20,630 results match your criteria Neuropsychiatry [Journal]


Prevalence of autism traits and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with chronic pain.

J Pain Res 2018 8;11:2827-2836. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Functional Area Medical Psychology/Functional Unit Behavior Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden,

Purpose: Recent research has suggested that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be comorbid to pediatric chronic pain, but the empirical support is yet scarce. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the occurrence of traits and symptoms consistent with clinically significant ASD and ADHD in a group of children and adolescents with chronic debilitating pain and examine potential differences in pain and demographic variables between children with and without clinically significant traits and symptoms of ASD and ADHD.

Patients And Methods: This cross-sectional study included 146 parent-child dyads (102 girls, 111 mothers, children 8-17 years) consecutively referred to a tertiary pain clinic. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

The Effects of COMT Polymorphism on Cortical Thickness and Surface Area Abnormalities in Children with ADHD.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Research Center for Child Mental Development, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui, Japan.

The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with frontal cortex development and the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, how the COMT gene impacts brain structure and behavior in ADHD remains unknown. In the present study, we identify the effect of COMT on cortical thickness and surface area in children with ADHD and children with typically developing (TD) using a machine learning approach. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Neurometabolite changes in patients with complex regional pain syndrome using magnetic resonance spectroscopy: a pilot study.

Neuroreport 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Emotional Information and Communication Technology Association, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The aim of this study was to investigate distinct neurometabolites in the right and left thalamus and insula of patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) compared with healthy controls using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), myo-inositol (ml), glutamine (Gln), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glutathione (GSH), and alanine (Ala) relative to total creatine (tCr) levels, including creatine and phosphocreatine, were determined in the right and left thalamus and insula in 12 patients with CRPS compared with 11 healthy controls using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Levels of NAAG/tCr and Ala/tCr were higher in patients with CRPS than in controls in the left thalamus. Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Use of a Double-Cone Coil in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Depression Treatment.

Neuromodulation 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Neuropsychiatry, Behavioral Science Postgraduate Program at the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

Introduction: Approximately 15% of all people will experience a depressive episode throughout their lives, and by 2020, depression will be the second largest cause of disability around the world. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been shown to be an effective option for treating this condition. Devices such as the double-cone coil may bring new insights regarding depression treatment. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Neuroepigenetic mechanisms underlying fear extinction: emerging concepts.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Cognitive Neuroepigenetics Laboratory, Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

An understanding of how memory is acquired and how it can be modified in fear-related anxiety disorders, with the enhancement of failing memories on one side and a reduction or elimination of traumatic memories on the other, is a key unmet challenge in the fields of neuroscience and neuropsychiatry. The latter process depends on an important form of learning called fear extinction, where a previously acquired fear-related memory is decoupled from its ability to control behaviour through repeated non-reinforced exposure to the original fear-inducing cue. Although simple in description, fear extinction relies on a complex pattern of brain region and cell-type specific processes, some of which are unique to this form of learning and, for better or worse, contribute to the inherent instability of fear extinction memory. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Phobia of the Supernatural: A Distinct but Poorly Recognized Specific Phobia With an Adverse Impact on Daily Living.

Front Psychiatry 2018 16;9:590. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

The D'Or Institute for Research and Education (IDOR), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The psychological and psychiatric literature has seldom appreciated the clinical fact that fears of ghosts and kindred supernatural worries may be a cause of intense discomfort, poor sleep, and socio-occupational impairment. In the present article, this claim is illustrated by the clinical features of six patients who developed intense anxiety when they had to sleep alone at night. The fears were first noticed in childhood and persisted into adolescence and adulthood. Read More

View Article
November 2018

A phase IIb, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging investigation of the safety and efficacy of NTCELL [immunoprotected (alginate-encapsulated) porcine choroid plexus cells for xenotransplantation] in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Neurology, Auckland City Hospital, 2 Park Road, Grafton, Auckland, 1023, New Zealand; Centre for Brain Research, University of Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Introduction: Regenerative therapies in Parkinson's disease aim to slow neurodegeneration and re-establish damaged neuronal circuitry. Neurotrophins are potent endogenous regulators of neuronal survival, development and regeneration. They represent an attractive regenerative treatment option in Parkinson's disease. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Electroconvulsive Therapy While Receiving Oral Anticoagulation for Deep Venous Thrombosis: Report on Eight Cases and a Review of the Literature.

