676,546 results match your criteria Neuron [Journal]


(Pyrrolo-pyridin-5-yl)benzamides: BBB permeable monoamine oxidase B inhibitors with neuroprotective effect on cortical neurons.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Nov 13;162:793-809. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Organic Chemistry, Centre of Phytochemistry, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 9, Sofia, 1113, Bulgaria.

An extensive study was performed to develop a series of (pyrrolo-pyridin-5-yl)benzamides as reversible MAO-B inhibitors. Compounds 14 (NTZ-2020, hMAO-B IC = 1.11 nM, K = 0. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Neuroprotective effects of a novel carnosine-hydrazide derivative on hippocampal CA1 damage after transient cerebral ischemia.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Nov 28;163:207-214. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kurume University, School of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan. Electronic address:

Ischemia-reperfusion injuries produce reactive oxygen species that promote the peroxide lipid oxidation process resulting in the production of an endogenic lipid peroxide, 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a highly cytotoxic aldehyde that induces cell death. We synthesized a novel 4-HNE scavenger - a carnosine-hydrazide derivative, l-carnosine hydrazide (CNN) - and examined its neuroprotective effect in a model of transient ischemia. PC-12 cells were pre-incubated with various doses (0-50 mmol/L) of CNN for 30 min, followed by incubation with 4-HNE (250 μM). Read More

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November 2018
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Development and biochemical characterization of a mouse model of Parkinson's disease bearing defective glucocerebrosidase activity.

Neurobiol Dis 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Laboratory of Functional Neurochemistry, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address:

GBA1 gene encode for the lysosomal membrane protein glucocerebrosidase (GCase). GBA1 heterozygous mutations profoundly impair GCase activity and are currently recognized as an important risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Deficits in lysosomal degradation pathways may contribute to pathological α-synuclein accumulation, thereby favoring dopaminergic neuron degeneration and associated microglial activation. Read More

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December 2018

Bisphenol F causes disruption of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neural development in zebrafish via an estrogenic mechanism.

Neurotoxicology 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biology, Neuroscience Program, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, Washington, USA. Electronic address:

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the brain are the main controllers of reproduction and reproductive behavior in most vertebrates, and are susceptible to endocrine disruption by different bisphenols. While the endocrine disrupting properties of bisphenol A have been well documented, commonly used analogues such as bisphenol F (BPF) are not as well studied. In this study we examined the effects of early, low-dose, chronic BPF exposure on the development of the GnRH neural system in the zebrafish embryo. Read More

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December 2018

Comparison of electroencephalogram (EEG) response to MDPV versus the hallucinogenic drugs MK-801 and ketamine in rats.

Exp Neurol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Synthetic cathinones, often marketed as 'bath salts', have been reported to induce an excited delirium syndrome with characteristic symptoms such as paranoid, hallucination and even aggression. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI), is one of the psychoactive ingredients in bath salts. The present study utilized cortical EEG and brain microdialysis in rats to compare the effects of MDPV (0. Read More

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December 2018

Whole-Brain Functional Ultrasound Imaging Reveals Brain Modules for Visuomotor Integration.

Neuron 2018 Dec;100(5):1241-1251.e7

Institute of Molecular and Clinical Ophthalmology Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Neural Circuit Laboratories, Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Large numbers of brain regions are active during behaviors. A high-resolution, brain-wide activity map could identify brain regions involved in specific behaviors. We have developed functional ultrasound imaging to record whole-brain activity in behaving mice at a resolution of ∼100 μm. Read More

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December 2018
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Cracking the Function of Layers in the Sensory Cortex.

Neuron 2018 Dec;100(5):1028-1043

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA; The Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Understanding how cortical activity generates sensory perceptions requires a detailed dissection of the function of cortical layers. Despite our relatively extensive knowledge of their anatomy and wiring, we have a limited grasp of what each layer contributes to cortical computation. We need to develop a theory of cortical function that is rooted solidly in each layer's component cell types and fine circuit architecture and produces predictions that can be validated by specific perturbations. Read More

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December 2018
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Physiological Models of Human Neuronal Development and Disease.

Neuron 2018 Dec;100(5):1025-1027

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; The Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address:

Human neural network development occurs at stages inaccessible to longitudinal monitoring. By transplanting human neurons to the adult mouse brain, recent studies explore human neural circuit formation in realistic cellular and physiological environments, establishing new models for human neurodevelopmental disorders. Read More

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December 2018

Hierarchical Predictive Information Is Channeled by Asymmetric Oscillatory Activity.

