341,446 results match your criteria Neuropeptides [Journal]


The Neuroendocrine-Immune Regulation in Response to Environmental Stress in Marine Bivalves.

Front Physiol 2018 13;9:1456. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Liaoning Key Laboratory of Marine Animal Immunology, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, China.

Marine bivalves, which include many species worldwide, from intertidal zones to hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, are important components of the ecosystem and biodiversity. In their living habitats, marine bivalves need to cope with a series of harsh environmental stressors, including biotic threats (bacterium, virus, and protozoan) and abiotic threats (temperature, salinity, and pollutants). In order to adapt to these surroundings, marine bivalves have evolved sophisticated stress response mechanisms, in which neuroendocrine regulation plays an important role. Read More

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November 2018

Allatostatin-C/AstC-R2 Is a Novel Pathway to Modulate the Circadian Activity Pattern in Drosophila.

Curr Biol 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute and National Center for Behavioral Genomics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454, USA. Electronic address:

Seven neuropeptides are expressed within the Drosophila brain circadian network. Our previous mRNA profiling suggested that Allatostatin-C (AstC) is an eighth neuropeptide and specifically expressed in dorsal clock neurons (DN1s). Our results here show that AstC is, indeed, expressed in DN1s, where it oscillates. Read More

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December 2018

Immune aspects of the bi-directional neuroimmune facilitator TRPV1.

Mol Biol Rep 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

School of Arts and Sciences, St. Bonaventure University, St. Bonaventure, New York, 14778, USA.

A rapidly growing area of interest in biomedical science involves the reciprocal crosstalk between the sensory nervous and immune systems. Both of these systems are highly integrated, detecting potential environmental harms and restoring homeostasis. Many different cytokines, receptors, neuropeptides, and other proteins are involved in this bidirectional communication that are common to both systems. Read More

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December 2018

Expression of calretinin among different neurochemical classes of interneuron in the superficial dorsal horn of the mouse spinal cord.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK. Electronic address:

Around 75% of neurons in laminae I-II of the mouse dorsal horn are excitatory interneurons, and these are required for normal pain perception. We have shown that four largely non-overlapping excitatory interneuron populations can be defined by expression of the neuropeptides neurotensin, neurokinin B (NKB), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and substance P. In addition, we recently identified a population of excitatory interneurons in glabrous skin territory that express dynorphin. Read More

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December 2018
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The effect of ghrelin and adenosine mono phosphate kinase (AMPK) on the passive avoidance memory in male wistar rats.

Neuropeptides 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Neuroscience Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

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November 2018

Identification and characterization of Prokineticin receptor 2 splicing variant and its modulation in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

Neuropeptides 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Dipartimento di Scienze Biochimiche A. Rossi Fanelli, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma, Italy. Electronic address:

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November 2018

Insect toxins - selective pharmacological tools and drug/chemical leads.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Dec 9;30:93-98. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Centre for Respiratory Biology, UCL Respiratory, University College London, Rayne Building, 5 University Street, London WC1E 6JF, UK. Electronic address:

Insect toxins comprise a diverse array of chemicals ranging from small molecules, polyamines and peptide toxins. Many target nervous system and neuromuscular ion channels and so rapidly affect the behaviour of animals to which the toxin is applied or injected. Other modes of action have also been identified. Read More

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December 2018

Insect heart rhythmicity is modulated by evolutionarily conserved neuropeptides and neurotransmitters.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Oct 11;29:41-48. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA. Electronic address:

Insects utilize an open circulatory system to transport nutrients, waste, hormones and immune factors throughout the hemocoel. The primary organ that drives hemolymph circulation is the dorsal vessel, which is a muscular tube that traverses the length of the body and is divided into an aorta in the head and thorax, and a heart in the abdomen. The dorsal vessel is myogenic, but its rhythmicity is modulated by neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. Read More

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October 2018

From Synapse to Function: A Perspective on the Role of Neuroproteomics in Elucidating Mechanisms of Drug Addiction.

