8,628 results match your criteria Neuroprotective Agents in Stroke


Nutmegs and wild nutmegs: An update on ethnomedicines, phytochemicals, pharmacology, and toxicity of the Myristicaceae species.

Phytother Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Agrotechnology and Rural Development Division, CSIR-North East Institute of Science & Technology, Jorhat, 785006, Assam, India.

Prized medicinal spice true nutmeg is obtained from Myristica fragrans Houtt. Rest species of the family Myristicaceae are known as wild nutmegs. Nutmegs and wild nutmegs are a rich reservoir of bioactive molecules and used in traditional medicines of Europe, Asia, Africa, America against madness, convulsion, cancer, skin infection, malaria, diarrhea, rheumatism, asthma, cough, cold, as stimulant, tonics, and psychotomimetic agents. Read More

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Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Post-Stroke Metformin Treatment Using Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Rats.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Medical Academy, Department of Neurology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, A. Mickeviciaus Str. 9, LT-44307 Kaunas, Lithuania.

Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Treatment options for ischemic stroke are limited, and the development of new therapeutic agents or combined therapies is imperative. Growing evidence suggests that metformin treatment, due to its anti-inflammatory action, exerts a neuroprotective effect against ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain damage. Read More

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Blood-brain barrier dysfunction in hemorrhagic transformation: a therapeutic opportunity for nanoparticles and melatonin.

J Neurophysiol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Laboratory of Vascular Function & Reactivity, Pathophysiology Program, ICBM,, University of Chile, Chile.

Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide, estimated that 1/6 of the world population will suffer it once in their life. The most common type of this medical condition is the ischemic stroke (IS), produced by a thrombotic or embolic occlusion of a major cerebral artery or its branches, leading to the formation of a complex infarct region caused by oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and endothelial dysfunction. Nowadays, the immediate treatment for IS involves thrombolytic agents or mechanical thrombectomy, depending on the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Read More

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Discovery of neuroprotective agents that inhibit human prolyl hydroxylase PHD2.

Bioorg Med Chem 2021 May 24;38:116115. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

Prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) enzymes play a critical role in the cellular responses to hypoxia through their regulation of the hypoxia inducible factor α (HIF-α) transcription factors. PHD inhibitors show promise for the treatment of diseases including anaemia, cardiovascular disease and stroke. In this work, a pharmacophore-based virtual high throughput screen was used to identify novel potential inhibitors of human PHD2. Read More

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Optimisation of a PC12 cell-based in vitro stroke model for screening neuroprotective agents.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 14;11(1):8096. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Stroke causes death and disability globally but no neuroprotectant is approved for post-stroke neuronal injury. Neuroprotective compounds can be identified using oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) of neuronal cells as an in vitro stroke model. Nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 pheochromocytoma cells are frequently used. Read More

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ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE IN WOMEN: EFFICACY OF THE FREE RADICAL SCAVENGER EDARAVONE.

Wiad Lek 2021 ;74(1):72-76

SHUPYK NATIONAL MEDICAL ACADEMY OF POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION, KYIV, UKRAINE.

Objective: The aim: To investigate the effectiveness of usage of the free radical scavenger Edaravone in the therapy of women with AIS.

Patients And Methods: Materials and methods: A prospective study was conducted of 48 women with AIS, divided into two groups. Patients in the first group (n = 36) were treated with edaravone 30 mg twice a day intravenously. Read More

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Plasmin-resistant PSD-95 inhibitors resolve effect-modifying drug-drug interactions between alteplase and nerinetide in acute stroke.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Apr;13(588)

NoNO Inc., Toronto, Ontario M5V 1E7, Canada.

Neuroprotection for acute ischemic stroke is achievable with the eicosapeptide nerinetide, an inhibitor of the protein-protein interactions of the synaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95. However, nerinetide is subject to proteolytic cleavage if administered after alteplase, a standard-of-care thrombolytic agent that nullifies nerinetide's beneficial effects. Here, we showed, on the basis of pharmacokinetic data consistent between rats, primates, and humans, that in a rat model of embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (eMCAO), nerinetide maintained its effectiveness when administered before alteplase. Read More

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Protective Effects of PGC-1α Activators on Ischemic Stroke in a Rat Model of Photochemically Induced Thrombosis.

Brain Sci 2021 Mar 4;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Baltiyskaya Str. 8, 125315 Moscow, Russia.

