8,852 results match your criteria Neuropsychologia [Journal]


Traces of Statistical Learning in the Brain's Functional Connectivity after Artificial Language Exposure.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Center for Brain and Cognition, Department of Technology, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08018, Barcelona, Spain.

Our environment is full of statistical regularities, and we are attuned to learn about these regularities by employing Statistical Learning (SL), a domain-general ability that enables the implicit detection of probabilistic regularities in our surrounding environment. The role of brain connectivity on SL has been previously explored, highlighting the relevance of structural and functional connections between frontal, parietal, and temporal cortices. However, whether SL can induce changes in the functional connections of the resting state brain has yet to be investigated. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Winning smiles: Signalling reward by overlapping and non-overlapping emotional valence differentially affects performance and neural activity.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University.

It is well-known that both emotional and motivational events greatly impact our behaviour. Based on previous work on the interplay between these two constructs, the present study aimed to test whether and how concurrent emotion and reward signals interact in terms of their basic valence, when both are equally relevant to the task. To this end, we employed a novel fMRI paradigm in which reward availability was explicitly signalled by positive, neutral, or negative facial expressions (using block-wise instructions). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Is developmental prosopagnosia best characterised as an apperceptive or mnemonic condition?

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London, London, U.K.

Traditionally, developmental prosopagnosia (DP) has been thought of as an apperceptive condition that hinders individuals' ability to encode face structure. However, several authors have recently raised the possibility that many DPs may be able to form accurate percepts, but be unable to maintain those percepts over time. The present study sought to distinguish these possibilities. Read More

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November 2018

Task difficulty modulates age-related differences in the behavioral and neural bases of language production.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA, 16801. Electronic address:

Older adults typically show decline in a variety of cognitive functions including inhibitory control and language production, with corresponding age-related increases in fMRI activation. However, it remains unclear whether such increases are compensatory or whether they reflect neural decline. One factor that may influence these brain-behavior relationships is difficulty. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Schizotypy and mentalizing: an fMRI study.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Philipps-University of Marburg.

Introduction: Schizotypy is a personality trait characterized by subclinical schizophrenia symptoms. Individuals with schizophrenia typically display behavioral mentalizing deficits and altered neural correlates during mentalizing. While schizotypy has been inconsistently related to behavioral mentalizing skills, its neural correlates of mentalizing are understudied so far. Read More

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November 2018
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Distorted body image influences body schema in individuals with negative bodily attitudes.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Psychology, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

There is now a considerable body of evidence to suggest that internal representations of the body can be meaningfully separated into at least two general levels; body image as a perceptual construct and body schema as a motor metric. However, recent studies with eating disordered individuals have suggested that there may in fact be more interaction between these two representations than first thought. We aimed to investigate how body image might act to influence body schema within a typical, healthy population. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Cortical covariance networks in ageing: cross-sectional data from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA).

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

St. James' Hospital, Dublin 8, Ireland; Centre for Advanced Medical Imaging (CAMI), St. James' Hospital, Dublin 8, Ireland.

Ageing is associated with widespread alterations to the brain's anatomy and to attendant cortical networks. Yet, few studies to date have indexed anatomical covariance network differences within the age distribution of older adulthood, despite known phenotypic variation. Here, we explored cortical anatomical covariance networks in middle and older age cross-sectionally, using a large sample of community-dwelling older adults from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). Read More

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November 2018

Repetition priming in amnesia: Distinguishing associative learning at different levels of abstraction.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 25. Epub 2018 Nov 25.

Memory Disorders Research Center, VA Boston Healthcare System and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02130, United States.

Learned associations between stimuli and responses make important contributions to priming. The current study aimed to determine whether medial temporal lobe (MTL) binding mechanisms mediate this learning. Prior studies implicating the MTL in stimulus-response (S-R) learning have not isolated associative learning at the response level from associative learning at other levels of representation (e. Read More

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November 2018

Color and spatial frequency differentially impact early stages of perceptual expertise training.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

University of Colorado Boulder.

The current study examined the role of color and spatial frequency on the early acquisition of perceptual expertise after one week of laboratory training with bird stimuli. Participants learned to categorize finches (or warblers) at the subordinate species level (e.g. Read More

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November 2018

Does the min-counting strategy for simple addition become automatized in educated adults? A behavioural and ERP study of the size congruency effect.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

University of Saskatchewan.

