurrent effect of autism and psychotic symptom severity on social cognition and functioning in schizophrenia. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Differences in visuospatial processing in individuals with nonverbal learning disability or autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability.

Neuropsychology 2018 Oct 18. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Child Neuropsychiatry Unit.

Objective: Although previous reports produced converging empirical evidence of a core deficit on visuospatial processing in children with a nonverbal learning disability (NLD), few studies compared the visuospatial profile of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or NLD in visuoconstructive and visuospatial working memory tasks. Nor did any of these studies investigate the role of the local bias, typically observed in ASD, when comparing these clinical groups. The present study aimed to analyze whether NLD and ASD share any characteristics. Read More

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October 2018

Worse cognitive performance predicts increased anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease: A bidirectional analysis.

Neuropsychology 2018 Oct 18. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Neurology, University of Southern California.

Objective: Symptoms of anxiety, depression commonly co-occur with cognitive decline in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The directionality of this association is unclear, however, in that poor cognitive performance may lead to increased symptoms of anxiety and depression or higher anxiety and depressive symptoms may lead to cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the directionality of the association between symptoms of anxiety and depression with cognitive performance in newly diagnosed patients with PD. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Simulated driving: The added value of dynamic testing in the assessment of visuo-spatial neglect after stroke.

J Neuropsychol 2018 Oct 16. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Center of Excellence for Rehabilitation Medicine, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University and De Hoogstraat Rehabilitation, The Netherlands.

Background: Visuo-spatial neglect (VSN) is generally assessed with neuropsychological paper-and-pencil tasks, which are often not sensitive enough to detect mild and/or well-compensated VSN. It is of utmost importance to develop dynamic tasks, resembling the dynamics of daily living.

Objective: A simulated driving task was used to assess (1) differences in performance (i. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

The Russian version of the Oxford Cognitive Screen: Validation study on stroke survivors.

Neuropsychology 2018 Oct 15. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Laboratory for Communication Science, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong.

Objective: The Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) is a screening tool for the assessment of poststroke deficits in attention, memory, praxis, language, and number processing. The goal of the present study was to develop a Russian version of the OCS (Rus-OCS) via translation of the original battery, its cultural and linguistic adaptations, and reporting preliminary findings on its psychometric properties.

Method: All parts of OCS were translated by native Russian-speaking neuropsychologists. Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads

The ipsilesional attention bias in right-hemisphere stroke patients as revealed by a realistic visual search task: Neuroanatomical correlates and functional relevance.

Neuropsychology 2018 Oct;32(7):850-865

Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck.

Objective: Right-hemisphere stroke may cause an ipsilesional attention bias and left hemispatial neglect. Computerized time-limited tasks are more sensitive than conventional paper-pencil tests in detecting these spatial attention deficits. However, their frequency in the acute stage of stroke, the neuroanatomical basis and functional relevance for patients' everyday life are unclear. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Developmental differentiation of executive functions on the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery.

Neuropsychology 2018 Oct;32(7):777-783

Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego.

Objective: The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NTCB) is a brief computerized method for evaluating neuropsychological functions in children, adolescents, and adults. We examined how performance on the 2 executive function measures of cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control was related to performance on the other NTCB measures across development.

Method: Participants were 1,020 typically developing individuals between the ages of 3 and 21 from the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics Study who were divided into 5 age groups (3-6, 7-9, 10-13, 14-17, and 18-21). Read More

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October 2018
9 Reads

Assessment of cognitive-driven activity of daily living impairment in non-demented Parkinson's patients.

J Neuropsychol 2018 Oct 15. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Department of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, Germany.

The core criterion for Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is the impairment in activities of daily living (ADL) function primarily caused by cognitive, not motor symptoms. There is evidence to assume that mild ADL impairments in mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) characterize those patients at high risk for dementia. Data of 216 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients assessed with comprehensive motor and neuropsychological assessments were analysed. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Cross-lagged relation of leisure activity participation to trail making test performance 6 years later: Differential patterns in old age and very old age.

Neuropsychology 2018 Oct 4. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Psychology.

Objective: We investigated cross-lagged relations between leisure activity participation and Trail Making Test (TMT) performance over 6 years and whether those reciprocal associations differed between individuals.

Method: We analyzed data from 232 participants tested on performance in TMT Parts A and B as well as interviewed on leisure activity participation in 2 waves 6 years apart. Mean age in the Wave 1 was 73. Read More

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October 2018

Modelling picture naming in aphasia: The relationship between consistency and predictability of responses.