The pharmacological induction and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), a key regulator of ischemic brain tolerance, is a promising direction in neuroprotective therapy. Pharmacological agents with known abilities to modulate cerebral PGC-1α are scarce. This study focused on the potential PGC-1α-modulating activity of Mexidol (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine succinate) and Semax (ACTH analog) in a rat model of photochemical-induced thrombosis (PT) in the prefrontal cortex. Read More

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Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (CDK) and Their Role in Diseases Development-Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 13;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Medical Chemistry, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Powstancow Wlkp. 72 Av., 70-111 Szczecin, Poland.

Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are involved in many crucial processes, such as cell cycle and transcription, as well as communication, metabolism, and apoptosis. The kinases are organized in a pathway to ensure that, during cell division, each cell accurately replicates its DNA, and ensure its segregation equally between the two daughter cells. Deregulation of any of the stages of the cell cycle or transcription leads to apoptosis but, if uncorrected, can result in a series of diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease), and stroke. Read More

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Nutraceuticals in the Prevention of Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia: A Comprehensive Review of their Neuroprotective Properties, Mechanisms of Action and Future Directions.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 3;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Neurodevelopment Research Group, Institute of Biomedicine of Seville, IBIS/HUVR/CSIC/US, 41013 Seville, Spain.

Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a brain injury caused by oxygen deprivation to the brain due to birth asphyxia or reduced cerebral blood perfusion, and it often leads to lifelong limiting sequelae such as cerebral palsy, seizures, or mental retardation. HI remains one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide, and current therapies are limited. Hypothermia has been successful in reducing mortality and some disabilities, but it is only applied to a subset of newborns that meet strict inclusion criteria. Read More

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Neuroprotective effect of minocycline against acute brain injury in clinical practice: A systematic review.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Apr 27;86:50-57. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.

Acute brain injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The term is inclusive of traumatic brain injury, cerebral ischemia, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Current pharmacologic treatments have had minimal effect on improving neurological outcomes leading to a significant interest in the development neuroprotective agents. Read More

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Novel arylidene malonate derivative, KM-34, showed neuroprotective effects on in vitro and in vivo models of ischemia/reperfusion.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 17;899:174025. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Laboratorio de Neurofarmacología Experimental, Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de Medicamentos, La Habana, 10600, Cuba.

Cerebral ischemia constitutes the most frequent type of cerebrovascular disease. The reduction of blood supply to the brain initiates the ischemic cascade starting from ionic imbalance to subsequent glutamate excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, eventually causing neuronal death. Previously, the authors have demonstrated the in vitro cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of a new arylidene malonate derivative, KM-34, against oxidizing agents like hydrogen peroxide, glutamate or Fe/ascorbate. Read More

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Cholinesterase inhibitors for vascular dementia and other vascular cognitive impairments: a network meta-analysis.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 02 22;2:CD013306. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Background: Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) describes a broad spectrum of cognitive impairments caused by cerebrovascular disease, ranging from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. There are currently no pharmacological treatments recommended for improving either cognition or function in people with VCI. Three cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine) are licenced for the treatment of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. Read More

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February 2021

Effects of novel brain-penetrating oxime acetylcholinesterase reactivators on sarin surrogate-induced changes in rat brain gene expression.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2021 Mar 8:e22755. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Mississippi State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State, United States, USA.

Past assassinations and terrorist attacks demonstrate the need for a more effective antidote against nerve agents and other organophosphates (OP) that cause brain damage through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Our lab has invented a platform of phenoxyalkyl pyridinium oximes (US patent 9,277,937) that demonstrate the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier in in vivo rat tests with a sarin surrogate nitrophenyl isopropyl methylphosphonate (NIMP) and provide evidence of brain penetration by reducing cessation time of seizure-like behaviors, accumulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and hippocampal neuropathology, as opposed to the currently approved oxime, 2-pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride (2-PAM). Using two of the novel oximes (Oximes 1 and 20), this project examined whether gene expression changes might help explain this protection. Read More

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Safety and efficacy of edaravone for patients with acute stroke: A protocol for randomized clinical trial.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Feb;100(8):e24811

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical University, Hebei, China.

Background: We performed a randomized clinical trial protocol to assess the effectiveness of edaravone for acute stroke. We hypothesized that edaravone is beneficial in improving neurological impairment resulting from acute stroke.