Recent studies have proposed that the sum-counting strategy for simple addition (i.e., count up of the summed value of the two operands one by one) used at early age becomes automatized in adults, challenging the long held view that skilled adults solve simple addition problems by fact retrieval. Read More

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November 2018

Temporal expectations modulate face image repetition suppression of early stimulus evoked event-related potentials.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia.

Repeated exposure to a stimulus leads to reduced responses of stimulus-selective sensory neurons, an effect known as repetition suppression or stimulus-specific adaptation. Several influential models have been proposed to explain repetition suppression within hierarchically-organised sensory systems, with each specifying different mechanisms underlying repetition effects. We manipulated temporal expectations within a face repetition experiment to test a critical prediction of the predictive coding model of repetition suppression: that repetition effects will be larger following stimuli that appear at expected times compared to stimuli that appear at unexpected times. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

REDUCED CONNECTIVITY BETWEEN MENTALIZING AND MIRROR SYSTEMS IN AUTISM SPECTRUM CONDITION.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Psychology, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom.

The mentalizing system and mirror system are thought to play important roles in inferring the internal mental states of others - a process known as mentalizing. Autism spectrum condition (ASC) is associated with difficulties in mentalizing. The aim of this study was to determine whether the behavioural difficulties in mentalizing associated with ASC can be explained by changes in functional connectivity between the mentalizing and mirror system. Read More

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November 2018
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Is VLSM a valid tool for determining the functional anatomy of the brain? Usefulness of additional Bayesian network analysis.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Oct 25;121:69-78. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Laboratory of Functional Neurosciences, Amiens University Hospital, France; Departments of Neurology, Amiens University Hospital, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: The ability of voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) to define the functional anatomy of the human brain has not been fully assessed. With a view to assessing VLSM's validity, the present study analyzed the technique's ability to determine the known clinical-anatomic correlates of hemiparesis in stroke patients.

Design: Lesions (damaged in at least 5 patients) associated with transformed limb motor score (after adjustment on lesion volume) at 6 months were examined in 272 patients using VLSM. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Interaction of the effects associated with auditory-motor integration and attention-engaging listening tasks.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Psychology and Logopedics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

A number of previous studies have implicated regions in posterior auditory cortex (AC) in auditory-motor integration during speech production. Other studies, in turn, have shown that activation in AC and adjacent regions in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) is strongly modulated during active listening and depends on task requirements. The present fMRI study investigated whether auditory-motor effects interact with those related to active listening tasks in AC and IPL. Read More

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November 2018

Dissociating between the N2pc and attentional shifting: An attentional blink study.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 9;121:153-163. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

School of Psychological Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Israel; Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Israel.

The N2pc is routinely used as an electrophysiological index of attentional shifting. Its absence is thus taken as evidence that no shift of attention occurred. We provide evidence in contrast to this notion using a variant of the attentional blink (AB) paradigm. Read More

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November 2018
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Diminished brain responses to second-language words are linked with native-language literacy skills in dyslexia.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Cognitive Brain Research Unit, Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki.

Dyslexia is characterized by poor reading skills, yet often also difficulties in second-language learning. The differences between native- and second-language speech processing and the establishment of new brain representations for spoken second language in dyslexia are not, however, well understood. We used recordings of the mismatch negativity component of event-related potential to determine possible differences between the activation of long-term memory representations for spoken native- and second-language word forms in Finnish-speaking 9-11-year-old children with or without dyslexia, studying English as their second language in school. Read More

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November 2018

Reduction in lower-alpha power during Ganzfeld flicker stimulation is associated with the production of imagery and trait positive schizotypy.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 6;121:79-87. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Division of Psychology, Nottingham Trent University, UK; The Com DEALL Trust, Bangalore, India; Centre for Autism, University of Reading, UK.

Light-flicker Ganzfeld (LFG) induces a lower to upper-alpha frequency shift. However, it is unclear how this neurophysiological response might relate to LFG-induced pseudo-hallucinatory phenomena. It is also unknown whether emotional states (e. Read More

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November 2018
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Comparison between decompressed and non-decompressed Chiari Malformation type I patients: A neuropsychological study.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 6;121:135-143. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Neuro-e-Motion Research Team, Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Deusto, Av. Universidades, 24, 48007 Bilbao, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Previous studies have suggested an association of Chiari Malformation type I (CM-I) and cognitive deficits. CM-I is a neurological disorder characterized by a descent of cerebellar tonsils into the foramen magnum, resulting in overcrowding of the upper cervical spine region. Posterior fossa decompression (PFD) is the surgical treatment of choice, however, the literature on the consequences for patients is mainly reduced to the assessment of physical symptoms. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Neural correlates of visual awareness at stimulus low vs. high-levels of processing.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 5;121:144-152. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland; Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.

