10,882 results match your criteria Neuron [Journal]


Feedback-Driven Mechanisms between Microtubules and the Endoplasmic Reticulum Instruct Neuronal Polarity.

Neuron 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht 3584 CH, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Establishment of neuronal polarity depends on local microtubule (MT) reorganization. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) consists of cisternae and tubules and, like MTs, forms an extensive network throughout the entire cell. How the two networks interact and control neuronal development is an outstanding question. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.030DOI Listing
February 2019

The Spatial Structure of Neural Encoding in Mouse Posterior Cortex during Navigation.

Neuron 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Navigation engages many cortical areas, including visual, parietal, and retrosplenial cortices. These regions have been mapped anatomically and with sensory stimuli and studied individually during behavior. Here, we investigated how behaviorally driven neural activity is distributed and combined across these regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.029DOI Listing
February 2019

Multimodal Single-Cell Analysis Reveals Physiological Maturation in the Developing Human Neocortex.

Neuron 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address:

In the developing human neocortex, progenitor cells generate diverse cell types prenatally. Progenitor cells and newborn neurons respond to signaling cues, including neurotransmitters. While single-cell RNA sequencing has revealed cellular diversity, physiological heterogeneity has yet to be mapped onto these developing and diverse cell types. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.027DOI Listing
February 2019

Cortical Areas Interact through a Communication Subspace.

Neuron 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Dominick Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; Department of Systems and Computational Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Most brain functions involve interactions among multiple, distinct areas or nuclei. For instance, visual processing in primates requires the appropriate relaying of signals across many distinct cortical areas. Yet our understanding of how populations of neurons in interconnected brain areas communicate is in its infancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.026DOI Listing
February 2019

Manipulation of Subcortical and Deep Cortical Activity in the Primate Brain Using Transcranial Focused Ultrasound Stimulation.

Neuron 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging (WIN), Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3SR, UK; Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging (WIN), Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain (FMRIB), Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK. Electronic address:

The causal role of an area within a neural network can be determined by interfering with its activity and measuring the impact. Many current reversible manipulation techniques have limitations preventing their application, particularly in deep areas of the primate brain. Here, we demonstrate that a focused transcranial ultrasound stimulation (TUS) protocol impacts activity even in deep brain areas: a subcortical brain structure, the amygdala (experiment 1), and a deep cortical region, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, experiment 2), in macaques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.019DOI Listing
February 2019

Punishment-Predictive Cues Guide Avoidance through Potentiation of Hypothalamus-to-Habenula Synapses.

Neuron 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Fundamental Neuroscience, University of Lausanne, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland; Inserm, UMR-S 839, 75005 Paris, France. Electronic address:

Throughout life, individuals learn to predict a punishment via its association with sensory stimuli. This process ultimately prompts goal-directed actions to prevent the danger, a behavior defined as avoidance. Neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb) respond to aversive events as well as to environmental cues predicting them, supporting LHb contribution to cue-punishment association. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.025DOI Listing
February 2019

Neural Competitive Queuing of Ordinal Structure Underlies Skilled Sequential Action.

Neuron 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London WC1N 3AZ, UK; Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, UK; Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Neuroimaging, University College London, London WC1N 3AR, UK.

Fluent retrieval and execution of movement sequences is essential for daily activities, but the neural mechanisms underlying sequence planning remain elusive. Here participants learned finger press sequences with different orders and timings and reproduced them in a magneto-encephalography (MEG) scanner. We classified the MEG patterns for each press in the sequence and examined pattern dynamics during preparation and production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.018DOI Listing
February 2019

Hierarchical Heterogeneity across Human Cortex Shapes Large-Scale Neural Dynamics.

Neuron 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address:

The large-scale organization of dynamical neural activity across cortex emerges through long-range interactions among local circuits. We hypothesized that large-scale dynamics are also shaped by heterogeneity of intrinsic local properties across cortical areas. One key axis along which microcircuit properties are specialized relates to hierarchical levels of cortical organization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.017DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Fibrinogen Induces Microglia-Mediated Spine Elimination and Cognitive Impairment in an Alzheimer's Disease Model.