Neuropsychology 2018 Oct 4. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Centro Interdipartimentale Mente/Cervello.

Objective: Two aspects of aphasic picture naming were examined: that is, the extent to which the accuracy of the response to the same stimulus is replicated in a successive examination, and , that is, the extent to which accuracy depends on the characteristics of each stimulus.

Methods: Thirty-eight aphasic participants were examined twice. The response pattern was the same across the 2 presentations (response stability) for 36 participants, who were classified into 3 groups according to the prevailing error-type (lexical-semantic, phonological, or a balance between the two error-types): Their item-consistency was quantified with Cohen's kappa. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

State anxiety predicts cognitive performance in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Neuropsychology 2018 Nov 4;32(8):950-957. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Movement Disorders Research and Rehabilitation Centre.

Objective: Anxiety is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and frequently a comorbidity that appears alongside nonmotor symptoms such as cognitive deficits; however, the relationship between anxiety and cognition in PD remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety and specific cognitive domains (e.g. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

The relationship between response consistency in picture naming and storage impairment in people with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia.

Neuropsychology 2018 Oct 4. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders.

Objective: The progressive loss of stored knowledge about word meanings in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) has been attributed to an amodal "storage" deficit of the semantic system. Performance consistency has been proposed to be a key characteristic of storage deficits but has not been examined in close detail and larger participant cohorts.

Method: We assessed whether 10 people with svPPA showed consistency in picture naming across 3 closely consecutive sessions. Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads

Executive impairment is associated with unawareness of neuropsychiatric symptoms in premanifest and early Huntington's disease.

Neuropsychology 2018 Nov 13;32(8):958-965. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Monash Institute of Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences, School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University.

Objective: Unawareness of neuropsychiatric symptoms appears to be common in Huntington's disease (HD), but the clinical correlates of unawareness are unclear. Identifying predictors of unawareness is important for improving diagnosis of neuropsychiatric symptoms, and cognitive impairment, specifically executive impairment, may be a potential important predictor of unawareness. The authors examined whether unawareness of neuropsychiatric symptoms is more common in early HD compared to premanifest HD, and whether executive task performance was associated with awareness, independent of demographic, motor or mood variables. Read More

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November 2018
14 Reads

Hearing loss and verbal memory assessment among older adults.

Neuropsychology 2018 Sep 13. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.

Objective: Research has found that adults with hearing loss perform worse on cognitive testing than adults without hearing loss; however, heavy emphasis on tests involving auditory stimuli may overdiagnose cognitive impairment among individuals with hearing loss. This study compared visual- and auditory-verbal memory tests among adults with and without hearing loss.

Method: Forty-one adults with hearing loss (HL) and 41 age-matched adults with normal hearing (NH) completed a neuropsychological battery that included auditory and visual versions of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Testing-Revised (HVLT-R). Read More

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September 2018
13 Reads

Intraindividual variability in neuropsychological performance predicts cognitive decline and death in HIV.

Neuropsychology 2018 Nov 13;32(8):966-972. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Geffen School of Medicine.

Objective: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) occurs in a significant percentage of HIV-infected (HIV+) adults. Increased intraindividual variability (IIV) in cognitive function may be an early marker of emerging neurocognitive disorder, which suggests that IIV may be a sensitive measure of neurologic compromise in HIV. In the current study, we hypothesize that increased IIV may predict impending morbidity, including future cognitive decline and death. Read More

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November 2018

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume as a mediator between socioeconomic status and executive function.

Neuropsychology 2018 Nov 13;32(8):985-995. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Department of Psychology.

Objective: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is related to poorer cognitive performance, but the neural underpinnings of this relation are not fully understood. This study examined whether SES-linked decrements in executive function were mediated by smaller dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) volumes. Given the literature demonstrating that SES-brain relations differ by race, we examined whether race moderated these mediations. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Electrophysiological correlates of empathic processing and its relation to psychopathic meanness.

Neuropsychology 2018 Nov 13;32(8):996-1006. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Department of Psychology, Education and Child Studies.

Objective: A lack of empathy and the presence of predatory tendencies are considered key features of psychopathic meanness. Previous electrophysiological studies on empathy in relation to psychopathic traits have focused mainly on empathy for pain; therefore, little is known about the electrophysiological correlates of empathy in aggressive situations that are particularly relevant for psychopathic meanness.

Method: We employed electroencephalography in a community sample ( = 70), the majority of whom had attained a higher level of education. Read More

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November 2018

Retrospective time estimation following damage to the prefrontal cortex.