A crucial view in the graded vs. dichotomous debate on visual awareness proposes that its graded or dichotomous nature may depend on the depth of stimulus processing (or level of processing) associated to the experimental task. In the present study, we explored the behavioral patterns and neural correlates of different degrees of awareness associated to different depths (i. Read More

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November 2018

Improving action video games abilities increases the phonological decoding speed and phonological short-term memory in children with developmental dyslexia.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 3. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Developmental and Cognitive Neuroscience Lab, Department of General Psychology, University of Padua, Padova 35131, Italy. Electronic address:

Learning to read is extremely difficult for about 10% of the children because they are affected by a heritable neurobiological disorder called developmental dyslexia (DD). The causal role of cognitive deficits typically associated to DD can be investigated through intervention studies. It has been demonstrated that visual-attention and reading speed could be simultaneously improved by using action video game (AVG) training both in shallow and deep alphabetic orthographies. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read
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When less is more: Thinner fronto-parietal cortices are associated with better forward digit span performance during early childhood.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Oct 28;121:11-18. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Although research shows that working memory improves during early childhood, it remains unclear how the fronto-parietal network of cortical regions, known to support this ability in adults, relates to changes in young children. Measures of cortical thickness may be useful in investigating this association as they reflect age-related differences in gray matter and have been proposed to support age-related improvements in other cognitive abilities, but have only sparingly been tested empirically in early childhood. The present study sought to investigate relations between cortical thickness and performance on a digit span task in 200 4- to 8-year-old children using both a priori defined regions of interest related to working memory (superior frontal cortex, middle frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, superior parietal cortex) and whole brain analyses. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Temporal brain dynamics of the competition between proximity and shape similarity grouping cues in vision.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 1;121:88-97. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Campus de Somosaguas, s/n, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid, Spain; Instituto Pluridisciplinar, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Paseo Juan XXIII, 1, Madrid 28040, Spain. Electronic address:

Perceptual grouping operations are crucial for visual object recognition. From the pioneering proposal of Gestalt psychologists, research has focused mostly on the dynamics of single grouping laws. However, the integration between grouping cues has received relatively less attention. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

The involvement of left inferior frontal and middle temporal cortices in word production unveiled by greater facilitation effects following brain damage.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 1;121:122-134. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Faculty of Psychology, University of Geneva, Switzerland.

In stroke-induced aphasia, left hemispheric lesions generally disturb the word production network. The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and the left middle temporal gyrus (LMTG) are involved in word production, but their respective contribution remains ambiguous. Previous investigations have largely focused on semantic interference to gather information about word production. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Induced gamma oscillations index individual differences in speech sound perception and production.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 1;121:28-36. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Division of Speech and Hearing Science the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Auditory neuroscience has provided strong evidence that neural oscillations synchronize to the rhythm of speech stimuli, and oscillations at different frequencies have been linked to processing of different language structures. The present study aims to examine how these ubiquitous neurophysiological attributes may inform us about the brain processes that underpin individual differences in speech perception and production, which in turn elucidate the specific functions of neural oscillations in the domain of speech processing. To this end, we recorded electrophysiological responses to a lexical tone contrast in a passive auditory oddball paradigm from two groups of healthy tone-language speakers who were equal in perceptual discriminability but differed in response latency and production distinctiveness of the tone contrast. Read More

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November 2018

Neural correlates of semantic and phonological processing revealed by functional connectivity patterns in the language network.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 1;121:47-57. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology & National Demonstration Center for Experimental Psychology Education (Beijing Normal University), Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China. Electronic address:

Semantics and phonology are fundamental components of language. Neuroimaging studies have identified a language network (LN) that is distributed through multiple regions and exhibits preferential responses to semantic and phonological information. However, it is unclear how these regions work collaboratively to support the processing of these components. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Multimodal neuroimaging evidence for looser lexico-semantic connections in schizophrenia.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Psychiatry and the Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, USA; Department of Linguistics, University of Maryland, USA.

It has been hypothesized that schizophrenia is characterized by overly broad automatic activity within lexico-semantic networks. We used two complementary neuroimaging techniques, Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), in combination with a highly automatic indirect semantic priming paradigm, to spatiotemporally localize this abnormality in the brain. Eighteen people with schizophrenia and 20 demographically-matched control participants viewed target words ("bell") preceded by directly related ("church"), indirectly related ("priest"), or unrelated ("pants") prime words in MEG and fMRI sessions. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

The electrophysiological correlates of developmental dyslexia: New insights from lexical decision and reading aloud in adults.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Oct 30;121:19-27. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

FPSE, University of Geneva, 40 Bd Pont d'Arve, CH-1211 Genève 4, Switzerland.