Neuron 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

Cerebrovascular alterations are a key feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. However, whether vascular damage contributes to synaptic dysfunction and how it synergizes with amyloid pathology to cause neuroinflammation and cognitive decline remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the blood protein fibrinogen induces spine elimination and promotes cognitive deficits mediated by CD11b-CD18 microglia activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.014DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Transcriptional Feedback Links Lipid Synthesis to Synaptic Vesicle Pools in Drosophila Photoreceptors.

Neuron 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University, Fairchild D200, 299 W. Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Neurons can maintain stable synaptic connections across adult life. However, the signals that regulate expression of synaptic proteins in the mature brain are incompletely understood. Here, we describe a transcriptional feedback loop between the biosynthesis and repertoire of specific phospholipids and the synaptic vesicle pool in adult Drosophila photoreceptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.015DOI Listing
January 2019

Neuronal Regulation of Fast Synaptotagmin Isoforms Controls the Relative Contributions of Synchronous and Asynchronous Release.

Neuron 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, 220 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Neurotransmitter release can be synchronous and occur within milliseconds of action potential invasion, or asynchronous and persist for tens of milliseconds. The molecular determinants of release kinetics remain poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that asynchronous release dominates when fast Synaptotagmin isoforms are far from calcium channels or when specialized sensors, such as Synaptotagmin 7, are abundant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.013DOI Listing
February 2019

A Selectivity Filter Gate Controls Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Calcium-Dependent Inactivation.

Neuron 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 93858-2330, USA; Departments of Biochemistry and Biophysics, and Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 93858-2330, USA; California Institute for Quantitative Biomedical Research, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 93858-2330, USA; Kavli Institute for Fundamental Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 93858-2330, USA; Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bio-imaging Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Electronic address:

Calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) is a fundamental autoregulatory mechanism in Ca1 and Ca2 voltage-gated calcium channels. Although CDI initiates with the cytoplasmic calcium sensor, how this event causes CDI has been elusive. Here, we show that a conserved selectivity filter (SF) domain II (DII) aspartate is essential for CDI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.011DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Axonogenesis Is Coordinated by Neuron-Specific Alternative Splicing Programming and Splicing Regulator PTBP2.

Neuron 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Division of Biomedical Sciences, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA; Graduate Program in Cell, Molecular and Developmental Biology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. Electronic address:

How a neuron acquires an axon is a fundamental question. Piecemeal identification of many axonogenesis-related genes has been done, but coordinated regulation is unknown. Through unbiased transcriptome profiling of immature primary cortical neurons during early axon formation, we discovered an association between axonogenesis and neuron-specific alternative splicing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.022DOI Listing
January 2019

The NIH BRAIN Initiative: Integrating Neuroethics and Neuroscience.

Neuron 2019 Feb;101(3):394-398

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, 31 Center Drive, 8A31, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

The NIH Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative is focused on developing new tools and neurotechnologies to transform our understanding of the brain, and neuroethics is an essential component of this research effort. Coordination with other brain projects around the world will help maximize success. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08966273193005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.024DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Korea Brain Initiative: Emerging Issues and Institutionalization of Neuroethics.

Neuron 2019 Feb;101(3):390-393

Korea Brain Research Institute (KBRI), Daegu 41062, Republic of Korea; Korea Brain Initiative.

Neuroscience research has become a national priority for the Korean government. Korean scholars have dedicated interest in the societal ramifications of neurotechnologies; neuroethics is an integral component of the Korea Brain Initiative and to the formation of its growing neuroscience community. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.042DOI Listing
February 2019

Neuroethical Issues of the Brain/MINDS Project of Japan.

Neuron 2019 Feb;101(3):385-389

Department of Cellular Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

The Brain/MINDS project aims to further understand the human brain and neuropsychiatric disorders through "translatable" biomarkers. Here, we describe the neuroethical issues of the project that have arisen from clinical data collection and the use of biological models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.006DOI Listing
February 2019

The Human Brain Project: Responsible Brain Research for the Benefit of Society.

Neuron 2019 Feb;101(3):380-384

Institute for Neuroscience and Medicine, INM-1, Structural and Functional Organisation of the Brain, Forschungszentrum Juelich, GmbH D, 52425 Juelich, Germany; Cecile und Oskar Vogt Institute for Brain Research, Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Germany. Electronic address:

Recognizing that its research may raise various ethical, social, and philosophical issues, the HBP has made the identification, examination, and management of those issues a top priority. The Ethics and Society subproject is part of the core research project. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.005DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Responsibility and Sustainability in Brain Science, Technology, and Neuroethics in China-a Culture-Oriented Perspective.

