27,411 results match your criteria Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology [Journal]


Atypical Prenatal Ultrasound Presentation and Neuropathological Findings in a Neonate With Alpha Thalassemia Major: A Case Report.

Pediatr Dev Pathol 2018 Dec 14:1093526618817655. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

1 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.

Alpha thalassemia major is a hemoglobinopathy caused by the inactivation or deletion of all 4 α-globin alleles. We describe a case of α-thalassemia major with atypical ultrasound and neuropathological findings. The mother had her first prenatal visit at 27 4/7 gestational weeks. Read More

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December 2018

Cognitive and Pathological Influences of Tau Pathology in Lewy Body Disorders.

Ann Neurol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

Objective: To use digital histology in a large autopsy cohort of Lewy Body Disorder (LBD) patients with dementia to test the hypotheses that co-occurring Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology impacts the anatomic distribution of α-synuclein (SYN) pathology and that co-occurring neocortical tau pathology in LBD associates with worse cognitive performance and occurs in a pattern differing from AD.

Methods: Fifty-five autopsy-confirmed LBD (PDD: 36, DLB:19) patients and 25 AD patients were studied. LBD patients were categorized as having moderate/severe AD co-pathology (SYN+AD=20) or little/no AD co-pathology (SYN-AD=35). Read More

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December 2018

MiR-16-5p is frequently down-regulated in astrocytic gliomas and modulates glioma cell proliferation, apoptosis, and response to cytotoxic therapy.

Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Neuropathology, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Aims: Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is frequent in various cancers including gliomas. We aimed to characterize the role of miR-16-5p as a candidate tumour suppressor miRNA in gliomas.

Methods: Real-time PCR-based approaches were used for miRNA and mRNA expression profiling of glioma and non-neoplastic brain tissues as well as glioma cell lines. Read More

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December 2018

The insights into molecular pathways of hypoxia-inducible factor in the brain.

J Neurosci Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Departments of Anesthesiology and Physiology, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California.

The objectives of this present work were to review recent developments on the role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in the survival of cells under normoxic versus hypoxic and inflammatory brain conditions. The dual nature of HIF effects appears well established, based on the accumulated evidence of HIF playing both the role of adaptive factor and mediator of cell demise. Cellular HIF responses depend on pathophysiological conditions, developmental phase, comorbidities, and administered medications. Read More

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December 2018
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Novel tau fragments in cerebrospinal fluid: relation to tangle pathology and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.

Acta Neuropathol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborgsvägen 31, House V3/SU, 43180, Mölndal, Sweden.

Tau is an axonal microtubule-binding protein. Tau pathology in brain and increased tau concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most of tau in CSF is present as fragments. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

A Systematic Review of Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor in Adults.

Front Oncol 2018 28;8:567. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Division of Neuropathology, University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in adults is a relatively rare malignant neoplasm. It is characterized by the presence of rhabdoid cells in combination with loss of either the INI1 or BRG1protein from the tumor cells. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE using the terms "atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor" AND "adult. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Transmission of amyloid-β protein pathology from cadaveric pituitary growth hormone.

Nature 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

MRC Prion Unit at UCL, UCL Institute of Prion Diseases, London, UK.

We previously reported the presence of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) deposits in individuals with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) who had been treated during childhood with human cadaveric pituitary-derived growth hormone (c-hGH) contaminated with prions. The marked deposition of parenchymal and vascular Aβ in these relatively young individuals with treatment-induced (iatrogenic) CJD (iCJD), in contrast to other prion-disease patients and population controls, allied with the ability of Alzheimer's disease brain homogenates to seed Aβ deposition in laboratory animals, led us to argue that the implicated c-hGH batches might have been contaminated with Aβ seeds as well as with prions. However, this was necessarily an association, and not an experimental, study in humans and causality could not be concluded. Read More

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December 2018
10 Reads

Presence of tau astrogliopathy in frontotemporal dementia caused by a novel Grn nonsense (Trp2*) mutation.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Brain Tissue Bank, Fundación CIEN, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Frontotemporal lobar degeneration caused by GRN mutations is mainly associated with a TDP-43 type A proteinopathy. We present a family with autosomal dominant frontotemporal lobar degeneration caused by a novel GRN nonsense mutation (c.5G>A: p. Read More

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November 2018

Neuroprotective and Neurological/Cognitive Enhancement Effects of Curcumin after Brain Ischemia Injury with Alzheimer's Disease Phenotype.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 12;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland.