Psychosomatics 2018 Nov 7. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

University of Yamanashi, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Ethics, Yamanashi, Japan; Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is indicated for critical psychiatric conditions, which themselves constitute a risk for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) owing to prolonged immobility, dehydration, and venous stasis.

Objective: We describe challenging instances of ECT implementation while taking direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs).

Method: We report on 8 patients receiving DOACs for DVT who were successfully treated with ECT at the University of Yamanashi Hospital. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Biological rhythm and emotional and behavioral problems among schoolchildren in Southern Brazil.

Chronobiol Int 2018 Dec 3:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

a Health and Behavior , Universidade Católica de Pelotas , Pelotas , Brazil.

Emotional and behavioral problems have been considered an indicative of mental disorder in children. Mental health problems affect 10-20% of children and adolescents living in low-income and middle-income countries. Evidence suggests that disruptions in the biological rhythm may be a primary cause of emotional and behavioral changes, which affects several psychological functions and moods. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Traumatic brain injury is highly associated with self-reported childhood trauma within a juvenile offender cohort.

Brain Inj 2018 Dec 2:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

f Kirby Institute , University of New South Wales , Sydney , Australia.

Primary Objective: To identify correlates of past traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a population of young offenders.

Research Design: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on available data from a sample derived from the NSW Young People on Community Orders Health Survey.

Procedures: Study participants were administered questionnaires to collect history relating to past TBI, childhood trauma, substance abuse, and psychological/psychiatric symptoms and underwent assessments of intellectual functioning. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Migraine and Markers of Carotid Atherosclerosis in Middle-Aged Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Headache 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of Neurology, Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz of the Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

Objective: This study evaluated the association between migraine and the markers of carotid artery disease.

Background: Migraine increases the risk of cardiovascular events, but its relationship with vascular dysfunction is unclear.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, middle-aged women with no known cardiovascular diseases underwent clinical, neurological, and laboratory evaluations; pulse wave velocity (PWV) assessment; and carotid artery ultrasonography. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Social problems in daily life of patients with dementia.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama, Japan.

Aim: Most patients with dementia frequently encounter various problems in their daily lives. Those troubles embarrass both the patients and their families, and cause problems for society. However, there have been few scientific reports on the difficulties in the daily life of patients with dementia. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Neurostimulation for Functional Neurological Disorder: Evaluating Longitudinal Neurophysiology.

Mov Disord Clin Pract 2018 Sep-Oct;5(5):561-563. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

The Edmond J. Safra Program in Parkinson's Disease and the Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Clinic, Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neurology University of Toronto Toronto Canada.

View Article
October 2018
1 Read

Does relapse contribute to treatment resistance? Antipsychotic response in first- vs. second-episode schizophrenia.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Schizophrenia Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Although some studies have suggested that relapse may be associated with antipsychotic treatment resistance in schizophrenia, the number and quality of studies is limited. The current analysis included patients with a diagnosis of first-episode schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who met the following criteria: (1) referral to the First-Episode Psychosis Program between 2003 and 2013; (2) treatment with an oral second-generation antipsychotic according to a standardized treatment algorithm; (3) positive symptom remission; (4) subsequent relapse (i.e. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Genetic Overlap between General Cognitive Function and Schizophrenia: A Review of Cognitive GWASs.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 30;19(12). Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Pathology of Mental Diseases, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo 187-8553, Japan.

General cognitive (intelligence) function is substantially heritable, and is a major determinant of economic and health-related life outcomes. Cognitive impairments and intelligence decline are core features of schizophrenia which are evident before the onset of the illness. Genetic overlaps between cognitive impairments and the vulnerability for the illness have been suggested. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Heart rate variability changes in major depressive disorder during sleep: Fractal index correlates with BDI score during REM sleep.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Nov 12;271:291-298. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea; Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

We investigated the relationship between autonomic nervous system activity during each sleep stage and the severity of depressive symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy control subjects. Thirty patients with MDD and thirty healthy control subjects matched for sex, age, and body mass index completed standard overnight polysomnography. Depression severity was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Read More

View Article
November 2018
5 Reads

Hippocampal subfields and visuospatial associative memory across stages of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder.

Psychol Med 2018 Dec 4:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Psychiatry,Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, The University of Melbourne and Melbourne Health,Carlton South, Victoria,Australia.