Neuron 2019 Feb;101(3):375-379

Center for Translational Neurodegeneration and Regenerative Therapy, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital affiliated to Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China; Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5930, USA; Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5930, USA. Electronic address:

The China Brain Project is in development. Integrating an ethical framework to identify and assess ethical challenges and plan for solutions is a priority. Here Wang et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.023DOI Listing
February 2019

A Neuroethics Backbone for the Evolving Canadian Brain Research Strategy.

Neuron 2019 Feb;101(3):370-374

Departments of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology & Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Building on Canada's strong traditions in neuroscience and ethics, neuroethics provides a backbone for the evolving Canadian Brain Research Strategy (CBRS) that, from the outset, incorporates ethically responsible discoveries in brain science into clinical, societal, educational, and commercial innovation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.12.021DOI Listing
February 2019

A Neuroethics Framework for the Australian Brain Initiative.

Authors:

Neuron 2019 Feb;101(3):365-369

Neuroethics is central to the Australian Brain Initiative's aim to sustain a thriving and responsible neurotechnology industry. Diverse and inclusive community and stakeholder engagement and a trans-disciplinary approach to neuroethics will be key to the success of the Australian Brain Initiative. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.004DOI Listing
February 2019

Excitatory/Inhibitory Imbalance in Anterior Lateral Occipital Complex Can Impair Hippocampal Mnemonic Discrimination.

Neuron 2019 Feb;101(3):360-362

Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Koolschijn et al. (2019) explore the influence of the release of cortical inhibition on neural mnemonic representations in the hippocampus and subsequent memory performance by evaluating neural activity via functional MRI, both before and after the application of tDCS aimed at increasing GABA in the anterior lateral occipital cortex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.020DOI Listing
February 2019

Layers of Rhythms - from Cortical Anatomy to Dynamics.

Neuron 2019 Feb;101(3):358-360

Department of Neuroscience, Kavli Institute, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address:

The activity of the cerebral cortex patterns into recurring dynamic motifs. In the present issue of Neuron, Senzai et al. (2019) elucidate how these motifs recruit excitatory and inhibitory neurons across cortical layers and how brain state modulates laminar interactions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.028DOI Listing
February 2019

Diversity in the Oligodendrocyte Lineage: Current Evidence.

Neuron 2019 Feb;101(3):356-357

Institute of Physiology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany. Electronic address:

In this issue of Neuron, Spitzer et al. (2019) demonstrate age- and region-dependent diversity in the expression of voltage-gated ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors in oligodendrocyte progenitors. These define their interactions with neurons and thus suggest an increasing functional heterogeneity with age and between brain regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.032DOI Listing
February 2019

Substance P and Inflammatory Pain: Getting It Wrong and Right Simultaneously.

Neuron 2019 Feb;101(3):353-355

Department of Pharmacology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85718, USA; Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA. Electronic address:

How do neuropeptides participate in the classic neuroinflammatory sequelae of tissue injury that includes pain, immune cell infiltration, and swelling? In this issue of Neuron, Green et al. (2019) reveal that MrgprB2/MrgprX2 is a mast cell substance-P-specific receptor that critically links neural and immune systems and offers new approaches for neuroinflammatory therapeutics. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08966273193006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.034DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Effects of Species-Specific Genetics on Alzheimer's Mouse Models.

Neuron 2019 Feb;101(3):351-352

Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 114 16(th) Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA. Electronic address:

In this issue of Neuron, Neuner et al. (2019) report the generation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) transgenic mouse models on a panel of 28 background strains, showing marked background-dependent phenotypic variability. These findings imply that analogous variation in human AD phenotypes may be due, at least in part, to subtle effects of genetic background. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.021DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide-Expressing Interneurons in the Hippocampus Support Goal-Oriented Spatial Learning.

Neuron 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA; Mortimer B. Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA; Kavli Institute for Brain Science, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Diverse computations in the neocortex are aided by specialized GABAergic interneurons (INs), which selectively target other INs. However, much less is known about how these canonical disinhibitory circuit motifs contribute to network operations supporting spatial navigation and learning in the hippocampus. Using chronic two-photon calcium imaging in mice performing random foraging or goal-oriented learning tasks, we found that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-expressing (VIP), disinhibitory INs in hippocampal area CA1 form functional subpopulations defined by their modulation by behavioral states and task demands. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.009DOI Listing
January 2019

Zika Virus Protease Cleavage of Host Protein Septin-2 Mediates Mitotic Defects in Neural Progenitors.