Proteomes 2018 Dec 9;6(4). Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

Drug addiction is a complex disorder driven by dysregulation in molecular signaling across several different brain regions. Limited therapeutic options currently exist for treating drug addiction and related psychiatric disorders in clinical populations, largely due to our incomplete understanding of the molecular pathways that influence addiction pathology. Recent work provides strong evidence that addiction-related behaviors emerge from the convergence of many subtle changes in molecular signaling networks that include neuropeptides (neuropeptidome), protein-protein interactions (interactome) and post-translational modifications such as protein phosphorylation (phosphoproteome). Read More

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December 2018

Retinoprotective Effects of TAT-Bound Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide and Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide.

J Mol Neurosci 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Biomedicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) belong to the same peptide family and exert a variety of biological functions. Both PACAP and VIP have protective effects in several tissues. While PACAP is known to be a stronger retinoprotective peptide, VIP has very potent anti-inflammatory effects. Read More

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December 2018

Cannabinoids and Pain: New Insights From Old Molecules.

Front Pharmacol 2018 13;9:1259. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Cannabis has been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years. The prohibition of cannabis in the middle of the 20th century has arrested cannabis research. In recent years there is a growing debate about the use of cannabis for medical purposes. Read More

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November 2018

Skeletal phenotype of the neuropeptide Y knockout mouse.

Neuropeptides 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Reconstructive Sciences, Farmington, CT 06030, USA. Electronic address:

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in multiple processes such as behavior, energy and bone metabolism. Previous studies have relied on global NPY depletion to examine its effects on bone. However, this approach is unable to distinguish the central or local source of NPY influencing bone. Read More

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November 2018
2.546 Impact Factor

Penetration of the blood-brain barrier by peripheral neuropeptides: new approaches to enhancing transport and endogenous expression.

Authors:
M R Lee R D Jayant

Cell Tissue Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX, 79106, USA.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a structural and functional barrier between the interstitial fluid of the brain and the blood; the barrier maintains the precisely controlled biochemical environment that is necessary for neural function. This constellation of endothelial cells, macrophages, pericytes, and astrocytes forms the neurovascular unit which is the structural and functional unit of the blood-brain barrier. Peptides enter and exit the CNS by transport systems expressed by the capillary endothelial cells of the neurovascular unit. Read More

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December 2018

Coherency of circadian rhythms in the SCN is governed by the interplay of two coupling factors.

PLoS Comput Biol 2018 Dec 10;14(12):e1006607. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute for Theoretical Biology, Charité and Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Circadian clocks are autonomous oscillators driving daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. In mammals, a network of coupled neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is entrained to environmental light-dark cycles and orchestrates the timing of peripheral organs. In each neuron, transcriptional feedbacks generate noisy oscillations. Read More

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December 2018

Specific Inhibition of Brain Angiotensin III formation as a new strategy for prevention of heart failure after myocardial infarction.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Laboratory of Central Neuropeptides in the Regulation of Body Fluid Homeostasis and Cardiovascular Functions, INSERM U1050 / CNRS UMR7241, Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology, College de France, Paris, France.

Aims: Inhibition of brain angiotensin III by central infusion of aminopeptidase A (APA) inhibitor firibastat (RB150) inhibits sympathetic hyperactivity and heart failure (HF) in rats post myocardial infarction (MI). The present study evaluated effectiveness of systemic treatment with firibastat compared to AT1R blocker, losartan.

Methods And Results: MI was induced by ligation of left coronary artery in male Wistar rats. Read More

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November 2018

Neuropeptide signaling regulates the susceptibility of developing C. elegans to anoxia.

Free Radic Biol Med 2018 Dec 6;131:197-208. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Neuroscience Graduate Group, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Department of Neurology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

Inadequate delivery of oxygen to organisms during development can lead to cell dysfunction/death and life-long disabilities. Although the susceptibility of developing cells to low oxygen conditions changes with maturation, the cellular and molecular pathways that govern responses to low oxygen are incompletely understood. Here we show that developing Caenorhabditis elegans are substantially more sensitive to anoxia than adult animals and that this sensitivity is controlled by nervous system generated hormones (e. Read More

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December 2018

Antipsychotic-induced metabolic alterations: recounting the mechanistic insights, therapeutic targets and pharmacological alternatives.