J Neuropsychol 2018 Sep 7. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Department of Psychology, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan.

Time estimation in patients with prefrontal cortex (PFC) damage is often inaccurate. The relationship between PFC and estimation of short time intervals has been examined. However, it remains unclear whether PFC damage affects estimation of longer time intervals. Read More

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September 2018

What's left for balanced bilinguals? Language proficiency and item familiarity affect left-hemisphere specialization in metaphor processing.

Neuropsychology 2018 Oct 30;32(7):866-879. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego.

Objective: To characterize the hemispheric processing of metaphors in bilinguals compared with monolinguals and to determine the role of language proficiency in hemispheric lateralization.

Method: Fifty-seven English-dominant Spanish-English bilinguals and 57 English speaking monolinguals participated in a divided visual field study. The two groups performed a semantic judgment task with metaphorical, literal, and unrelated word pairs presented either to the right visual field/left hemisphere or to the left visual field/right hemisphere. Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads

Left inferior frontal cortex can compensate the inhibitory functions of right inferior frontal cortex and pre-supplementary motor area.

J Neuropsychol 2018 Aug 29. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Neuroimaging Unit, "A. Meyer" Children's Hospital, Florence, Italy.

Right-IFG and pre-SMA are associated with inhibitory responses. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to explore whether the contralateral homotopic regions can functionally replace them. An adolescent, with an extensive traumatic lesion of the right cerebral hemisphere having occurred 5 years earlier, performed a motor response inhibition task (Go/Nogo), which was properly accomplished and associated to activations in the left-IFC, precuneus and occipital cortex. Read More

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August 2018
7 Reads

Differences in working memory as a function of physical activity in children.

Neuropsychology 2018 Oct 20;32(7):797-808. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Department of Physical Education and Institute for Research Excellence in Learning Science.

Objective: Given previous research examining the relationship between physical activity (PA) and working memory in children has not taken into account of potentially confounders, this study specifically controlled for the effects of intelligence and fitness-related factors (i.e., aerobic and motor fitness) on this relationship. Read More

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October 2018

Effects of extreme prematurity and kindergarten neuropsychological skills on early academic progress.

Neuropsychology 2018 Oct 20;32(7):809-821. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University.

Objective: The study was designed to investigate the effect of extreme prematurity on growth in academic achievement across the early school years and the validity of kindergarten neuropsychological skills as predictors of achievement.

Method: A 2001-2003 birth cohort of 145 extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight (EPT/ELBW) children from a single medical center, along with 111 normal birth weight (NBW) classmate controls, were recruited during their first year in kindergarten and followed annually across the next 2 years in school. Mixed model analysis was conducted to compare the groups on growth in achievement across years and examine kindergarten neuropsychological skills as predictors of growth. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

Differential effects of cognition-focused interventions for people with Alzheimer's disease: A meta-analysis.

Neuropsychology 2018 Sep 6;32(6):664-679. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Department of Health Psychology.

Objective: The efficacy of cognition-focused interventions (CFIs) for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been questioned recently. To date, the specific effects of cognitive rehabilitation (CR), cognitive training (CT), and cognitive stimulation [CS] have not been analyzed due to inconsistencies in the use of the comparison groups. This work aims to analyze the differential effects of CFIs by removing the influence of the comparison group from the estimates of the effects. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Multimodal face and voice recognition disorders in a case with unilateral right anterior temporal lobe atrophy.

Neuropsychology 2018 Nov 6;32(8):920-930. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Institute of Neurology.

Objective: Familiar face recognition disorders are often observed in patients with lesions of the right anterior temporal lobe (ATL). It is not clear, however, if this defect must be considered as a form of associative prosopagnosia, or as a multimodal (face and voice) people recognition disorder, because voice recognition is rarely examined in these patients. The most appropriate manner of solving this problem could consist in evaluating, in one or more patients with right ATL lesions, recognition disorders through face and voice of the same well known people. Read More

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November 2018

Pedometer-assessed steps per day as a predictor of cognitive performance in older adults.

Neuropsychology 2018 Nov 6;32(8):941-949. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Institute for Dementia Research and Prevention.

Objective: To examine associations between pedometer-assessed daily steps and several domains of cognitive functioning in cognitive healthy older adults.

Method: A total of 582 cognitively healthy older adults enrolled in a longitudinal aging study completed the Uniform Data Set (UDS) neuropsychological battery ( = 374) or the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS; = 208) and were asked to wear a pedometer for 1 week.