Neuron 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Laboratory for Pediatric Brain Disease, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rady Children's Institute of Genomic Medicine, Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093, USA. Electronic address:

Zika virus (ZIKV) targets neural progenitor cells in the brain, attenuates cell proliferation, and leads to cell death. Here, we describe a role for the ZIKV protease NS2B-NS3 heterodimer in mediating neurotoxicity through cleavage of a host protein required for neurogenesis. Similar to ZIKV infection, NS2B-NS3 expression led to cytokinesis defects and cell death in a protease activity-dependent fashion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.010DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read
15.054 Impact Factor

Cell-Type-Specific Patterned Stimulus-Independent Neuronal Activity in the Drosophila Visual System during Synapse Formation.

Neuron 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address:

Stereotyped synaptic connections define the neural circuits of the brain. In vertebrates, stimulus-independent activity contributes to neural circuit formation. It is unknown whether this type of activity is a general feature of nervous system development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.008DOI Listing
January 2019

Activity Correlations between Direction-Selective Retinal Ganglion Cells Synergistically Enhance Motion Decoding from Complex Visual Scenes.

Neuron 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen, Germany; Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address:

Neurons in sensory systems are often tuned to particular stimulus features. During complex naturalistic stimulation, however, multiple features may simultaneously affect neuronal responses, which complicates the readout of individual features. To investigate feature representation under complex stimulation, we studied how direction-selective ganglion cells in salamander retina respond to texture motion where direction, velocity, and spatial pattern inside the receptive field continuously change. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.003DOI Listing
January 2019

HDAC1 and HDAC2 Regulate Intermediate Progenitor Positioning to Safeguard Neocortical Development.

Neuron 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Institutes of Brain Science, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Fudan University, 138 Yixueyuan Road, Shanghai 200032, China. Electronic address:

Neural progenitors with distinct potential to generate progeny are associated with a spatially distinct microenvironment. Neocortical intermediate progenitors (IPs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the developing brain generate neurons for all cortical layers and are essential for cortical expansion. Here, we show that spatial control of IP positioning is essential for neocortical development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.007DOI Listing
January 2019

A Photoactivatable Botulinum Neurotoxin for Inducible Control of Neurotransmission.

Neuron 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. Electronic address:

Regulated secretion is critical for diverse biological processes ranging from immune and endocrine signaling to synaptic transmission. Botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins, which specifically proteolyze vesicle fusion proteins involved in regulated secretion, have been widely used as experimental tools to block these processes. Genetic expression of these toxins in the nervous system has been a powerful approach for disrupting neurotransmitter release within defined circuitry, but their current utility in the brain and elsewhere remains limited by lack of spatial and temporal control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.002DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads
15.054 Impact Factor

Elucidating the Molecular Basis for Inhibitory Neurotransmission Regulation by Artemisinins.

Neuron 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Institute of Structural Biology, Rudolf Virchow Center for Experimental Biomedicine, University of Würzburg, Josef-Schneider-Str. 2, 97080 Würzburg, Germany. Electronic address:

The frontline anti-malarial drug artemisinin and its derivatives have also been implicated in modulating multiple mammalian cellular pathways, including the recent identification of targeting γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAR) signaling in the pancreas. Their molecular mechanism of action, however, remains elusive. Here, we present crystal structures of gephyrin, the central organizer at inhibitory postsynapses, in complex with artesunate and artemether at 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.001DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Calcium Influx through Plasma-Membrane Nanoruptures Drives Axon Degeneration in a Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

Neuron 2019 Jan 6. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München, Marchioninistraße 15, 81377 Munich, Germany; Biomedical Center (BMC), Faculty of Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München, Großhaderner Strasse 9, 82152 Planegg Martinsried, Germany; Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy), Feodor-Lynen-Straße 17, 81377 Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Axon loss determines persistent disability in multiple sclerosis patients. Here, we use in vivo calcium imaging in a multiple sclerosis model to show that cytoplasmic calcium levels determine the choice between axon loss and survival. We rule out the endoplasmic reticulum, glutamate excitotoxicity, and the reversal of the sodium-calcium exchanger as sources of intra-axonal calcium accumulation and instead identify nanoscale ruptures of the axonal plasma membrane as the critical path of calcium entry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.12.023DOI Listing
January 2019

A Mast-Cell-Specific Receptor Mediates Neurogenic Inflammation and Pain.