In recent years, ongoing interest in ischemic brain injury research has provided data showing that ischemic episodes are involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease-like neuropathology. Brain ischemia is the second naturally occurring neuropathology, such as Alzheimer's disease, which causes the death of neurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. In addition, brain ischemia was considered the most effective predictor of the development of full-blown dementia of Alzheimer's disease phenotype with a debilitating effect on the patient. Read More

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December 2018
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Generation of A Mucor circinelloides Reporter Strain-A Promising New Tool to Study Antifungal Drug Efficacy and Mucormycosis.

Genes (Basel) 2018 Dec 7;9(12). Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Departamento de Genética y Microbiología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain.

Invasive fungal infections caused by Mucorales (mucormycosis) have increased worldwide. These life-threatening infections affect mainly, but not exclusively, immunocompromised patients, and are characterized by rapid progression, severe tissue damage and an unacceptably high rate of mortality. Still, little is known about this disease and its successful therapy. Read More

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December 2018

Neurocognitive changes in pituitary adenoma patients after Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

Authors:

J Neurosurg 2018 Dec;129(Suppl1):55-62

OBJECTIVEPituitary adenomas and the treatment required for the underlying neuropathology have frequently been associated with cognitive dysfunction. However, the mechanisms for these impairments remain the subject of much debate. The authors evaluated cognitive outcomes in patients treated with or without Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for an underlying pituitary adenoma. Read More

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December 2018

Glioblastoma formation in a recurrent intracranial epidermoid cyst: a case report.

CNS Oncol 2018 Dec 13:CNS25. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL, 61605, USA.

Background: Transformation to glioblastoma following recurrent epidermoid cyst resection has not been reported. Chronic inflammation can underlie malignant transformation of epidermoid cysts. Astrogliosis following repeated resections may have induced the rare transformation to glioblastoma. Read More

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December 2018

Teaching Neuroimages: Inflammatory CAA.

Clin Neuroradiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Dept. of Neuroradiology, Medical Center University of Freiburg, Breisacherstraße 64, 79106, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.

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December 2018

Prediction of brain invasion in patients with meningiomas using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging.

Oncotarget 2018 Nov 13;9(89):35974-35982. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Münster, Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

Brain invasion (BI) in meningiomas impacts WHO grading and therefore adjuvant treatment. However, BI is rare and neurosurgical sampling and neuropathological analyses are not standardised. Moreover, associations with imaging findings are sparsely known. Read More

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November 2018

Cognitive impairments induced by necrotizing enterocolitis can be prevented by inhibiting microglial activation in mouse brain.

Sci Transl Med 2018 Dec;10(471)

Division of General Pediatric Surgery, Johns Hopkins University and Bloomberg Children's Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe gastrointestinal disease of the premature infant. One of the most important long-term complications observed in children who survive NEC early in life is the development of profound neurological impairments. However, the pathways leading to NEC-associated neurological impairments remain unknown, thus limiting the development of prevention strategies. Read More

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December 2018
15.843 Impact Factor

Choroid plexus genes for CSF production and brain homeostasis are altered in Alzheimer's disease.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Dec 12;15(1):34. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, 710 Frenchmans Rd, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Background: The roles of the choroid plexus (CP) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production have drawn increasing attention in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. Specifically, studies document markedly decreased CSF production and turnover in moderate-to-severe AD. Moreover, reduced CP function and CSF turnover lead to impaired clearance of toxic metabolites, likely promote neuroinflammation, and may facilitate neuronal death during AD progression. Read More

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December 2018

Neurofilament Light Chain: Blood Biomarker of Neonatal Neuronal Injury.

Front Neurol 2018 20;9:984. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Neonatology, University Children's Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a highly promising biomarker of neuroaxonal injury that has mainly been studied in adult neurodegenerative disease. Its involvement in neonatal disease remains largely unknown. Our aim was to establish NfL plasma concentrations in preterm and term infants in the first week of life. Read More

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November 2018

Manual Hippocampal Subfield Segmentation Using High-Field MRI: Impact of Different Subfields in Hippocampal Volume Loss of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients.

Front Neurol 2018 20;9:927. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Neurosciences and Behavioral Sciences, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil.

In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), presurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often reveals hippocampal atrophy, while neuropathological assessment indicates the different types of hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Different HS types are not discriminated in MRI so far. We aimed to define the volume of each hippocampal subfield on MRI manually and to compare automatic and manual segmentations for the discrimination of HS types. Read More

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November 2018

ADAR3 expression is an independent prognostic factor in lower-grade diffuse gliomas and positively correlated with the editing level of GRIA2.