Many studies have described the electrophysiological specificities of print processing in dyslexic readers, mostly using lexical decision tasks. The aim of the present study was twofold: a) to assess for the first time the electrophysiological correlates of print processing in dyslexic adults in the under-investigated context of reading aloud tasks, acknowledged to be especially relevant to investigate phonological processes relatively to lexical decision; and b) to assess whether the electrophysiological specificities described in dyslexic readers in lexical decision correspond to a different neuronal network engaged in print processing. 21 dyslexic university students and matched controls performed a lexical decision task and a reading aloud task on words and pseudowords under EEG recording. Read More

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October 2018

Tests of whole upright face processing in prosopagnosia: A literature review.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Oct 31;121:106-121. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 2A, 1353 Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Prosopagnosia refers to an acquired or developmental deficit in face recognition. This neuropsychological impairment has received increasing attention over the last decade, in particular because of an increased scientific interest in developmental prosopagnosia. Studies investigating prosopagnosia have used a variety of different clinical and experimental tests to assess face processing abilities. Read More

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October 2018
10 Reads

The effects of periodic interruptions on cortical entrainment to speech.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Oct 30;121:58-68. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

The University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1K 3M4.

Speech is perceived as a continuous stream of words despite consisting of a discontinuous, quasi-periodic signal of interleaved sounds and silences. Speech perception is surprisingly robust to interference by interruption, however speech that is replaced by gaps of silence is difficult to understand. When those silences are filled with noise, the speech is once again perceived as continuous even when the underlying speech sounds are removed completely. Read More

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October 2018

Event-related potentials support a dual process account of the Embedded Chinese Character Task.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Oct 29;121:186-192. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Psychology, Education College, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Tests of the principles of dual process theory are typically conducted in the reasoning and judgement/decision-making literature. The present study explores dual process explanations with a new paradigm - the Embedded Chinese Character Task (ECCT). The beauty of this task is that it allows the contrast of automatic and deliberate processes without the potential for conflict. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Disentangling phonological and articulatory processing: A neuroanatomical study in aphasia.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Oct 25;121:175-185. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Dipartimento di Psicologia, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy; Centro di Neuroscienze di Milano, Milano, Italy.

Phonological and articulatory programming impairments may co-occur in aphasic patients and previous research does not offer a clear-cut picture of their anatomical counterparts. Hickok and Poeppel (2007) put forward a seminal model of speech processes. The ventral stream (mostly bilateral) would be involved in speech recognition and phonological-lexical processing, whereas the dorsal stream (largely lateralized to the left hemisphere) would map phonological representations onto articulatory motor patterns. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Syntactic complexity and musical proficiency modulate neural processing of non-native music.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Oct 22;121:164-174. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

In music, chords are organized into hierarchical structures on the basis of musical syntax and the syntax of Western music can be implicitly acquired by listeners growing up in a Western musical culture. Here, we investigated whether Western musical syntax of different complexities can be implicitly acquired by non-native listeners growing up in China. This study used electroencephalography (EEG) to measure how the neural responses to musical sequences that either follow a simple rule, i. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

The role of cognitive reserve accumulated in midlife for the relation between chronic diseases and cognitive decline in old age: A longitudinal follow-up across six years.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Oct 22;121:37-46. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; Center for the Interdisciplinary Study of Gerontology and Vulnerability, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research LIVES - Overcoming vulnerability: Life course perspectives, Lausanne and Geneva, Switzerland.

Objectives: The present study set out to investigate relations of the number of chronic diseases (as a global indicator of individuals' multimorbidity) to cognitive status and cognitive decline over six years as measured by changes in Trail Making Test (TMT) completion time in old adults and whether those relations differed by key life course markers of cognitive reserve (education, occupation, and cognitively stimulating leisure activities).