Neuron 2018 Dec;100(5):1022-1024

Department of Basic Neurosciences, University of Geneva, Biotech Campus, 9 chemin des Mine 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.

Predictive coding and neural oscillations are two descriptive levels of brain functioning whose overlap is not yet understood. Chao et al. (2018) now show that hierarchical predictive coding is instantiated by asymmetric information channeling in the γ and α/β oscillatory ranges. Read More

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December 2018

An Unbiased View of Neural Networks: More than Meets the Eye.

Neuron 2018 Dec;100(5):1019-1021

Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Neurosciences Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; BioX, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

In this issue of Neuron, Macé et al. (2018) use whole-brain functional ultrasound imaging in mice to unveil the circuits involved reflexive eye movements. They separated the sensory and motor networks and discovered that certain eye movements robustly suppress the amygdala. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Conducting the Neural Symphony of Memory Replay.

Neuron 2018 Dec;100(5):1016-1019

Neuroscience Program, Department of Psychology and Volen National Center for Complex Systems, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, 02453, USA. Electronic address:

Hippocampal sharp-wave ripple oscillations and sequence replay events are important for memory. Ramirez-Villegas et al. present a model that dissects cellular mechanisms of SWR generation in the CA3-CA1 circuit, and explains the network features of slow-gamma coordination and sequence replay. Read More

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December 2018

CHD2: One Gene, Many Roles.

Neuron 2018 Dec;100(5):1014-1016

Department of Biology, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA. Electronic address:

Mutations in the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding 2 (CHD2) gene have been found in patients with a range of neurodevelopmental disorders. In this issue of Neuron, Kim et al. (2018) showed that Chd2 haploinsufficiency compromises cortical development, synaptic function, and memory in mice. Read More

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December 2018

A Path(way) to Keeping Your Synapses on an Even Keel.

Neuron 2018 Dec;100(5):1013-1014

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York City, NY, USA.

In this issue of Neuron, Harris et al. (2018) show that a signal transduction pathway normally exploited by the innate immune system in recognizing foreign agents plays a critical role in controlling a synapse's ability to maintain stability in the efficacy of synaptic transmission over both rapid and prolonged timescales. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Astrocytes "Chordinate" Synapse Maturation and Plasticity.

Neuron 2018 Dec;100(5):1010-1012

Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Duke Institute for Brain Sciences (DIBS), Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address:

A key step in excitatory synapse maturation is the switch in AMPA receptor subunit composition to GluA2-containing calcium-impermeable receptors. Now, Blanco-Suarez et al. (2018) demonstrate that astrocyte-secreted chordin-like 1 drives this process, enabling synapse maturation and limiting plasticity. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Neuronal Polarization Packs a One-Two Punch.

Neuron 2018 Dec;100(5):1007-1009

Oregon Health and Science University, Knight Cardiovascular Institute, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, USA. Electronic address:

In this issue of Neuron, Ambrozkiewicz et al. (2018) define a new molecular circuit controlling neuronal polarization and migration through the transcription factor SOX9 to coordinate the production of regulators of both protein synthesis and degradation. Read More

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December 2018

Acute effects of zinc and insulin on arcuate anorexigenic Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons.

Br J Pharmacol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Division of Hypothalamic Research, the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Background And Purpose: Acute insulin administration results in a hyperpolarization and concomitant decrease of firing rate in a subpopulation of arcuate Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) cells. This rapid effect on cellular activity has been implicated as a cellular correlate of insulin effects on energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that zinc in mammalian insulin formulations is required for the insulin-induced inhibition of arcuate POMC neurons, while guinea-pig insulin, which fails to bind zinc, activates POMC neurons in mice. Read More

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December 2018
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Binocular Summation for Reflexive Eye Movements: A Potential Diagnostic Tool for Stereodeficiencies.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5816-5822

Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, United States.

Purpose: Stereoscopic vision, by detecting interocular correlations, enhances depth perception. Stereodeficiencies often emerge during the first months of life, and left untreated can lead to severe loss of visual acuity in one eye and/or strabismus. Early treatment results in much better outcomes, yet diagnostic tests for infants are cumbersome and not widely available. Read More

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December 2018
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Study of tau pathology in male rTg4510 mice fed with a curcumin derivative Shiga-Y5.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208440. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.

Intracellular inclusions of aggregated tau appear in neurons and glial cells in a range of neurodegenerative diseases known as tauopathies. Inhibition of pathological changes in tau is a therapeutic target for tauopathy. We recently synthesized a novel curcumin derivative, named Shiga-Y5, and showed that Shiga-Y5 inhibited cognitive impairment and amyloid deposition in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Function and energy consumption constrain neuronal biophysics in a canonical computation: Coincidence detection.