Background: While previous studies have identified relationships between hippocampal volumes and memory performance in schizophrenia, these relationships are not apparent in healthy individuals. Further, few studies have examined the role of hippocampal subfields in illness-related memory deficits, and no study has examined potential differences across varying illness stages. The current study aimed to investigate whether individuals with early and established psychosis exhibited differential relationships between visuospatial associative memory and hippocampal subfield volumes. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Postoperative complications influencing the long-term outcome of head-injured patients after decompressive craniectomy.

Brain Behav 2018 Dec 4:e01179. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Affiliated Brain Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Fourth Clinical College of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Objective: Postoperative complications are common in patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy (DC) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, little is known about the degree of association between the postoperative complications and the long-term outcome of adult TBI patients after DC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of postoperative complications that influenced the long-term outcome of DC in TBI patients. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Mood stabilizers as an Achilles' heel for indication-based nomenclature and roles of Neuroscience-based Nomenclature.

Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2018 Dec;72(12):854-855

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

View Article
December 2018

Brief Report: Evaluating the Utility of Varied Technological Agents to Elicit Social Attention from Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

J Autism Dev Disord 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Research Center for Child Mental Development, Kanazawa University, 13-1, Takaramachi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-8640, Japan.

Technological agents could be effective tools to be used in interventions for enhancing social orienting for some young children with ASD. We examined response to social bids in preschool children with ASD and typical development (TD) at a very early age (i.e. Read More

View Article
December 2018
4 Reads

Association Between Magnetoencephalographic Interictal Epileptiform Discharge and Cognitive Function in Young Children With Typical Development and With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Front Psychiatry 2018 19;9:568. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Psychiatry and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.

Electroencephalograms of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show higher rates of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs), which are known to have an inverse association with cognitive function in typically developed (TD) children. Nevertheless, that phenomenon has not been investigated adequately in children with ASD. From university and affiliated hospitals, 163 TD children (84 male, 79 female, aged 32-89 months) and 107 children (85 male, 22 female, aged 36-98 months) with ASD without clinical seizure were recruited. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Sex differences in the cardiometabolic health of cannabis users with a psychotic illness.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 Nov 22;194:447-452. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Research Unit, Division of Psychiatry, Medical School, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia; Centre for Clinical Research in Neuropsychiatry, Division of Psychiatry, Medical School, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.

Background: Growing evidence shows cannabis use is associated with lower rates of metabolic dysregulation. Despite cannabis impacting each sex differently, few studies have examined the metabolic profile of male and female cannabis users separately. Our aim was to investigate sex differences in the impact of cannabis use on metabolic syndrome in adults with psychotic illness. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Experiences and needs of parents of young children with active epilepsy: A population-based study.

Epilepsy Behav 2018 Nov 27;90:37-44. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Research Department, Young Epilepsy, Lingfield, Surrey RH7 6PW, UK; UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health (ICH), 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK. Electronic address:

The aim of the study was to gain a comprehensive understanding of the experiences and needs of parents of young children with epilepsy from a total population sample. The parents (mothers (n = 38), fathers (n = 9)) of 40/53 (75% of total population) young children (1-7 years; 23 males, 17 females) with 'active' epilepsy (had a seizure in the last year or taking Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs)) were interviewed either in person or over the telephone using a semistructured interview schedule. The families were resident in the south of the UK. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Protective potentials of far-infrared ray against neuropsychotoxic conditions.

Neurochem Int 2018 Nov 28;122:144-148. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Neuropsychopharmacology and Toxicology Program, BK21 PLUS Project, College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chunchon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Compelling evidence suggests that far-infrared ray (FIR) possesses beneficial effects on emotional disorders. However, the underlying mechanism conveyed by FIR remains unclear. Recently, we demonstrated that exposure to FIR induces antioxidant potentials via up-regulation of glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-1 gene. Read More

View Article
November 2018
3 Reads

[Molecular mechanisms of brain peptide-containing drugs: cortexin].

Authors:
N V Gulyaeva

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2018 ;118(10):93-96

Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology RAS, Moscow, Russia, Moscow Research and Clinical Center for Neuropsychiatry of the Healthcare Department of Moscow, Moscow, Russia.

The goal of treatment of brain pathologies may be regarded as re-establishment of optimal brain plasticity. Disturbances in neuroplasticity are associated with the appearance of multiple targets that should be subjects for pharmacological correction. Peptide hydrolysates derived from animal brain became a basis for multi-component organ-specific drugs which are widely used for treatment of cerebral pathologies. Read More

View Article
January 2018
3 Reads

Comparison of emotional processing assessed with fear conditioning by interpersonal conflicts in patients with depression and schizophrenia.

Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Aim: While emotional processing is implicated in various psychiatric illnesses, its differences among diagnoses are unclear. We compared associative learning of social values in patients with depression and schizophrenia by measuring skin conductance response (SCR) to the interpersonal stimuli.

Methods: We included twenty female outpatients each with depression and schizophrenia. Read More

View Article
November 2018
3 Reads

Diagnostic accuracy of classical radiological measurements for basilar invagination of type B at MRI.

Eur Spine J 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Postgraduate Program in Neuropsychiatry, Federal University of Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, University City, Recife, PE, CEP: 50670-901, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of classical measurements for basilar invagination (BI) of type B at MRI.

Methods: This study used head MRIs from 31 participants with BI type B and 96 controls. The radiological criterion for BI was the odontoid process invagination using the obex as reference. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Screening for Depressive Symptoms among Patients Attending Specialist Medical Outpatient Clinics in a Tertiary Hospital in Southern Nigeria.

Psychiatry J 2018 18;2018:7603580. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria.

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of unrecognized depressive symptoms and its associated risk factors among patients with diabetes and/or hypertension attending medical outpatient clinics of a tertiary health centre in southern Nigeria. A cross-sectional study design was employed to assess 200 randomly selected patients attending the clinics. Questionnaires were administered to obtain sociodemographic and medical history data. Read More

View Article
October 2018

Glutamatergic and dopaminergic modulation of cortico-striatal circuits probed by dynamic calcium imaging of networks reconstructed in microfluidic chips.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 29;8(1):17461. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

CNRS UMR 8246, Neurosciences, Paris, 75005, France.

Although the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia are functionally interconnected by parallel loops, cellular substrates underlying their interaction remain poorly understood. One novel approach for addressing this issue is microfluidics, a methodology which recapitulates several intrinsic and synaptic properties of cortico-subcortical networks. We developed a microfluidic device where cortical neurons projected onto striatal neurons in a separate compartment. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Genomic kinship construction to enhance genetic analyses in the human connectome project data.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Big Data Science Institute, Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Imaging genetic analyses quantify genetic control over quantitative measurements of brain structure and function using coefficients of relationship (CR) that code the degree of shared genetics between subjects. CR can be inferred through self-reported relatedness or calculated empirically using genome-wide SNP scans. We hypothesized that empirical CR provides a more accurate assessment of shared genetics than self-reported relatedness. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Relationship between UGT1A4 and UGT2B7 polymorphisms and the steady-state plasma concentrations of lamotrigine in patients with treatment-resistant depressive disorder receiving lamotrigine as augmentation therapy.

Ther Drug Monit 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa, Japan.

Background: In a previous study the authors had shown that in treatment-resistant depressive disorder an early therapeutic response to lamotrigine augmentation therapy is dependent on its plasma concentrations. Lamotrigine is mainly metabolized by UGT1A4 and UGT2B7 and polymorphisms of said UGTs that affect enzyme activities have been reported. The present study investigated the effect of these polymorphisms on the steady-state plasma concentrations (Css) of lamotrigine in patients with treatment-resistant depressive disorder receiving lamotrigine as augmentation therapy. Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Can antipsychotic dose reduction lead to better functional recovery in first-episode psychosis? A randomized controlled-trial of antipsychotic dose reduction. The reduce trial: Study protocol.

Early Interv Psychiatry 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Orygen, the National Centre of Excellence in Youth Mental Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Antipsychotic medication has been the mainstay of treatment for psychotic illnesses for over 60 years. This has been associated with improvements in positive psychotic symptoms and a reduction in relapse rates. However, there has been little improvement in functional outcomes for people with psychosis. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Chronotype and cellular circadian rhythms predict the clinical response to lithium maintenance treatment in patients with bipolar disorder.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Psychiatry and Center for Circadian Biology, University of California, San Diego, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr. MC 116A, San Diego, CA, 92161, USA.

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a serious mood disorder associated with circadian rhythm abnormalities. Risk for BD is genetically encoded and overlaps with systems that maintain circadian rhythms. Lithium is an effective mood stabilizer treatment for BD, but only a minority of patients fully respond to monotherapy. Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Abnormal asymmetries in subcortical brain volume in early adolescents with subclinical psychotic experiences.