Eur J Pharmacol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Pharmacology Research Laboratory, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UGC Centre of Advanced Study (UGC-CAS), Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, India. Electronic address:

Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) are the drug of choice in the management of mental illnesses by virtue of their advantage over typical antipsychotics i.e. least tendency of producing extrapyramidal motor symptoms (EPS) or pseudoparkinsonism. Read More

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December 2018

Constant light exposure aggravates POMC-mediated muscle wasting associated with hypothalamic alteration of circadian clock and SIRT1 in endotoxemia rats.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210008, China. Electronic address:

Constant light exposure is widespread in the intensive care unit (ICU) and could increase the rate of brain dysfunction as delirium and sleep disorders in critical patients. And the activation of hypothalamic neuropeptides is proved to play a crucial role in regulating hypercatabolism, especially skeletal muscle wasting in critical patients, which could lead to serious complications and poor prognosis. Here we investigated the hypothesis that constant light exposure could aggravate skeletal muscle wasting in endotoxemia rats and whether it was associated with alterations of circadian clock and hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin(POMC) expression. Read More

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December 2018

Expression of the neuropeptides RFamide and LWamide during development of the coral Acropora millepora in relation to settlement and metamorphosis.

Dev Biol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Division of Ecology and Evolution, Bldg 46, Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia. Electronic address:

Neuropeptides play critical roles in cnidarian development. However, although they are known to play key roles in settlement and metamorphosis, their temporal and spatial developmental expression has not previously been characterized in any coral. We here describe Acropora millepora LWamide and RFamide and their developmental expression from the time of their first appearance, using in situ hybridization and FMRFamide immunohistochemistry. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Two ancient neuropeptides, PACAP and AVP, modulate motivated behavior at synapses in the extrahypothalamic brain: a study in contrast.

Cell Tissue Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Section on Molecular Neuroscience, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Regulation, NIMH-IRP, Building 49, Room 5A-32, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD, USA.

We examine evolutionary aspects of two primordial neuropeptides, arginine vasopressin (AVP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP); the distribution of AVP and PACAP and their receptors in mammals; AVP and PACAP release patterns relevant to their roles in neuroendocrine control in brain and periphery; and finally the intricate interlocking of homeostatic and allostatic regulation created by extrahypothalamic AVP and PACAP projections to brain circuit nodes important in controlling appetitive, avoidance and aggressive motor responses. A cardinal feature of peptide neurotransmission important in regulatory control of organismic responses and emphasized in this review, is that neuropeptides are released from large dense-core vesicles docked not only within axonal varicosities and dendrites but also at presynaptic nerve terminal sites, along with small clear synaptic vesicles, at active zones. Peptide transmitter nerve terminals, from hypothalamic and other projections, are distributed widely to multiple brain areas important in integrative control of behavior. Read More

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December 2018
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Phenotypic Effects of PBAN RNAi Using Oral Delivery of dsRNA to Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Tobacco Budworm Larvae.

J Econ Entomol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE), USDA-ARS, Gainesville, FL.

Insect neuropeptides represent more than 90% of all insect hormones. The pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN)/pyrokinin family is a major group of insect neuropeptides. These neuropeptides regulate a variety of biological functions from embryo to adult in moths including, sex pheromone biosynthesis and diapause. Read More

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December 2018
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Transcriptional control of synaptic components by the clock machinery.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Center for Advanced Research in Sleep Medicine and Research Center, Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal (CIUSSS-NIM), Montreal, QC, Canada.

Circadian rhythms are generated in mammals by a central clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, which regulates the homeostasis of many biological processes. At the molecular level, the regulation of circadian rhythms is under the control of transcriptional-translational feedback loops composed of clock factors, including transcription factors. In the brain, synaptic plasticity has been shown to vary with a 24h rhythm. Read More

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December 2018

Neuropeptide Y receptor interactions regulate its mitogenic activity.