PLoS Comput Biol 2018 Dec 6;14(12):e1006612. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute for Theoretical Biology, Department of Biology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Neural morphology and membrane properties vary greatly between cell types in the nervous system. The computations and local circuit connectivity that neurons support are thought to be the key factors constraining the cells' biophysical properties. Nevertheless, additional constraints can be expected to further shape neuronal design. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Isolation and identification of endogenous RFRP1 and RFRP3 in the mouse hypothalamus.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 6:e12668. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Biological Functions of Food, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Olsztyn, Poland.

Although RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) preproprotein sequence is known in mice, until now the molecular structure of the mature, functional peptides processed from the target precursor molecule has not been determined. In the present study we purified endogenous RFRP1 and RFRP3 peptides from mouse hypothalamic tissue extracts using immunoaffinity column conjugated with specific antibodies against the mouse C-terminus of RFRP-1 and RFRP-3. Employing liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) we demonstrated, that RFRP1 consists of 15 and RFRP3 of 10 amino acid residues (ANKVPHSAANLPLRF-NH and SHFPSLPQRF-NH , respectively). Read More

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December 2018
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Electrophysiological Properties of Identified Oxytocin and Vasopressin Neurons.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 6:e12666. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.

To understand the contribution of intrinsic membrane properties to the different firing patterns of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) neurons in vivo, in vitro studies are needed, where stable intracellular recordings can be made. Combining immunochemistry for OT and VP and intracellular dye injections allows characterization of identified OT and VP neurons, and several differences between the two cell types have emerged. These include a greater transient K current that delays spiking to stimulus onset, and a higher Na current density leading to greater spike amplitude and a more stable spike threshold, in VP neurons. Read More

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December 2018
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A databank for intracellular electrophysiological mapping of the adult somatosensory cortex.

Gigascience 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurophysiology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen - the Netherlands.

Background: Neurons in the supragranular layers of the somatosensory cortex integrate sensory (bottom-up) and cognitive/perceptual (top-down) information as they orchestrate communication across cortical columns. It has been inferred, based on intracellular recordings from juvenile animals, that supragranular neurons are electrically mature by the fourth postnatal week. However, the dynamics of the neuronal integration in the adulthood is largely unknown. Read More

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December 2018
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Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia: gain-of-function mechanisms revealed by new transgenic mouse.

Hum Mol Genet 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy.

Mutations of the SPAST gene, which encodes the microtubule-severing protein spastin, are the most common cause of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia. Haploinsufficiency is the prevalent opinion as to the mechanism of the disease, but gain-of-function toxicity of the mutant proteins is another possibility. Here, we report a new transgenic mouse (termed SPASTC448Y mouse) that is not haploinsufficient but expresses human spastin bearing the HSP pathogenic C448Y mutation. Read More

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December 2018

Sense of Smell: Structural, Functional, Mechanistic Advancements and Challenges in Human Olfactory Research.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Applied Science, Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh. India.

Olfaction, the sense of smell detects and discriminate odors as well as social cues which influence our innate responses. The olfactory system in human beings is found to be weak as compare to other animals; however, it seems to be very precise. It can detect and discriminate millions of chemical moieties (odorants) even in minuscule quantities. Read More

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December 2018

Extensive branching of radially-migrating neurons in the mammalian cerebral cortex.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Instituto de Neurociencias, Agencia Estatal Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas & Universidad Miguel Hernández, San Juan de Alicante, Spain.

Excitatory neurons of the cerebral cortex migrate radially from their place of birth to their final position in the cortical plate during development. Radially-migrating neurons display a single leading process that establishes the direction of movement. This leading process has been described as being unbranched, and the occurrence of branches proposed to impair radial migration. Read More

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December 2018
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Distribution, projections and association with calbindin baskets of motor neurons, interneurons and sensory neurons in guinea-pig distal colon.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

College of Medicine and Public Health & Centre for Neuroscience, Flinders University, Australia.

Normal gut function relies on the activity of the enteric nervous system (ENS) found within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. The structural and functional organisation of the ENS has been extensively studied in the guinea pig small intestine, but less is known about colonic circuitry. Given that there are significant differences between these regions in function, observed motor patterns and pathology, it would be valuable to have a better understanding of the colonic ENS. Read More

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December 2018
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Endoplasmic reticulum stress is transmissible in vitro between cells of the central nervous system.