Method: We analyzed data from 897 participants tested on TMT parts A and B in two waves six years apart. Mean age in the first wave was 74. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Visual perception and spatial transformation of the body in children and adolescents with brain tumor.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 22;120:124-136. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Scientific Institute, IRCCS E. Medea, Neuropsychiatry and Neurorehabilitation Unit, Bosisio Parini, Lecco, Italy; Scientific Institute, IRCCS E. Medea, San Vito al Tagliamento, Pordenone, Italy; University of Udine, Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Languages and Literatures, Communication, Education and Society, Udine, Italy. Electronic address:

Representations of own and others' body play a crucial role in social interaction. While extensive knowledge has been gathered on the neuropsychological deficits affecting body representation in adult brain lesion patients, little is known on how acquired damage to a developing brain may affect this process. We tested it on pediatric brain tumor survivors, comparing the abilities of 30 children and adolescents (aged 8-16 years) surviving from a supratentorial tumor (STT) or an infratentorial tumor (ITT) in two different tasks of body representation. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Electrophysiological correlates of active suppression and attentional selection in preview visual search.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 22;120:75-85. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, UK.

Advance preview of a subset of distractor objects improves the efficiency of visual search performance, but the causes and mechanisms of such preview benefits remain unclear. Here, we employed event-related potential (ERP) markers of the selective processing of preview displays and full search displays in lateralised preview search tasks where only one side of the search displays was task-relevant. Preview displays elicited a sustained positivity contralateral to the relevant side (P component), indicative of the active suppression of distractor objects on this side. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Hemispheric asymmetries and emotions: Evidence from effective connectivity.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Oct 21;121:98-105. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

Department of Psychological, Health and Territorial Sciences, "G. d'Annunzio" University of Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini 32, IT-66100 Chieti, Italy.

The Right Hemisphere Hypothesis (RHH) posits that the right hemisphere is specialized in processing all emotions; the Valence Hypothesis (VH) suggests a left/right-hemispheric specialization for positive/negative emotions, respectively. Behavioural, neuroimaging and physiological investigations alternatively support either the RHH or the VH, but connectivity analyses have been hardly exploited in this field. In the present study, unilateral and bilateral presentations of positive (happy) and negative (angry) emotional faces were used during electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, and estimation of effective connectivity was performed using the Directed Transfer Function, to estimate causal influences between brain regions (Granger causality approach). Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads

The effects of working memory load on visual awareness and its electrophysiological correlates.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 22;120:86-96. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Portugal.

Consciousness and working memory (WM) have been thought to be closely related, but their exact relationship has remained unclear. The present study focused on the question whether visual awareness, the subjective experience of seeing, depends on resources of WM. Three dual-task experiments were run. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Dopaminergic genes are associated with both directed and random exploration.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 19;120:97-104. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.

In order to maximize long-term rewards, agents must balance exploitation (choosing the option with the highest payoff) and exploration (gathering information about options that might have higher payoffs). Although the optimal solution to this trade-off is intractable, humans make use of two effective strategies: selectively exploring options with high uncertainty (directed exploration), and increasing the randomness of their choices when they are more uncertain (random exploration). Using a task that independently manipulates these two forms of exploration, we show that single nucleotide polymorphisms related to dopamine are associated with individual differences in exploration strategies. Read More

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November 2018

Cross-modal integration during value-driven attentional capture.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 18;120:105-112. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Neuroscience Department, Laboratory for Behavioral Neurology and Imaging of Cognition, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

A growing body of evidence suggests that reward may be a powerful determinant of attentional selection. To date, the study of value-based attentional capture has been mainly focused on the visual sensory modality. It is yet unknown how reward information is communicated and integrated across the different senses in order to resolve between competing choices during selective attention. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Visual detection of affordances for aperture negotiation in people with Parkinson disease.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 18;120:59-64. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

First Physical Therapy, United States.

Background: An essential requirement for the guidance of action in cluttered environments is that people can accurately perceive what actions are afforded by particular surroundings given the person's action capabilities. Research has shown that healthy young individuals turn their shoulders when walking through a doorway when the aperture is less than a certain percentage of their shoulder width and that they are able to detect this critical width with visual inspection. These findings imply that movements are constrained by perception of the environment in body-scaled unit. Read More

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November 2018
10 Reads

Typical numerosity adaptation despite selectively impaired number acuity in dyscalculia.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 15;120:43-49. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Institute of Neuroscience, National Research Council, Pisa, Italy; Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Pharmacology and Child Health, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

It has been suggested that a core deficit of the "number sense" may underlie dyscalculia. We test this idea by measuring perceptual adaptation and discrimination thresholds for numerosity and object size in a group of dyscalculic and typical preadolescents (N = 71, mean age 12). We confirmed that numerosity discrimination thresholds are higher in developmental dyscalculia, while size thresholds are not affected. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Investigating the roles of medial prefrontal and superior temporal cortex in source monitoring.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 13;120:113-123. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

Psychology Department, Durham University, Durham, UK.