Neuropeptides 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA. Electronic address:

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a multifunctional neurotransmitter acting via G protein-coupled receptors - Y1R, Y2R and Y5R. NPY activities, such as its proliferative effects, are mediated by multiple receptors, which have the ability to dimerize. However, the role of this receptor interplay in NPY functions remains unclear. Read More

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November 2018

Acute restraint stress induces cholecystokinin release via enteric apelin.

Neuropeptides 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Akdeniz University, Faculty of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey.

Stress increases the apelin content in gut, while exogenous peripheral apelin has been shown to induce cholecystokinin (CCK) release. The present study was designed to elucidate (i) the effect of acute stress on enteric production of apelin and CCK, (ii) the role of APJ receptors in apelin-induced CCK release depending on the nutritional status. CCK levels were assayed in portal vein blood samples obtained from stressed (ARS) and non-stressed (NS) rats previously injected with APJ receptor antagonist F13A or vehicle. Read More

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November 2018
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Increasing hypothalamic nucleobindin 2 levels and decreasing hypothalamic inflammation in obese male mice via diet and exercise alleviate obesity-associated hypogonadism.

Neuropeptides 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai 200438, PR China; School of Kinesiology, Shenyang Sport University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110102, PR China. Electronic address:

To explore the role of nesfatin-1 in regulating male reproductive function during energy balance variation, we employed an obese mouse model which was first induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and followed by interventions of a normal diet (ND) and/or moderate exercise, and then serum reproductive hormones of male mice, hypothalamic nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2)/nesfatin-1, inflammatory factors, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) levels were tested. Our findings showed that both serum nesfatin-1, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone (T) levels and hypothalamic NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and Gnrh mRNA levels were reduced, whereas, the mRNA and protein levels of hypothalamic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, inhibitor kappa B kinase β (IKKβ), and nuclear factor (NF)-κB were increased in obese male mice. Diet, exercise, and diet combined with exercise interventions reversed the decreases in serum nesfatin-1, FSH, LH, and T levels; increased hypothalamic NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and Gnrh mRNA levels; and reduced hypothalamic TNF-α, IL-1β, IKKβ, and NF-κB levels. Read More

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November 2018
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Role of Prenatal Hypoxia in Brain Development, Cognitive Functions, and Neurodegeneration.

Front Neurosci 2018 19;12:825. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

I. M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia.

This review focuses on the role of prenatal hypoxia in the development of brain functions in the postnatal period and subsequent increased risk of neurodegenerative disorders in later life. Accumulating evidence suggests that prenatal hypoxia in critical periods of brain formation results in significant changes in development of cognitive functions at various stages of postnatal life which correlate with morphological changes in brain structures involved in learning and memory. Prenatal hypoxia also leads to a decrease in brain adaptive potential and plasticity due to the disturbance in the process of formation of new contacts between cells and propagation of neuronal stimuli, especially in the cortex and hippocampus. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

[Molecular mechanisms of brain peptide-containing drugs: cortexin].

Authors:
N V Gulyaeva

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2018 ;118(10):93-96

Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology RAS, Moscow, Russia, Moscow Research and Clinical Center for Neuropsychiatry of the Healthcare Department of Moscow, Moscow, Russia.

The goal of treatment of brain pathologies may be regarded as re-establishment of optimal brain plasticity. Disturbances in neuroplasticity are associated with the appearance of multiple targets that should be subjects for pharmacological correction. Peptide hydrolysates derived from animal brain became a basis for multi-component organ-specific drugs which are widely used for treatment of cerebral pathologies. Read More

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January 2018
3 Reads

YAP activation promotes the transdifferentiation of cardiac fibroblasts to myofibroblasts in matrix remodeling of dilated cardiomyopathy.

Braz J Med Biol Res 2018 Nov 23;52(1):e7914. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Cardiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Yes-associated protein (YAP) is an important regulator of cellular proliferation and transdifferentiation. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying myofibroblast transdifferentiation in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). We investigated the role of YAP in the pathological process of cardiac matrix remodeling. Read More

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November 2018
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How to Contribute to the Progress of Neuroendocrinology: Discovery of GnIH and Progress of GnIH Research.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 12;9:662. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Laboratory of Integrative Brain Sciences, Department of Biology and Center for Medical Life Science, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.