J Neurochem 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV.

Improper protein folding and trafficking are common pathological events in neurodegenerative diseases that result in the toxic accumulation of misfolded proteins within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). While low-level stimulation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) is protective, sustained UPR activation resulting from prolonged ER stress can promote neurotoxicity. The cell-autonomous mechanisms of the UPR have been extensively characterized. Read More

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December 2018

Nervous system characterization during the development of a basal echinoderm, the feather star Antedon mediterranea.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Environmental Science and Policy, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy.

Neural development of echinoderms has always been difficult to interpret, as larval neurons degenerate at metamorphosis and a tripartite nervous system differentiates in the adult. Despite their key phylogenetic position as basal echinoderms, crinoids have been scarcely studied in developmental research. However, since they are the only extant echinoderms retaining the ancestral body plan of the group, crinoids are extremely valuable models to clarify neural evolution in deuterostomes. Read More

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December 2018
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HIV gp120-induced neuroinflammation potentiates NMDA receptors to overcome basal suppression of inhibitory synapses by p38 MAPK.

J Neurochem 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) affects about half of HIV-infected patients. HIV impairs neuronal function through indirect mechanisms mainly mediated by inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic viral proteins, such as the envelope protein gp120. HIV gp120 elicits a neuroinflammatory response that potentiates NMDA receptor function and induces the loss of excitatory synapses. Read More

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December 2018

Long-range projections from sparse populations of GABAergic neurons in murine subplate.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, Parks Road, Oxford.

The murine subplate contains some of the earliest generated populations of neurons in the cerebral cortex, which play an important role in the maturation of cortical inhibition. Here we present multiple lines of evidence, that the subplate itself is only very sparsely populated with GABAergic neurons at postnatal day (P)8. We used three different transgenic mouse lines, each of which labels a subset of GABAergic, ganglionic eminence derived neurons. Read More

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December 2018
9 Reads

Effects of cannabinoids in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) murine models: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Neurochem 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service, QLD, Australia.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder that results from motor neuron damage. Cannabinoids have been proposed as treatments for ALS due to their anti-excitotoxicity, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Pre-clinical studies in mice models of ALS have been published using a range of cannabinoid formulations and doses. Read More

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December 2018

Effect of Silk Fibroin on Neuroregeneration After Traumatic Brain Injury.

Neurochem Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

A.N. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

Traumatic brain injury is one of the leading causes of disability among the working-age population worldwide. Despite attempts to develop neuroprotective therapeutic approaches, including pharmacological or cellular technologies, significant advances in brain regeneration have not yet been achieved. Development of silk fibroin-based biomaterials represents a new frontier in neuroregenerative therapies after brain injury. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Two ancient neuropeptides, PACAP and AVP, modulate motivated behavior at synapses in the extrahypothalamic brain: a study in contrast.

Cell Tissue Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Section on Molecular Neuroscience, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Regulation, NIMH-IRP, Building 49, Room 5A-32, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD, USA.

We examine evolutionary aspects of two primordial neuropeptides, arginine vasopressin (AVP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP); the distribution of AVP and PACAP and their receptors in mammals; AVP and PACAP release patterns relevant to their roles in neuroendocrine control in brain and periphery; and finally the intricate interlocking of homeostatic and allostatic regulation created by extrahypothalamic AVP and PACAP projections to brain circuit nodes important in controlling appetitive, avoidance and aggressive motor responses. A cardinal feature of peptide neurotransmission important in regulatory control of organismic responses and emphasized in this review, is that neuropeptides are released from large dense-core vesicles docked not only within axonal varicosities and dendrites but also at presynaptic nerve terminal sites, along with small clear synaptic vesicles, at active zones. Peptide transmitter nerve terminals, from hypothalamic and other projections, are distributed widely to multiple brain areas important in integrative control of behavior. Read More

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December 2018

Conditional Haploinsufficiency of β-Catenin Aggravates Neuronal Damage in a Paraquat-Based Mouse Model of Parkinson Disease.

Mol Neurobiol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, 2103 Cornell Road, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA.

The canonical Wnt pathway is critical for both the development and adulthood survival and homeostatic maintenance of the midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Expanding evidence has demonstrated that genetic factors associated with familial Parkinson disease (PD) deregulate this important pathway, suggesting that a disturbed canonical Wnt pathway is likely involved in PD pathogenesis; yet, the specific role of this pathway in sporadic PD remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of specific inhibition of the canonical pathway by hemizygous knockout of β-catenin, the obligatory component of the canonical Wnt pathway, on paraquat (PQ)-induced DA neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra in vivo. Read More

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December 2018

M-Current Expands the Range of Gamma Frequency Inputs to Which a Neuronal Target Entrains.