Cancer Cell Int 2018 3;18:196. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

1Department of Molecular Neuropathology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: RNA editing by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) converts adenosines to inosines (A-to-I) in RNA, that alters gene expression and generates protein diversity. Dysregulation of A-to-I editing has been found associated with a number of nervous system diseases. However, the role of ADAR3, a brain specific high expression adenosine deaminase, in gliomas has rarely been investigated. Read More

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December 2018

MicroRNA-770 affects proliferation and cell cycle transition by directly targeting CDK8 in glioma.

Cancer Cell Int 2018 3;18:195. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

6Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, 710061 People's Republic of China.

Background: MicroRNAs play crucial roles in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. miR-770 has been reported to be downregulated in several cancers and affects cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis and drug resistance. However, the role and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-770 in human glioma remain unknown and need to be further elucidated. Read More

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December 2018

Association of patterns of care, prognostic factors, and use of radiotherapy-temozolomide therapy with survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma: a French national population-based study.

J Neurooncol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hopital Gui de Chauliac, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier University Medical Center, 80 Avenue Fliche, 34295, Montpellier, France.

Background: Glioblastoma is the most frequent primary malignant brain tumor. In daily practice and at whole country level, oncological care management for glioblastoma patients is not completely known.

Objectives: To describe oncological patterns of care, prognostic factors, and survival for all patients in France with newly-diagnosed and histologically confirmed glioblastoma, and evaluate the impact of extended temozolomide use at the population level. Read More

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December 2018

Domestic and International Shipping of Biospecimens.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1897:433-443

Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

The packaging and shipment of biospecimens is a multistep process for which a distinct set of regulations needs to be followed, depending on whether a biospecimen is shipped domestically or internationally and whether the shipment contains hazardous materials. Shipments may be delayed if these regulations are not followed. Once learned, the process is straightforward. Read More

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January 2019
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Sample Preparation for Transmission Electron Microscopy.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1897:417-424

Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an ideal device to study the internal structure of cells and different types of biological materials, but adverse conditions inside electron microscopes such as damage induced by electron bombardment and vacuum evaporation of structural water necessitates complex preparation methods to survive this environment. In order to introduce the sample into the evacuated microscope column, it should be stabilized and altered to small enough (about 3 mm in diameter) and thin enough parts to permit the transmission of electrons. Depending on applications different thicknesses are required; for example, in biological research studies usually 300-500 nm thickness is indicated. Read More

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January 2019

An Introduction to the Performance of Immunohistochemistry.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1897:289-298

Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a powerful technique that exploits the specific binding between an antibody and antigen to detect and localize specific antigens in cells and tissue, most commonly detected and examined with the light microscope. A standard tool in many fields in the research setting, IHC has become an essential ancillary technique in clinical diagnostics in anatomic pathology (Lin F, Chen Z. Arch Pathol Lab Med 138:1564-1577, 2014) with the advent of antigen retrieval methods allowing it to be performed conveniently on formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue (Taylor CR, Shi S-R, Barr NJ. Read More

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January 2019

Microtomy: Cutting Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Sections.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1897:269-278

Department of Pathology (Neuropathology) and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital - London Health Sciences Centre, Western University, Ontario, London, ON, Canada.

Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE) still plays an important role in biobanking, since it is comparatively easy to obtain and store in comparison to fresh frozen tissue. They are stored as paraffin or FFPE blocks. Unstained slides derived from FFPE blocks may be used for hematoxylin and eosin histology, special stains, immunohistochemistry, and chromogenic or fluorescent in situ hybridization. Read More

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January 2019

Laboratory Safety: Chemical and Physical Hazards.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1897:243-252

Department of Pathology (Neuropathology) and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital-London Health Sciences Center, London, ON, Canada.

Chemical and physical hazards are part of the daily routine when working in biorepositories. This chapter provides a brief overview of some common physical and chemical hazards encountered in biorepositories, with some basic principles to help eliminate and control these hazards by implementing safe work practices. Read More

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January 2019

Biobanking of Cerebrospinal Fluid.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1897:107-114

Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a physiologically essential fluid produced by the brain that is involved in protecting the brain and in the exchange of nutrients and waste products. CSF has long been utilized to confirm clinical suspicion of various infectious and inflammatory disorders, such as meningitis and multiple sclerosis. However, there has been increasing interest in collecting CSF in order to study the clinical significance of additional biomarkers. Read More

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January 2019

Procurement, Storage, and Use of Blood in Biobanks.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1897:89-97

Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Blood is a widely used biospecimen in the field of biobanking, secondary to the ease with which it is collected along with the wide variety of analytes obtained from it for analysis. It carries the potential to further the search for biomarkers in countless diseases; therefore, the standardization and optimization of blood collection procedures is of importance in assuring reproducibility of results. Here, we briefly review procedures for the procurement, storage, and use of blood and its fractions for biobanking purposes. Read More

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January 2019

Autopsy Biobanking: Biospecimen Procurement, Integrity, Storage, and Utilization.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1897:77-87

Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

An autopsy is a specialized surgical procedure consisting of external and internal examination of a deceased individual for the purposes of documenting abnormalities and determining or confirming medical diagnoses that may have contributed to their death. One of the benefits of an autopsy is the opportunity to collect and store biospecimens for the purposes of biobanking. This chapter outlines the procedures necessary to procure, store, and utilize biospecimens obtained during an autopsy. Read More

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January 2019

Procurement and Storage of Surgical Biospecimens.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1897:65-76

Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

A biobank is an important nexus between clinical and research aspects of pathology. The collection and storage of high quality surgical samples is essential for diagnosis post-surgery, and can also be used to create vaccines, identify therapeutic targets or establish eligibility of cancer patients in a clinical trial. Therefore, personnel handling surgical tissues should follow standard operating procedures (SOP) to maximize efficiency and preserve tissue quality. Read More

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January 2019
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Orientation and Training of New Biobank Personnel.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1897:51-63

Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

The personnel who operate a biomedical biobank should function as a unit to efficiently manage the numerous types of biospecimens that are to be utilized for both clinical and research purposes. Therefore, new staff must be appropriately trained before becoming fully integrated into the work environment. This chapter focuses on several key aspects to this training that should be completed by all personnel. Read More

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January 2019
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An Introduction to Hardware, Software, and Other Information Technology Needs of Biomedical Biobanks.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1897:17-29

Brain Tumor Translational Resource, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Biobanks support medical research by facilitating access to biospecimens. Biospecimens that are linked to clinical and molecular information are particularly useful for translational biomedical research. Tracking and managing the biospecimens and their associated data are therefore crucial tasks in the functioning of a biobank. Read More

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January 2019

An Introduction to Starting a Biobank.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1897:7-16

Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

The purpose of a biobank is to process, organize, and maintain various types of biospecimens that are to be utilized for both clinical and research-based services. There are different types of biobanks, so the goals of the biobank should be delineated at the outset of forming a biobank. The startup of a biobank benefits from accreditation and stringent adherence to standards of practice. Read More

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January 2019

Sustainability in Biobanking.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1897:1-6

Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Biobanks are storage places for biospecimens that can be used for current and future scientific research. Biospecimens are exceptional sources of biological data that can be potentially translated from molecular and genetic information to clinically relevant treatment modalities. Examples of such biospecimens include, but are not limited to, blood, skin, hair, saliva, stem cells, DNA, and RNA. Read More

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January 2019
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Five-decade trajectories in body mass index in relation to dementia death: follow-up of 33,083 male Harvard University alumni.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Alzheimer Scotland Dementia Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Background: In prospective cohort studies, obesity has been linked with a lower risk of subsequent dementia. Reverse causality, whereby neurodegeneration preceding overt dementia symptoms may lower weight, is a possible explanation of these findings. To explore further the weight-dementia association we followed people from early adulthood, an age at which neurodegeneration has typically yet to begin. Read More

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December 2018

MR approaches in neurodegenerative disorders.

Authors:
Andrew M Blamire

Prog Nucl Magn Reson Spectrosc 2018 Oct 3;108:1-16. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Institute of Cellular Medicine and Centre for In Vivo Imaging, Newcastle University, UK. Electronic address:

Neurodegenerative disease is the umbrella term which refers to a range of clinical conditions causing degeneration of neurons within the central nervous system leading to loss of brain function and eventual death. The most prevalent of these is Alzheimer's disease (AD), which affects approximately 50 million people worldwide and is predicted to reach 75 million by 2030. Neurodegenerative diseases can only be fully diagnosed at post mortem by neuropathological assessment of the type and distribution of protein deposits which characterise each different condition, but there is a clear role for imaging technologies in aiding patient diagnoses in life. Read More

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October 2018

Altered Slc25 family gene expression as markers of mitochondrial dysfunction in brain regions under experimental mixed anxiety/depression-like disorder.

BMC Neurosci 2018 Dec 11;19(1):79. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Laboratory of Neuropathology Modeling, The Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia.