It is essential to discover novel neuropeptides that regulate the functions of pituitary, brain and peripheral secretory glands for the progress of neuroendocrinology. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a hypothalamic neuropeptide stimulating gonadotropin release was isolated and its structure was determined by Schally's and Guillemin's groups at the beginning of the 1970s. It was subsequently shown that GnRH is highly conserved among vertebrates. Read More

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November 2018
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Correction to: Neuropeptides as facilitators of domestication.

Cell Tissue Res 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, pr-t Lavrentyeva 10, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia.

The publisher regret that they failed to include the Table 1 before the publication of the original version of this article. The table is presented in this article. Read More

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November 2018

Effects of long-term dehydration on oxidative stress, apoptotic markers and neuropeptides in the gastric mucosa of the dromedary camel.

Mol Cell Biochem 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, PO Box 16103, Al-Ain, UAE.

We investigated the effects of 20 days of dehydration and 20 days of dehydration followed by 72 h of rehydration on the gastric mucosa of the one-humped dromedary camel. The parameters addressed include biomarkers of oxidative stress, apoptosis, gastric epithelial histology, gastric neuropeptides, and their receptors. Nineteen clinically healthy, 4-5 year-old male dromedary camels were divided into three groups (five control camels, eight dehydrated for 20 days, six dehydrated for 20 days and then rehydrated for 72 h). Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

The in vitro effect of progesterone on the orexin system in porcine uterine tissues during early pregnancy.

Acta Vet Scand 2018 Nov 26;60(1):76. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Animal Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 1A, 10-719, Olsztyn-Kortowo, Poland.

Background: Orexin A (OXA) and orexin B (OXB) are hypothalamic-derived peptides that participate in the regulation of energy metabolism, food intake and reproductive function by influencing the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Orexins are also produced in the endometrium, myometrium and placenta, which suggests that they could act as a link between energy metabolism and the reproductive system. Changes in the expression of orexin and the orexin receptor genes and proteins during the oestrous cycle and early gestation in pigs imply that orexin activity may be regulated by local factors within the uterus. Read More

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November 2018

Effects of Kisspeptin-10 on Hypothalamic Neuropeptides and Neurotransmitters Involved in Appetite Control.

Molecules 2018 Nov 24;23(12). Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Department of Pharmacy, "G. d'Annunzio" University, Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti, Italy.

Besides its role as key regulator in gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion, reproductive function, and puberty onset, kisspeptin has been proposed to act as a bridge between energy homeostasis and reproduction. In the present study, to characterize the role of hypothalamic kisspeptin as metabolic regulator, we evaluated the effects of kisspeptin-10 on neuropeptide Y (NPY) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression and the extracellular dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine, 5-HT), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIIA) concentrations in rat hypothalamic (Hypo-E22) cells. Our study showed that kisspeptin-10 in the concentration range 1 nM⁻10 μM was well tolerated by the Hypo-E22 cell line. Read More

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November 2018
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Focus on the role of substance P in chronic urticaria.

Clin Mol Allergy 2018 19;16:24. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

4Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, School and Chair of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, University of Bari-Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.

Background: Emerging data have strengthened the importance of substance P (SP) as a proinflammatory mediator in human pathology. A role for SP in the pathogenesis of urticaria has long been hypothesized.

Methods: Literature data regarding the possible role of SP in chronic urticaria/chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) have been reviewed and summarized in this manuscript. Read More

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November 2018
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PYY(3-36) and exendin-4 reduce food intake and activate neuronal circuits in a synergistic manner in mice.

Neuropeptides 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Obesity Research, Novo Nordisk A/S, 2760 Måløv, Denmark.