Method: The protocol was reviewed and approved by the Research Ethics Board of Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical University (0092-2394), each participant signed a written consent before participating, and SPIRIT guidelines were followed throughout. Read More

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February 2021

Neuroprotective effects of zonisamide on cerebral ischemia injury via inhibition of neuronal apoptosis.

Braz J Med Biol Res 2021 26;54(4):e10498. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Hebei Key Laboratory of Vascular Homeostasis, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China.

It is known that neuronal apoptosis contributes to pathology of cerebral ischemia injury. Zonisamide (ZNS) has shown anti-apoptosis effects in recent studies. The present study investigated whether the anti-apoptotic effect can account for the neuroprotective action of ZNS on cerebral ischemia. Read More

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Acute transverse myelitis with Dysautonomia following SARS-CoV-2 infection: A case report and review of literature.

J Neuroimmunol 2021 04 20;353:577523. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Neurology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV, USA; West Virginia Clinical Transitional Science, Morgantown, WV, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To report a unique case and literature review of post COVID-19 associated transverse myelitis and dysautonomia with abnormal MRI and CSF findings.

Background: Coronavirus disease have been reported to be associated with several neurological manifestations such as stroke, Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis amongst others. There are only few reported cases of transverse myelitis with the novel coronavirus (n-CoV-2) and only one reported case identifying dysautonomia in COVID-19 patient. Read More

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Phyllanthin Averts Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation in Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury through Modulation of the NF-κB and AMPK/Nrf2 Pathways.

J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2021 ;40(1):85-97

Department II of Neurology, Fourth (Xing Yuan) Hospital of Yulin, Yulin City, Shanxi Providence, 719000, China.

Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR) is a common feature of ischemic stroke and is a major cause of disability and death among stroke patients worldwide. Phyllanthin, a lignin polyphenol, is known for its varied biological properties, although its protective effects against CIR have not been reported. We evaluated the neuroprotective property of phyllanthin against CIR as well as the involvement of the AMP-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (AMPK/Nrf2) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways. Read More

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Clinical impact of estradiol/testosterone ratio in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

BMC Neurol 2021 Feb 26;21(1):91. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Neurology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, 59, Yatap-ro, Bundang-gu, Gyunggi-do, 13496, Seongnam, Republic of Korea.

Background: Sex hormones may be associated with a higher incidence of ischemic stroke or stroke-related events. In observational studies, lower testosterone concentrations are associated with infirmity, vascular disease, and adverse cardiovascular risk factors. Currently, female sexual hormones are considered neuroprotective agents. Read More

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February 2021

Mesenchymal Stem Cells: The Potential Therapeutic Cell Therapy to Reduce Brain Stroke Side Effects.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 May 23;30(5):105668. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

RUMS, Physiology, Kerman 7718796755, Iran. Electronic address:

Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the gold standard treatment for ischemic stroke in the time window of 3-4.5 hours after the onset of symptoms. However, tPA administration is associated with inflammation and neurotoxic effects. Read More

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Neuroprotective effect of magnesium supplementation on cerebral ischemic diseases.

Life Sci 2021 May 22;272:119257. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

College of Biotechnology, Guilin Medical University, Guilin, Guangxi 541100, China. Electronic address:

Ischemic encephalopathy is associated with a high mortality and rate of disability. The most common type of ischemic encephalopathy, ischemic stroke, is the second leading cause of death in the world. At present, the main treatment for ischemic stroke is to reopen blocked blood vessels. Read More

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Receptors, Channel Proteins, and Enzymes Involved in Microglia-mediated Neuroinflammation and Treatments by Targeting Microglia in Ischemic Stroke.

Neuroscience 2021 04 18;460:167-180. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, 1 Xinmin Avenue, 130021 Changchun, China. Electronic address:

Stroke is the largest contributor to global neurological disability-adjusted life-years, posing a huge economic and social burden to the world. Though pharmacological recanalization with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and mechanical thrombectomy have greatly improved the prognosis of patients with ischemic stroke, clinically, there is still no effective treatment for the secondary injury caused by cerebral ischemia. In recent years, more and more evidences show that neuroinflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of ischemic cerebral injury. Read More

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Edaravone Dexborneol Versus Edaravone Alone for the Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind, Comparative Trial.