Background: Development of anxiety- and depression-like states under chronic social defeat stress in mice has been shown by many experimental studies. In this article, the differentially expressed Slc25* family genes encoding mitochondrial carrier proteins were analyzed in the brain of depressive (defeated) mice versus aggressive mice winning in everyday social confrontations. The collected samples of brain regions were sequenced at JSC Genoanalytica ( http://genoanalytica. Read More

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December 2018

Engrafted parenchymal brain macrophages differ from microglia in transcriptome, chromatin landscape and response to challenge.

Nat Commun 2018 12 6;9(1):5206. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100, Israel.

Microglia are yolk sac-derived macrophages residing in the parenchyma of brain and spinal cord, where they interact with neurons and other glial. After different conditioning paradigms and bone marrow (BM) or hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation, graft-derived cells seed the brain and persistently contribute to the parenchymal brain macrophage compartment. Here we establish that graft-derived macrophages acquire, over time, microglia characteristics, including ramified morphology, longevity, radio-resistance and clonal expansion. Read More

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December 2018

2018 Japanese Neuropathology Prizes.

Authors:

Neuropathology 2018 Dec;38(6):660

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December 2018

Reviewers.

Authors:

Neuropathology 2018 Dec;38(6):661

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December 2018

Psychological stress effects on myelin degradation in the cuprizone-induced model of demyelination.

Neuropathology 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is known as the most common demyelinating disease worldwide in which previous studies have shown that stress is a risk factor for the disease's onset and progression. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to investigate the consequences of stress in MS pathology. In this study, after 5 days of exposure to psychological and physical stress as a repetitive distress modality, rats were treated with cuprizone. Read More

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December 2018
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Infants who die in shared sleeping situations differ from those who die while sleeping alone.

Acta Paediatr 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Discipline of Anatomy and Pathology, Adelaide Medical School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

Aim: To determine whether there are differences between infants who are sharing a sleeping surface with others, compared to those who die alone.

Methods: A literature review was undertaken of pubmed and google scholar databases using search terms: sudden infant death syndrome, SIDS, cosleeping and overlaying.

Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in the sex ratios, and in staining of brain sections for β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL). Read More

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December 2018
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Seizures as presenting symptom in patients with glioblastoma.

Epilepsia 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Objective: The clinical course and underlying molecular causes in patients with glioblastoma presenting with seizures are poorly understood. Here we investigated clinical features and carrier systems as well as a transaminase relevant in glutamate homeostasis in patients with glioblastoma.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of our clinical glioma database for clinical data during a 2-year period. Read More

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December 2018

43 Year Old Woman with Left Arm Paralysis.

Brain Pathol 2018 Nov;28(6):1021-1022

Department of Neurology, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

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November 2018

Dopamine, oxidative stress and protein-quinone modifications in Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Chimica, Via Taramelli 12, 27100, Pavia, ITALY.

Dopamine (DA) is the most important catecholamine in the brain, as it is the most abundant and the precursor of other neurotransmitters. Degeneration of nigrostriatal neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease represents the best-studied link between DA neurotransmission and neuropathology. Catecholamines are reactive molecules that are handled through complex control and transport systems. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Characterization of an Animal Model of Autism and Social Interaction.

Authors:
Keiko Iwata

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1916:149-155

Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, Padua, Italy.

Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by severe and sustained impairment of social interaction and communication, and restricted or stereotyped patterns of behavior and interest. Though multiple risk factors such as genetic and environmental components and interaction of these factors are suggested, the exact etiology is still not known. Many risk factors have been used to established animal models of psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Read More

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January 2019

Quantification of Positron Emission Tomography Data Using Simultaneous Estimation of the Input Function: Validation with Venous Blood and Replication of Clinical Studies.

Mol Imaging Biol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794, USA.

Purpose: To determine if one venous blood sample can substitute full arterial sampling in quantitative modeling for multiple positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers using simultaneous estimation of the input function (SIME).

Procedures: Participants underwent PET imaging with [C]ABP688, [C]CUMI-101, and [C]DASB. Full arterial sampling and additional venous blood draws were performed for quantification with the arterial input function (AIF) and SIME using one arterial or venous (vSIME) sample. Read More

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December 2018

Ongoing Monitoring of Mindwandering in Avoidant Grief Through Cortico-Basal-Ganglia Interactions.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY.

An avoidant grief style is marked by repeated and often unsuccessful attempts to prevent thinking about loss. Prior work shows avoidant grief involves monitoring the external environment in order to avoid reminders of the loss. Here we sought to determine whether avoidant grievers also monitor the internal environment in attempts to minimize conscious awareness of loss-related thoughts. Read More

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December 2018