J Math Neurosci 2018 Dec 5;8(1):13. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, USA.

Theta (4-8 Hz) and gamma (30-80 Hz) rhythms in the brain are commonly associated with memory and learning (Kahana in J Neurosci 26:1669-1672, 2006; Quilichini et al. in J Neurosci 30:11128-11142, 2010). The precision of co-firing between neurons and incoming inputs is critical in these cognitive functions. Read More

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December 2018

Mild heat stress induces hormetic effects in protecting the primary culture of mouse prefrontal cerebrocortical neurons from neuropathological alterations.

IBRO Rep 2018 Dec 14;5:110-115. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Cellular Stress Response Laboratory, Cell Biology Division, Department of Zoology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, 416 004, India.

Hormesis is a dose response phenomenon of cells and organisms to various types of stressors. Mild stress stimulates prosurvival pathways and makes the cells adaptive to stressful conditions. It is a widely used fundamental dose-response phenomenon in many biomedical and toxicological sciences, radiation biology, health science etc. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of extract Ze450 on mitochondria in models of oxidative stress in neuronal cells.

Data Brief 2018 Dec 26;21:1872-1879. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Institut für Pharmakologie und Klinische Pharmazie, Biochemisch-Pharmakologisches Centrum Marburg, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch-Straße 1, 35032 Marburg, Germany.

This data article describes the influence of extract Ze 450 on neuronal cells in models of glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and cell death induced by oxidative stress. Effects of Ze 450 on glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity were assessed in primary cortical rat and mouse neurons and, further, glutamate-mediated oxidative stress was analyzed in HT22 cells lacking ionotropic glutamate receptors. This study especially focusses on mitochondrial parameters like mitochondrial ROS formation, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP production and mitochondrial integrity. Read More

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December 2018
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Astrocyte HIF-2α supports learning in a passive avoidance paradigm under hypoxic stress.

Hypoxia (Auckl) 2018 8;6:35-56. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX, USA,

Background: The brain is extensively vascularized, useŝ20% of the body's oxygen, and is highly sensitive to changes in oxygen. While synaptic plasticity and memory are impaired in healthy individuals by exposure to mild hypoxia, aged individuals appear to be even more sensitive. Aging is associated with progressive failure in pulmonary and cardiovascular systems, exposing the aged to both chronic and superimposed acute hypoxia. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Novel Method of Non-contact Remote Measurement of Neuronal Electrical Activity.

Cureus 2018 Sep 28;10(9):e3384. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Neurosurgery, Riverside University Health System, Moreno Valley, USA.

Measuring the electrical potential of a neuron cell currently requires direct contact with the cell surface. This method requires invasive probing and is limited by the deflection of electricity from baseline. From a clinical perspective, the electrical potential of the brain's surface can only be measured to a depth of one centimeter using an electroencephalogram (EEG), however, it cannot measure much deeper structures. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Risdiplam distributes and increases SMN protein in both the central nervous system and peripheral organs.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2018 Dec 29;6(6):e00447. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Roche Pharma Research and Early Development Roche Innovation Center Basel Switzerland.

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a rare, inherited neuromuscular disease caused by deletion and/or mutation of the Survival of Motor Neuron 1 ( gene. A second gene, , produces low levels of functional SMN protein that are insufficient to fully compensate for the lack of . Risdiplam (RG7916; RO7034067) is an orally administered, small-molecule pre-mRNA splicing modifier that distributes into the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Assessing the Effects of Opioids on Pathological Memory by a Computational Model.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2018 Jul-Aug;9(4):275-288. Epub 2018 Jul 1.

Neuroscience Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Opioids hijack learning and memory formation mechanisms of brain and induce a pathological memory in the hippocampus. This effect is mainly mediated by modifications in glutamatergic system. Speaking more precisely, Opioids presence in a synapse inhibits blockage of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) by Mg, enhances conductance of NMDAR and thus, induces false Long-Term Potentiation (LTP). Read More

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July 2018
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Comparison of Effects of Light Anesthetics, Diethyl Ether and Carbon Dioxide, on Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus D and D Dopamine Receptors- and Glucosensitive Neurons-Induced Food Intake in Fasted Conscious Rats.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2018 Jul-Aug;9(4):269-274. Epub 2018 Jul 1.