Source monitoring, or the ability to recall the origin of information, is a crucial aspect of remembering past experience. One facet of this, reality monitoring, refers to the ability to distinguish between internally generated and externally generated information, biases in which have previously been associated with auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that medial prefrontal and superior temporal (STG) regions may play a role in reality monitoring for auditory verbal information, with evidence from a previous neurostimulation experiment also suggesting that modulation of excitability in STG may affect reality monitoring task performance. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Disconfirmation modulates the neural correlates of the false consensus effect: A parametric modulation approach.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Oct 14;121:1-10. Epub 2018 Oct 14.

University of California, Los Angeles, USA.

The false consensus effect (FCE) - the tendency to (erroneously) project our attitudes and opinions onto others - is an enduring bias in social reasoning with important societal implications. In this fMRI investigation, we examine the neural correlates of within-subject variation in consensus bias on a variety of social and political issues. Bias demonstrated a strong association with activity in brain regions implicated in self-related cognition, mentalizing, and valuation. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Multivariate pattern analysis of the human pSTS: A comparison of three prototypical localizers.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 12;120:50-58. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Department of Cognitive Sciences, University of California Irvine, United States. Electronic address:

The posterior extent of the human superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is an important cortical region for detecting animacy, attributing agency to others, and decoding goal-directed behavior. Theoretical accounts attribute these cognitive skills to unique neural populations that have been difficult to identify empirically (Hein and Knight, 2008). The aim of this study is to evaluate the multivariate statistical structure of pSTS activation patterns when viewing different social cues. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

A post-exercise facilitation of executive function is independent of aerobically supported metabolic costs.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 13;120:65-74. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

School of Kinesiology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada; Canadian Center for Activity and Aging, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.

A single-bout of aerobic or resistance training facilitates executive function and is a benefit thought to be specific to exercise durations greater than 20 min. We sought to determine whether an executive benefit is observed for a session as brief as 10-min, and whether distinct and participant-specific exercise intensities - and associated metabolic costs - influence the magnitude of the benefit. Participants completed exercise sessions - via cycle ergometer - at moderate (80% of lactate threshold [LT]), heavy (15% of the difference between LT and VO) and very-heavy (50% of the difference between LT and VO) intensities determined via an incremental ramp test to volitional exhaustion. Read More

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November 2018

The neural representation of an individualized relational affective space.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 12;120:35-42. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Humans experience emotions every day. Traditionally, psychology has described emotions through discrete labels (e.g. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

An information-theoretic perspective on the costs of cognition.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Sep 28. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, National Research Council, Via San Martino della Battaglia 44, 00185 Rome, Italy.

In statistics and machine learning, model accuracy is traded off with complexity, which can be viewed as the amount of information extracted from the data. Here, we discuss how cognitive costs can be expressed in terms of similar information costs, i.e. Read More

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September 2018

Hierarchical timescales of statistical learning revealed by mismatch negativity to auditory pattern deviations.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 27;120:25-34. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia; Hunter Medical Research Institute, Kookaburra Circuit, New Lambton Heights, NSW 2305, Australia. Electronic address:

The amplitude of mismatch negativity (MMN) elicited following an unexpected sound reflects a pattern-violation signal that will increase with estimated precision. Precision is inversely related to environmental variance, and should be higher the longer that current regularities have been stable. However, MMN amplitude can be impacted by initial learning such that the relative probability of sounds when first encountered distorts the precision estimates later associated with those sounds. Read More

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November 2018

Rubber Hand Illusion survives Ventral Premotor area inhibition: A rTMS study.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Nov 26;120:18-24. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Department of Brain and Behavioural Sciences, University of Pavia, Via Bassi, 21, 27100 Pavia, Italy; ASST Grande Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda, Piazza dell'Ospedale Maggiore 3, 20162 Milan, Italy; NeuroMi - Milan Center for Neuroscience, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

The sense of body ownership is a fundamental feature that refers to the ability to recognize our body as our own, allowing us to interact properly with the outside world. Usually, it is explored by means of the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) during which a dummy hand is incorporated in the mental representation of one's own body throughout a multisensory (visuo-tactile) integration mechanism. Particular attention has been paid to the neurofunctional counterparts of this mechanism highlighting the pivotal role of an occipito-parieto-frontal network involving the Ventral Premotor area (PMv). Read More

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November 2018
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The neural bases of creativity and intelligence: common ground and differences.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Sep;118(Pt A):1-3

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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September 2018
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