Stroke 2021 Mar 16;52(3):772-780. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, China (Jie Xu, A.W., X.M., G.Y., S.L., H.Z., X.C., Yilong Wang, X.Z., Yongjun Wang).

Background And Purpose: Edaravone dexborneol, comprised of 2 active ingredients, edaravone and (+)-borneol, has been developed as a novel neuroprotective agent with synergistic effects of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory in animal models. The present clinical trial aimed at testing the effects of edaravone dexborneol versus edaravone on 90-day functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS).

Methods: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, comparative, phase III clinical trial was conducted at 48 hospitals in China between May 2015 and December 2016. Read More

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An anti-inflammatory gelatin hemostatic agent with biodegradable polyurethane nanoparticles for vulnerable brain tissue.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Feb 16;121:111799. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:

Hemostasis plays a fundamental and critical role in all surgical procedures. However, the currently used topical hemostatic agents may at times undesirably induce inflammation, infection, and foreign body reaction and hamper the healing process. This may be serious in the central nervous system (CNS), especially for some neurosurgical diseases which have ongoing inflammation causing secondary brain injury. Read More

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February 2021

U0126 pretreatment inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis and autophagy in HEI-OC1 cells and cochlear hair cells.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 03 9;415:115447. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

ENT Institute and Otorhinolaryngology Department, Affiliated Eye and ENT Hospital, Fudan University and Key Laboratory of Hearing Medicine of National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC), Shanghai 200031, China. Electronic address:

Deafness is the most common sensory disorder in the world. Ototoxic drugs are common inducing factors of sensorineural hearing loss, and cochlear hair cell (HC) damage is the main concern of the present studies. Cisplatin is a widely used, highly effective antitumor drug, but some patients have experienced irreversible hearing loss as a result of its application. Read More

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Orexin-A alleviates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis.

Mol Med Rep 2021 04 12;23(4). Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Neurobiology Key Laboratory of Jining Medical University in Colleges of Shandong, Jining, Shandong 272067, P.R. China.

Orexin‑A (OXA) protects neurons against cerebral ischemia‑reperfusion injury (CIRI). Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) induces apoptosis after CIRI by activating caspase‑12 and the CHOP pathway. The present study aimed to determine whether OXA mitigates CIRI by inhibiting ERS‑induced neuronal apoptosis. Read More

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Pelargonidin ameliorates MCAO-induced cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats by the action on the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

Transl Neurosci 2021 Jan 12;12(1):20-31. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Office of Acupuncture Clinical, College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hainan Medical University, No. 3, Xueyuan Road, Longhua District, Haikou, 571199, China.

Background: Morbidity and mortality remain high for ischemic stroke victims, and at present these patients lack effective neuroprotective agents, which improve the cure rate. In recent years, studies have shown that pelargonidin has many biological actions. However, few studies are available regarding the pelargonidin treatment of cerebral ischemia. Read More

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January 2021

The Next Step in the Treatment of Stroke.

Front Neurol 2020 22;11:582605. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, United States.

Although many patients do not receive reperfusion therapy because of delayed presentation and/or severity and location of infarct, new reperfusion approaches are expanding the window of intervention. Novel application of neuroprotective agents in combination with the latest methods of reperfusion provide a path to improved stroke intervention outcomes. We examine why neuroprotective agents have failed to translate to the clinic and provide suggestions for new approaches. Read More

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January 2021

Minocycline and Magnesium As Neuroprotective Agents for Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review.

Cureus 2020 Dec 28;12(12):e12339. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Medicine, Universidad Internacional del Ecuador, Quito, ECU.

Stroke is a leading cause of death, disability, and dementia worldwide. Strokes can be divided into ischemic strokes and hemorrhagic strokes. At the moment, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only FDA-approved drug for ischemic stroke. Read More

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December 2020

Cerebrolysin for stroke, neurodegeneration, and traumatic brain injury: review of the literature and outcomes.

Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 30;42(4):1345-1353. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

College of Osteopathic Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

Cerebrolysin therapy has the potential to significantly aid in the treatment of a wide variety of debilitating neurological diseases including ischemic strokes, neurodegenerative disorders, and traumatic brain injuries. Although Cerebrolysin is not approved for use in the USA, it is used clinically in over 50 countries worldwide. In this review, we focus on outlining the role that Cerebrolysin has in stimulating the molecular signaling pathways that are critical for neurological regeneration and support. Read More

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