Neuron 2019 Feb 24;101(3):412-420.e3. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Center for Sensory Biology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Mast cells can be found in close proximity to peripheral nerve endings where, upon activation, they release a broad range of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. However, the precise mechanism underlying this so-called neurogenic inflammation and associated pain has remained elusive. Here we report that the mast-cell-specific receptor Mrgprb2 mediates inflammatory mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and is required for recruitment of innate immune cells at the injury site. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.012DOI Listing
February 2019

Endothelium-Derived Semaphorin 3G Regulates Hippocampal Synaptic Structure and Plasticity via Neuropilin-2/PlexinA4.

Neuron 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular & Cerebrovascular Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China. Electronic address:

The proper interactions between blood vessels and neurons are critical for maintaining the strength of neural circuits and cognitive function. However, the precise molecular events underlying these interactions remain largely unknown. Here, we report that the selective knockout of semaphorin 3G (Sema3G) in endothelial cells impaired hippocampal-dependent memory and reduced dendritic spine density in CA1 neurons in mice; these effects were reversed after restoration of Sema3G levels in the hippocampus by AAV transfection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.12.036DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

A Network for Computing Value Equilibrium in the Human Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

Neuron 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6AE, UK.

Humans and other animals make decisions in order to satisfy their goals. However, it remains unknown how neural circuits compute which of multiple possible goals should be pursued (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.12.029DOI Listing
January 2019

Structured Odorant Response Patterns across a Complete Olfactory Receptor Neuron Population.

Neuron 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Electronic address:

Odor perception allows animals to distinguish odors, recognize the same odor across concentrations, and determine concentration changes. How the activity patterns of primary olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), at the individual and population levels, facilitate distinguishing these functions remains poorly understood. Here, we interrogate the complete ORN population of the Drosophila larva across a broadly sampled panel of odorants at varying concentrations. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08966273183115
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.12.030DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Detection of Multiway Gamma Coordination Reveals How Frequency Mixing Shapes Neural Dynamics.

Neuron 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers State University, Newark, NJ 07102, USA. Electronic address:

A principle of communication technology, frequency mixing, describes how novel oscillations are generated when rhythmic inputs converge on a nonlinearly activating target. As expected given that neurons are nonlinear integrators, it was demonstrated that neuronal networks exhibit mixing in response to imposed oscillations of known frequencies. However, determining when mixing occurs in spontaneous conditions, where weaker or more variable rhythms prevail, has remained impractical. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.12.028DOI Listing
January 2019

Increased Excitation-Inhibition Ratio Stabilizes Synapse and Circuit Excitability in Four Autism Mouse Models.

Neuron 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Electronic address:

Distinct genetic forms of autism are hypothesized to share a common increase in excitation-inhibition (E-I) ratio in cerebral cortex, causing hyperexcitability and excess spiking. We provide a systematic test of this hypothesis across 4 mouse models (Fmr1, Cntnap2, 16p11.2, Tsc2), focusing on somatosensory cortex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.12.026DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Synergistic Activity of Floor-Plate- and Ventricular-Zone-Derived Netrin-1 in Spinal Cord Commissural Axon Guidance.

Neuron 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Sorbonne Université, INSERM, CNRS, Institut de la Vision, 17 Rue Moreau, 75012 Paris, France. Electronic address:

In vertebrates, commissural axons extend ventrally toward the floor plate in the spinal cord and hindbrain. Netrin-1, secreted by floor plate cells, was proposed to attract commissural axons at a distance. However, recent genetic studies in mice have shown that netrin-1 is also produced by ventricular zone (VZ) progenitors and that in the hindbrain, it represents the main source of netrin-1 for commissural axons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.12.024DOI Listing
January 2019

Long-Range Guidance of Spinal Commissural Axons by Netrin1 and Sonic Hedgehog from Midline Floor Plate Cells.