Results: Bivariate correlations revealed associations between average daily steps and attention, executive functioning, language, and memory on one or both cognitive batteries. Read More

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November 2018
9 Reads

The life span distribution of autobiographical memory in Alzheimer's disease.

Neuropsychology 2018 Nov 26;32(8):906-919. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Center on Autobiographical Memory Research (Con Amore).

Objective: The literature on the temporal distribution of autobiographical memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by mixed findings concerning the presence of a temporal gradient in the loss of autobiographical memory. Some studies show a gradient, implying better access to more remote autobiographical memories, whereas others do not. These conflicting results likely reflect differences in the test methodologies, accentuating the need for replications and extensions. Read More

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November 2018
15 Reads

Musical emotions in congenital amusia: Impaired recognition, but preserved emotional intensity.

Neuropsychology 2018 Oct 26;32(7):880-894. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Lyon Neuroscience Research Center.

Objective: To further our understanding of the role of perceptual processes in musical emotions, we investigated individuals with congenital amusia, a neurodevelopmental disorder that alters pitch processing.

Method: Amusic and matched control participants were studied for emotion recognition and emotion intensity ratings of both musical excerpts and faces.

Results: Emotion recognition was found to be impaired in amusic participants relative to controls for the musical stimuli only. Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads

Antecedents and consequences of unawareness of memory impairment in dementia.

Neuropsychology 2018 Nov 26;32(8):931-940. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Rush Institute for Healthy Aging.

Objective: To assess the prevalence, antecedents, and consequences of unawareness of memory impairment in dementia.

Method: Persons ( = 1,862) from a geographically defined community without dementia at enrollment subsequently underwent clinical classification (248 with dementia, 611 with mild cognitive impairment, 1,003 with no cognitive impairment), memory testing, and self-appraisal of memory. Memory performance was regressed on self-appraised memory, and the residuals served as an index of memory awareness. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Improving motivation through real-time fMRI-based self-regulation of the nucleus accumbens.

Neuropsychology 2018 Sep 26;32(6):764-776. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory.

Objective: Impaired nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activation is associated with amotivation and anhedonia, which are resistant to treatment with antipsychotics and antidepressants in schizophrenia. In this study, healthy participants were trained to self-regulate the activation of their NAcc, a brain region that plays an important role in motivation, using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback.

Method: The experimental group ( = 19) received feedback from the NAcc, whereas the control group ( = 5) received "sham" feedback from the posterior parahippocampal gyrus, a control brain region not normally related to motivation. Read More

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September 2018
5 Reads

Executive function but not episodic memory decline associated with visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease.

J Neuropsychol 2018 Jul 23. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

University of Exeter Medical School, UK.

Introduction: Visual hallucinations (VH) have a significant impact on quality of life for people with Parkinson's disease (PD). A major reason for this is the well-established link with cognitive impairment, but there is still a need for more longitudinal studies examining the specific cognitive domains which may be affected. The aim of this study was to profile decline in cognition associated with VH in a cohort of 69 individuals with PD over 1 year. Read More

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July 2018
9 Reads

Naturalistic assessment of task interruption in individuals with mild cognitive impairment.

Neuropsychology 2018 Jul 23. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Department of Psychology.

Objective: Interruptions are ubiquitous in everyday life, and recovering from interruptions requires several cognitive processes working in tandem. In this study, we assessed the effects of an interruption on the performance of older individuals with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) completing everyday tasks in a naturalistic apartment setting.

Method: Thirty-two persons with MCI and 64 cognitively healthy older adults (HOA) completed two different sets of everyday activities, of which one received an interruption. Read More

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July 2018
2 Reads

Occupational cognitive complexity in earlier adulthood is associated with brain structure and cognitive health in midlife: The CARDIA study.

Neuropsychology 2018 Nov 9;32(8):895-905. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Department of Psychiatry.

Objective: In line with cognitive reserve theory, higher occupational cognitive complexity is associated with reduced cognitive decline in older adulthood. How and when occupational cognitive complexity first exerts protective effects during the life span remains unclear. We investigated associations between occupational cognitive complexity during early to midadulthood and brain structure and cognition in midlife. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Asymmetrical distractibility of global and focal visuospatial attention during segmental and total compound line bisections.