Transl Psychiatry 2018 Nov 28;8(1):254. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Subcortical structures may have an important role in the pathophysiology of psychosis. Our recent mega-analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data has reported subcortical volumetric and lateralization alterations in chronic schizophrenia, including leftward asymmetric increases in pallidal volume. The question remains, however, whether these characteristics may represent vulnerability to the development of psychosis or whether they are epiphenomena caused by exposure to medication or illness chronicity. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Psychiatrists' opinion towards medication discontinuation in remitted first-episode psychosis: A multi-site study of the Asian Network for Early Psychosis.

Early Interv Psychiatry 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Psychiatry, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Korea.

Aim: The study investigated psychiatrists' views towards the issue of medication discontinuation for patients in remission from first-episode psychosis in four countries (Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore and Japan) that are part of the Asian Network for Early Psychosis, focusing on whether the views of these countries differ with one another.

Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to psychiatrists for completion. The questionnaire contained three sections: direct questions probing at views on medication discontinuation, case vignettes to assess applied decision-making and a checklist of criteria psychiatrists may view as necessary for the patient to satisfy before discontinuation. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Can youth at high risk of illness progression be identified by measures of rumination and sleep-wake disturbance.

Early Interv Psychiatry 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Orygen, The National Centre of Excellence in Youth Mental Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Aim: Clinical staging models offer a useful framework for understanding illness trajectories, where individuals are located on a continuum of illness progression from stage 0 (at-risk but asymptomatic) to stage 4 (end-stage disease). Importantly, clinical staging allows investigation of risk factors for illness progression with the potential to target trans-diagnostic mechanisms at an early stage, especially in help-seeking youth who often present with sub-threshold syndromes. While depressive symptoms, rumination and sleep-wake disturbances may worsen syndrome outcomes, the role of these related phenomena has yet to be examined as risk factors for trans-diagnostic illness progression in at-risk youth. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Serum soluble TREM2 as a biomarker for incident dementia: the Hisayama Study.

Ann Neurol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Objective: To investigate the association between serum soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (sTREM2), a soluble type of an innate immune receptor expressed on the microglia, and the risk of dementia.

Methods: A total of 1,349 Japanese community-residents aged 60 and older without dementia were followed prospectively for 10 years (2002-2012). Serum sTREM2 levels were quantified by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and divided into quartiles. Read More

View Article
November 2018
3 Reads

It's time to address the mental health needs of people with intellectual disability.

Authors:
Julian N Trollor

Australas Psychiatry 2018 12;26(6):575-576

Professor, Department of Developmental Disability Neuropsychiatry, School of Psychiatry, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

View Article
December 2018

Repressive effects of red bean, extracts on obesity of mouse induced with high-fat diet via downregulation of adipocyte differentiation and modulating lipid metabolism.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2018 Dec 7;27(6):1811-1821. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

1Department of Biological Science, Andong National University, 1375 Gyungdong-ro, Andong, 36728 South Korea.

Obesity is generally caused by quantitative changes in adipocyte differentiation and fat metabolism. Only a few studies have been determined the effect of red beans extract on obesity and plasma cholesterol concentration. We have been studied the functional activities of red-bean extracts including anti-oxidative effect against DNA and cell damages. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Patterns of Management of Patients With Dual Disorder (Psychosis) in Italy: A Survey of Psychiatrists and Other Physicians Focusing on Clinical Practice.

Front Psychiatry 2018 13;9:575. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Psychopharmacology, Drug Misuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances Research Unit, School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, United Kingdom.

Patients with severe psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and bipolar disorders frequently suffer from concomitant substance use disorders (SUDs)-Dual Disorder (DD) patients. In order to better understand current practices for management of patients with psychotic episodes and concomitant SUD in Italy, we carried out a survey of psychiatrists on current routine practice among prescribers. These aspects can help to identify at-risk patients, improve current prescribing practices, and favor early intervention. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Clinical correlates of subsyndromal depression in African American individuals with psychosis: The relationship with positive symptoms and comorbid substance dependence.

Schizophr Res 2018 Oct 26. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; Olin Neuropsychiatry Research Center, Institute of Living, Hartford, CT, USA.

Patients with psychosis exhibit subsyndromal depressive symptoms during the course of illness and yet the clinical correlates of these symptoms remain under-investigated. We aimed to investigate the clinical correlates of subsyndromal depression in psychosis including the extent to which they mediate commonly observed comorbid substance dependence. We developed a model of depression in a non-clinical sample recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (N = 266), and confirmed that model in a locally recruited African-American clinical sample comprising psychotic and non-psychotic individuals (N = 256). Read More

View Article
October 2018
1 Read

Neuropsychiatry of sport-related concussion.