Peptide YY(3-36) ((PYY(3-36)) and glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in combination reduce food intake and body weight in an additive or synergistic manner in animal models and in humans. Nevertheless, the mechanisms behind are not completely understood. The present study aims to investigate the effect of combining PYY(3-36) and the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex4) by examining acute food intake and global neuronal activation as measured by c-fos in C57BL/6 J mice. Read More

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November 2018
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Hypothalamic cell diversity: non-neuronal codes for long-distance volume transmission by neuropeptides.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2018 Nov 21;56:16-23. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Molecular Neurosciences, Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna, Austria; Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-17165 Solna, Sweden. Electronic address:

Volume transmission is a mode of intercellular communication using cerebral liquor to deliver signal molecules over long distances and allow their action for extended periods. For hypothalamic neuropeptides, nerve endings amongst ependymal cells are seen as a site of release into the cerebrospinal fluid. Recent single-cell RNA-seq data identify tanycytes and ventricular ependyma as alternative sources by being unexpectedly rich in neuroactive substances. Read More

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November 2018

Non-sulfated cholecystokinin-8 reduces meal size and prolongs the intermeal interval in male Sprague Dawley rats.

Neuropeptides 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Gastroenterology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088, United States. Electronic address:

The current study measured seven feeding responses by non-sulfated cholecystokinin-8 (NS CCK-8) in freely fed adult male Sprague Dawley rats. The peptide (0, 0.5, 1, 3, 5 and 10 nmol/kg) was given intraperitoneally (ip) prior to the onset of the dark cycle, and first meal size (MS), second meal size, intermeal interval (IMI) length, satiety ratio (SR = IMI/MS), latency to first meal, duration of first meal, number of meals and 24-hour food intake were measured. Read More

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November 2018
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Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) transcriptomic analysis and neuropeptidomics.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 22;8(1):17244. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Centro Regional de Estudios Genomicos, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Stinkbugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are of major economic importance as pest of crops. Among the species composing the stinkbug complex, Nezara viridula is one of the most abundant in Brazil, Argentina and the Southern USA. However, this species has been poorly characterized at the genetic and physiological level. Read More

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November 2018
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Novel molecular mechanisms for the adaptogenic effects of herbal extracts on isolated brain cells using systems biology.

Phytomedicine 2018 Nov 20;50:257-284. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 5, Mainz 55128, Germany. Electronic address:

Introduction: Adaptogens are natural compounds or plant extracts that increase adaptability and survival of organisms under stress. Adaptogens stimulate cellular and organismal defense systems by activating intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways and expression of stress-activated proteins and neuropeptides. The effects adaptogens on mediators of adaptive stress response and longevity signaling pathways have been reported, but their stress-protective mechanisms are still not fully understood. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Puerarin alleviate radicular pain from lumbar disc herniation by inhibiting ERK-dependent spinal microglia activation.

Neuropeptides 2018 Dec 10;72:30-37. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, School of Basic Medical Science, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 511436, China; Institute of Neuroscience and Department of Neurology of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Key Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Channelopathies of Guangdong Province and the Ministry of Education of China, Guangzhou 510260, China.

Lumbar disc herniation is a common cause of radicular pain, but the mechanism remains ambiguous and the treatment stays unsatisfied. Many studies revealed a traditional Chinese medicine puerarin may moderate chronic pain from diabetes and nerve injury. Thus far, the role and mechanism of puerarin in radicular pain is still unknown. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Hyperoside Protects Against Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Remodeling via the AKT Signaling Pathway.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 22;51(2):827-841. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Background/aims: Cardiac hypertrophy is a major predisposing factor for heart failure and sudden cardiac death. Hyperoside (Hyp), a flavonoid isolated from Rhododendron ponticum L., is a primary component of Chinese traditional patent medicines. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Urocortins and their unfolding role in mammalian social behavior.

Authors:
Shlomo Wagner

Cell Tissue Res 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Sagol Department of Neurobiology, the Integrated Brain and Behavior Research Center (IBBR), Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mt. Carmel, 3498838, Haifa, Israel.

The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system is well known for its major role in coordinating the endocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses to stress. These functions have been shown to be mediated mainly by the binding of the CRF neuropeptide to its specific receptor CRFR1. Yet, the CRF system comprises several more neuropeptides, including the three urocortins, UCN1, UCN2 and UCN3, of which the latter two bind specifically to a distinct receptor-CRFR2. Read More

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November 2018

AMGSEFLamide, a member of a broadly conserved peptide family, modulates multiple neural networks in .