Neuropsychology 2018 Oct 9;32(7):843-849. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Malcom Randall Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

Background/objectives: Compound horizontal lines are composed of 2 segments of unequal length and width. Line bisection requires that the participants attend to the entire line (global attention). The longer segment often distracts participants, suggesting that attention directed to this segment (focal attention) disrupts the allocation of global attention. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Conventional and functional assessment of spatial neglect: Clinical practice suggestions.

Neuropsychology 2018 Oct 5;32(7):835-842. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Kessler Foundation.

Objective: Spatial neglect (SN) constitutes a substantial barrier to functional recovery after acquired brain injury. However, because of its multimodal nature, no single test can capture all the signs of SN. To provide a clinically feasible solution, we used conventional neuropsychological tests as well as the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS) via the Kessler Foundation Neglect Assessment Process (KF-NAP). Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Memory dysfunction in school-aged children exposed prenatally to antiepileptic drugs.

Neuropsychology 2018 Oct 5;32(7):784-796. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Clinical Sciences, Murdoch Children's Research Institute.

Objective: Prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and in particular valproate (VPA) has been shown to impair intellectual and language development in children, but the impact on memory functioning has not been thoroughly investigated. This study aimed to evaluate memory skills in school-age children who were exposed to AEDs prenatally.

Method: The sample comprised of 105 children aged 6 to 8 years. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Implicit sequence learning in young people with Tourette syndrome with and without co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

J Neuropsychol 2018 Jul 4. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Division of Psychiatry and Applied Psychology, Institute of Mental Health, University of Nottingham, UK.

Impaired habit-learning has been proposed to underlie the tic symptoms of Tourette syndrome (TS). However, accounts differ in terms of how habit-learning is altered in TS, with some authors proposing habit formation is impaired due to a deficient 'chunking' mechanism, and others proposing habit-learning is overactive and tics reflect hyperlearned behaviours. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with TS and is known to affect cognitive function in young people with co-occurring TS and ADHD (TS + ADHD). Read More

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July 2018
3 Reads

The attribute priming effect in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

J Neuropsychol 2018 Jul 4. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Laboratory of Clinical and Behavioural Neurology, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy.

Experiments with semantic priming (SP) paradigms have documented early hypopriming in patients with AD when concepts are used as primes and attribute concept features as targets, suggesting that concept attributes are vulnerable to damage very early in the disease course. The aims of this study were to confirm early priming reduction in the attribute condition in patients with AD and to determine which of several semantic indexes (such as the level of distinctiveness, correlation or feature dominance of concept features) best predicts the priming effect size in AD. We administered an SP attribute condition paradigm to 20 mildly demented patients with AD and to 10 NCs. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Computerized attentional training and transfer with virtual reality: Effect of age and training type.

Neuropsychology 2018 Jul;32(5):597-614

Research Centre.

Objective: The aims of this study were to assess whether computerized attentional training improves dual-tasking abilities in older adults and whether its effect and transfer are modulated by age and the type of training provided. This study also used virtual reality (VR) as a proxy to measure transfer in a real life related context.

Method: Sixty participants (30 older and 30 younger adults) were randomized to either: (a) single-task training (two tasks practiced in focused attention; visual detection and alphanumeric equation task); or (b) divided attention variable-priority training (varying the amount of attention to put on each task when performed concurrently). Read More

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Time-based prospective memory in children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury: Impact of working memory demands.

Neuropsychology 2018 Jul;32(5):575-585

School of Psychology.

Objective: Difficulties with prospective memory are frequently reported following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), but rarely researched. We aimed to (i) investigate time-based prospective memory post-pediatric TBI; (ii) examine whether time-based prospective memory is differentially impacted by the demand placed on working memory; and (iii) explore which components of working memory (viz., central executive, phonological loop, and visuospatial sketchpad) are involved in time-based prospective memory under low and high cognitive load following pediatric TBI. Read More

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July 2018
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Preliminary evidence for differential trajectories of recovery for cognitive flexibility following sports-related concussion.

Neuropsychology 2018 Jul;32(5):564-574

Department of Kinesiology.

Objective: A critical barrier to the understanding of disruptions to cognitive flexibility following sports-related concussion is the use of assessments that conflate shifts of visuospatial attention and contextual rules. Because these dissociable forms of cognitive flexibility are subserved by distinct neural networks, the utility of a cognitive flexibility assessment following concussion may be reduced, depending upon the extent to which the task requires shifting visuospatial attention relative to shifting contextual rules. Accordingly, the current investigation examined the extent to which these aspects of cognitive flexibility exhibit differential trajectories of recovery following a sports-related concussion. Read More

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July 2018
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