Neuron 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Laboratory of Brain Development and Repair, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA; Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

An important model for axon pathfinding is provided by guidance of embryonic commissural axons from dorsal spinal cord to ventral midline floor plate (FP). FP cells produce a chemoattractive activity, comprised largely of netrin1 (FP-netrin1) and Sonic hedgehog (Shh), that can attract the axons at a distance in vitro. netrin1 is also produced by ventricular zone (VZ) progenitors along the axons' route (VZ-netrin1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.12.025DOI Listing
January 2019
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Cholinergic Interneurons Amplify Thalamostriatal Excitation of Striatal Indirect Pathway Neurons in Parkinson's Disease Models.

Neuron 2019 Feb 15;101(3):444-458.e6. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Physiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Electronic address:

The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are thought to stem from an imbalance in the activity of striatal direct- and indirect-pathway spiny projection neurons (SPNs). Disease-induced alterations in the activity of networks controlling SPNs could contribute to this imbalance. One of these networks is anchored by the parafascicular nucleus (PFn) of the thalamus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.12.004DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Functional Synaptic Architecture of Callosal Inputs in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex.

Neuron 2019 Feb 15;101(3):421-428.e5. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience, Jupiter, FL 33458, USA. Electronic address:

Callosal projections are thought to play a critical role in coordinating neural activity between the cerebral hemispheres in placental mammals, but the rules that govern the arrangement of callosal synapses on the dendrites of their target neurons remain poorly understood. Here we describe a high-throughput method to map the functional organization of callosal connectivity by combining in vivo 3D random-access two-photon calcium imaging of the dendritic spines of single V1 neurons with optogenetic stimulation of the presynaptic neural population in the contralateral hemisphere. We find that callosal-recipient spines are more likely to cluster with non-callosal-recipient spines with similar orientation preference. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08966273183108
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.12.005DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells Become Regionally Diverse and Heterogeneous with Age.

Neuron 2019 Feb 14;101(3):459-471.e5. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Wellcome - Medical Research Council Cambridge Stem Cell Institute and Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Electronic address:

Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), which differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes during CNS development, are the main proliferative cells in the adult brain. OPCs are conventionally considered a homogeneous population, particularly with respect to their electrophysiological properties, but this has been debated. We show, by using single-cell electrophysiological recordings, that OPCs start out as a homogeneous population but become functionally heterogeneous, varying both within and between brain regions and with age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.12.020DOI Listing
February 2019
15.054 Impact Factor

Ionotropic Receptors Specify the Morphogenesis of Phasic Sensors Controlling Rapid Thermal Preference in Drosophila.

Neuron 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Volen Center for Complex Systems, Department of Biology, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454, USA. Electronic address:

Thermosensation is critical for avoiding thermal extremes and regulating body temperature. While thermosensors activated by noxious temperatures respond to hot or cold, many innocuous thermosensors exhibit robust baseline activity and lack discrete temperature thresholds, suggesting they are not simply warm and cool detectors. Here, we investigate how the aristal Cold Cells encode innocuous temperatures in Drosophila. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.12.022DOI Listing
January 2019

Expectancy-Related Changes in Dopaminergic Error Signals Are Impaired by Cocaine Self-Administration.

Neuron 2019 Jan;101(2):294-306.e3

Intramural Research program of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA; Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA; Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Electronic address:

Addiction is a disorder of behavioral control and learning. While this may reflect pre-existing propensities, drug use also clearly contributes by causing changes in outcome processing in prefrontal and striatal regions. This altered processing is associated with behavioral deficits, including changes in learning. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08966273183101
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.11.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338441PMC
January 2019
8 Reads

Crosstalk of Local Translation and Mitochondria: Powering Plasticity in Axons and Dendrites.

Neuron 2019 Jan;101(2):204-206

Department of Cell Biology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address:

Two papers in Cell uncover reciprocal crosstalk of local translation and mitochondria in neurons. Rangaraju et al. (2019) observe tethered compartments of stable mitochondria in dendrites that provide a local energy supply for mRNA translation at synapses. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08966273183112
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.12.027DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

The Puzzling Pulvinar.

Neuron 2019 Jan;101(2):201-203

Princeton Neuroscience Institute & Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. Electronic address:

The functional role of the pulvinar, with its widespread cortical connectivity, has remained elusive. In this issue of Neuron, Jaramillo et al. (2019) provide a computational roadmap for how the pulvinar might influence various cognitive behaviors across multiple large-scale networks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.12.032DOI Listing
January 2019