Neurophysiology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Carbon Dioxide (CO) and diethyl ether are used as light anesthetics. However, experimental data about their side effects are scarce. In addition, in all our previous works on regulatory mechanisms of hypothalamus during food intake, including the effect of Paraventricular Nucleus (PVN) D and D dopamine receptors and glucosensitive neurons, the drug injections were performed under brief diethyl ether anesthesia. Read More

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is a novel hypothalamic gene upregulated by a high-fat diet and leptin in mice.

Genes Nutr 2018 29;13:28. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

1Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD UK.

Background: Energy homeostasis is regulated by the hypothalamus but fails when animals are fed a high-fat diet (HFD), and leptin insensitivity and obesity develops. To elucidate the possible mechanisms underlying these effects, a microarray-based transcriptomics approach was used to identify novel genes regulated by HFD and leptin in the mouse hypothalamus.

Results: Mouse global array data identified as a novel gene highly upregulated by both a HFD and leptin challenge. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Curative Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Chinese Optimized Yinxieling Formula in Models of Parkinson's Disease.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018 4;2018:6142065. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

Second Clinical Medical College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, 232 Waihuan Road E, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is marked by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons (DAN) accompanied by glial activation. Thus, inhibiting glial activation that occurs during this disease could be an effective method for treating PD. Optimized Yinxieling Formula (OYF), a Chinese medicinal formula, which is used to efficiently treat autoimmune disease psoriasis, has been proved to display potential immunomodulatory effects in inflammation-associated diseases. Read More

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November 2018

ALS-Associated E478G Mutation in Human OPTN (Optineurin) Promotes Inflammation and Induces Neuronal Cell Death.

Front Immunol 2018 14;9:2647. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Innovation Center for Cell Signaling Network, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a group of neurodegenerative disorders that featured with the death of motor neurons, which leads to loss of voluntary control on muscles. The etiologies vary among different subtypes of ALS, and no effective management or medication could be provided to the patients, with the underlying mechanisms incompletely understood yet. Mutations in human (Optineurin), particularly E478G, have been found in many ALS patients. Read More

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November 2018

Emerging Roles of the Membrane Potential: Action Beyond the Action Potential.

Front Physiol 2018 21;9:1661. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Whilst the phenomenon of an electrical resting membrane potential (RMP) is a central tenet of biology, it is nearly always discussed as a phenomenon that facilitates the propagation of action potentials in excitable tissue, muscle, and nerve. However, as ion channel research shifts beyond these tissues, it became clear that the RMP is a feature of virtually all cells studied. The RMP is maintained by the cell's compliment of ion channels. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Large Interruptions of GAA Repeat Expansion Mutations in Friedreich Ataxia Are Very Rare.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 21;12:443. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Ataxia Research Group, Division of Biosciences, Department of Life Sciences, College of Health and Life Sciences, Brunel University London, Uxbridge, United Kingdom.

Friedreich ataxia is a multi-system autosomal recessive inherited disorder primarily caused by homozygous GAA repeat expansion mutations within intron 1 of the frataxin gene. The resulting deficiency of frataxin protein leads to progressive mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and cell death, with the main affected sites being the large sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia and the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum. The GAA repeat expansions may be pure (GAA) in sequence or may be interrupted with regions of non-GAA sequence. Read More

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November 2018

Visualization of Exo- and Endocytosis of AMPA Receptors During Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity Around Postsynaptic-Like Membrane Formed on Glass Surface.

Authors:
Tomoo Hirano

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 21;12:442. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Regulation of exo- and endocytosis of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) plays a critical role in the expression of synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) at excitatory central synapses. Enhanced AMPAR exocytosis or endocytosis has been suggested to contribute to LTP or LTD, respectively. However, several unsettled fundamental questions have remained about AMPAR exo- and endocytosis in the basal condition and during synaptic plasticity: (1) Does the size of each exo- or endocytosis event, and/or do the frequencies of these events change during LTP or LTD? If they change, what are the time courses of the respective changes? (2) Where does the exo- or endocytosis preferentially occur in each condition: inside or in the vicinity of postsynaptic membrane, or in the extrasynaptic membrane? (3) Do different types of AMPAR, such as GluA1 homo-tetramer, GluA1/2 hetero-tetramer and GluA2/3 hetero-tetramer, show distinct exo- and endocytosis changes? To address these questions, we developed new methods to observe individual events of AMPAR exo- or endocytosis with a high signal to noise (SN) ratio in a culture preparation using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). Read More

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November 2018
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