Handb Clin Neurol 2018 ;158:153-162

Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States.

Changes in mood, emotions, and behavior are common components of the acute clinical picture of sport-related concussion (SRC). Common concussion symptom inventories such as the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-5 (SCAT5) contain a large number of questions that assess these neuropsychiatric domains. In fact, of 22 items assessed by the SCAT5, arguably only five of the items do not overlap with symptoms assessed by standard measures of anxiety and depression, suggesting that concussion is best viewed as a neuropsychiatric syndrome. Read More

View Article
January 2018

Relationships between intensity, duration, cumulative dose, and timing of smoking with age at menopause: A pooled analysis of individual data from 17 observational studies.

PLoS Med 2018 Nov 27;15(11):e1002704. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

The University of Queensland, School of Public Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Cigarette smoking is associated with earlier menopause, but the impact of being a former smoker and any dose-response relationships on the degree of smoking and age at menopause have been less clear. If the toxic impact of cigarette smoking on ovarian function is irreversible, we hypothesized that even former smokers might experience earlier menopause, and variations in intensity, duration, cumulative dose, and age at start/quit of smoking might have varying impacts on the risk of experiencing earlier menopause.

Methods And Findings: A total of 207,231 and 27,580 postmenopausal women were included in the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, respectively. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Measurement of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, and testosterone in the hair of children: Preliminary results and promising indications.

Dev Psychobiol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Hormone analysis is a valuable tool for understanding how physiology and behavior interact. Cortisol in hair has recently been examined as a measure of longer-term hormone output. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between other androgens in hair and anthropometric measures. Read More

View Article
November 2018

22q11 microdeletion syndrome and ultra-high risk for psychosis: The role of neurological soft signs as an independent marker of vulnerability for psychosis.

Early Interv Psychiatry 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Systems Medicine, Unit of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, "Tor Vergata" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Aim: 22q11 microdeletion syndrome has an increased risk for psychosis, similar to subjects at ultra-high risk for psychosis. Neurological soft signs are considered an endophenotype of psychotic disorders and a marker of vulnerability to Schizophrenia, consisting of overflow movements, dysrhythmia and speed of timed activities. To date, there are no studies that have evaluated the presence of the neurological soft signs in subjects with 22q11 microdeletion syndrome and there are a few studies that have analysed this issue in subjects at ultra-high risk. Read More

View Article
November 2018
5 Reads

Neurocognitive Pathways in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and White Matter Microstructure.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Sep 29. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Olin Neuropsychiatry Research Center, The Institute of Living, Hartford, Connecticut; Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Electronic address:

Background: This study sought to identify attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) abnormalities in relationships between brain white matter structure and individual differences in several types of impulsive behavior.

Methods: Adolescents, n = 67 with ADHD combined subtype and n = 68 without ADHD, were given neuropsychological tests and underwent diffusion tensor imaging scans. Principal component analysis reduced test scores into factors representing different types of impulsive behavior. Read More

View Article
September 2018
1 Read

Impaired introspective accuracy in schizophrenia: an independent predictor of functional outcomes.

Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2018 Nov 26:1-12. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

a University of Miami Miller School of Medicine , Miami , FL , USA.

Introduction: Individuals with schizophrenia present across a spectrum of symptomatology. Disability remains a debilitating reality across varying disease presentations and remains pervasive despite psychiatric medications. Cognition (neuro/social cognition) and negative symptoms have emerged as the strongest predictors of real-world disability, but account for <50% of the variance in outcomes. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Implication of Fast Activities of Spectral Analysis in Subjective Sleep Complaints of Elderly Women.

J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2018 Nov 26:891988718813711. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

2 Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

Objective:: In elderly patients, women have better qualities of sleep than men in objective parameters; however, women subjectively complain more about sleep disturbances than men. We performed visual scoring and spectral analysis of sleep electroencephalograms to explain these gender differences in the degree of arousal, the most representative marker in insomnia.

Methods:: A total of 354 participants (≥60 years old) were recruited from a Korean community underwent nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG). Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

Quantitative neurosymptomatics; linking quantitative biology to neuropsychiatry.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Translational Neuroscience, Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, UK.

View Article
November 2018