J Exp Biol 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Békésy Laboratory of Neurobiology, Pacific Biosciences Research Center, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1993 East-West Road, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA.

Recent genomic/transcriptomic studies have identified a novel peptide family whose members share the carboxyl terminal sequence -GSEFLamide. However, the presence/identity of the predicted isoforms of this peptide group have yet to be confirmed biochemically, and no physiological function has yet been ascribed to any member of this peptide family. To determine the extent to which GSEFLamides are conserved within the Arthropoda, we searched publicly accessible databases for genomic/transcriptomic evidence of their presence. Read More

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November 2018
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Congenital hyperinsulinism in two siblings with ABCC8 mutation: same genotype, different phenotypes.

Arch Endocrinol Metab 2018 Oct;62(5):560-565

Unidad de Endocrinología Pediátrica y Crecimiento, Pediatría, Hospital Clínico Universitario y Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, IDIS, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a heterogenous disease caused by insulin secretion regulatory defects, being ABCC8/KCNJ11 the most commonly affected genes. Therapeutic options include diazoxide, somatostatin analogues and surgery, which is curative in focal CHI. We report the case of two siblings (born two years apart) that presented themselves with hypoketotic hyperinsulinemic persistent hypoglycemias during neonatal period. Read More

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October 2018
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Impact of carcinoid syndrome symptoms and long-term use of somatostatin analogs on quality of life in patients with carcinoid syndrome: A survey study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Nov;97(47):e13390

Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL.

To evaluate association of carcinoid syndrome (CS) symptom burden and somatostatin analog (SSA) duration with quality of life (QoL) using Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS-29) instruments.Adults who received treatment for CS symptoms in the US were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional online survey (July-October, 2016). Demographic, clinical, and QoL questions (FACT-G, 29 CS-related supplemental questions, PROMIS-29) were included. Read More

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November 2018
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Modulation of Drosophila post-feeding physiology and behavior by the neuropeptide leucokinin.

PLoS Genet 2018 Nov 20;14(11):e1007767. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Behavior and physiology are orchestrated by neuropeptides acting as central neuromodulators and circulating hormones. An outstanding question is how these neuropeptides function to coordinate complex and competing behaviors. In Drosophila, the neuropeptide leucokinin (LK) modulates diverse functions, but mechanisms underlying these complex interactions remain poorly understood. Read More

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November 2018
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Response of localized, resistant, tingling vitiligo to pregabalin: A case report.

Dermatol Ther 2018 Nov 19;31(6):e12702. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

CUTIS Academy of Cutaneous Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Vitiligo is a common depigmenting disease with complex pathogenesis. One of the proposed pathogenesis is the neural hypothesis, which suggests an altered reaction to neuropeptides, catecholamines, and their metabolites affecting melanocytes. Here, we report a case of 26-year-old female patient, whose vitiligo patches were associated with unusual crawling and tingling sensation and responded to a clinical trial of pregabalin. Read More

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November 2018

[Pneumothorax catamenial: results of 18 cases operas].

Pan Afr Med J 2018 25;30:168. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Service de Chirurgie Thoracique, Institut de Cardiologie d'Abidjan, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

This study aims to propose a therapeutic approach for catamenial pneumothorax based on outcomes reported in 18 cases. We conducted a retrospective study of 18 female elderly patients with an average age of 32.2 years who had undergone surgery for right (16 cases) and bilateral catamenial pneumothorax (2 cases) from January 1994 to December 2016. Read More

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December 2018
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Whole-Brain Monosynaptic Afferent Projections to the Cholecystokinin Neurons of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus.

Front Neurosci 2018 5;12:807. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Pharmacology, Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Institutes of Brain Science and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the principal pacemaker driving the circadian rhythms of physiological behaviors. The SCN consists of distinct neurons expressing neuropeptides, including arginine vasopressin (AVP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), cholecystokinin (CCK), and so on. AVP, VIP, and GRP neurons receive light stimulation from the retina to synchronize endogenous circadian clocks with the solar day, whereas CCK neurons are not directly innervated by retinal ganglion cells and may be involved in the non-photic regulation of the circadian clock. Read More

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November 2018
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