10,984 results match your criteria Neuron [Journal]


A Common Neuroendocrine Substrate for Diverse General Anesthetics and Sleep.

Neuron 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address:

How general anesthesia (GA) induces loss of consciousness remains unclear, and whether diverse anesthetic drugs and sleep share a common neural pathway is unknown. Previous studies have revealed that many GA drugs inhibit neural activity through targeting GABA receptors. Here, using Fos staining, ex vivo brain slice recording, and in vivo multi-channel electrophysiology, we discovered a core ensemble of hypothalamic neurons in and near the supraoptic nucleus, consisting primarily of neuroendocrine cells, which are persistently and commonly activated by multiple classes of GA drugs. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08966273193029
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.033DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Alternative Splicing of Presynaptic Neurexins Differentially Controls Postsynaptic NMDA and AMPA Receptor Responses.

Neuron 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors mediate distinct postsynaptic signals that differ characteristically among synapses. How postsynaptic AMPA- and NMDA-receptor levels are regulated, however, remains unclear. Using newly generated conditional knockin mice that enable genetic control of neurexin alternative splicing, we show that in hippocampal synapses, alternative splicing of presynaptic neurexin-1 at splice site 4 (SS4) dramatically enhanced postsynaptic NMDA-receptor-mediated, but not AMPA-receptor-mediated, synaptic responses without altering synapse density. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.032DOI Listing

Synaptic Vesicle Recycling Pathway Determines Neurotransmitter Content and Release Properties.

Neuron 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Departments of Neurology and Physiology, Graduate Programs in Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Kavli Institute for Fundamental Neuroscience, Weill Institute for the Neurosciences, UCSF School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address:

In contrast to temporal coding by synaptically acting neurotransmitters such as glutamate, neuromodulators such as monoamines signal changes in firing rate. The two modes of signaling have been thought to reflect differences in release by different cells. We now find that midbrain dopamine neurons release glutamate and dopamine with different properties that reflect storage in different synaptic vesicles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.031DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Central Processing of Itch in the Midbrain Reward Center.

Neuron 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China; Shanghai Research Center for Brain Science and Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Shanghai 201210, China. Electronic address:

Itch is an aversive sensation that evokes a desire to scratch. Paradoxically, scratching the itch also produces a hedonic experience. The specific brain circuits processing these different aspects of itch, however, remain elusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.030DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Disruption of RNA Metabolism in Neurological Diseases and Emerging Therapeutic Interventions.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(2):294-320

Department of Neurology, The Sean M. Healey and AMG Center for ALS at Mass General, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA; Broad Institute of Harvard University and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Electronic address:

RNA binding proteins are critical to the maintenance of the transcriptome via controlled regulation of RNA processing and transport. Alterations of these proteins impact multiple steps of the RNA life cycle resulting in various molecular phenotypes such as aberrant RNA splicing, transport, and stability. Disruption of RNA binding proteins and widespread RNA processing defects are increasingly recognized as critical determinants of neurological diseases. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08966273193027
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.014DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Filters: When, Why, and How (Not) to Use Them.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(2):280-293

Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences and the Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:

Filters are commonly used to reduce noise and improve data quality. Filter theory is part of a scientist's training, yet the impact of filters on interpreting data is not always fully appreciated. This paper reviews the issue and explains what a filter is, what problems are to be expected when using them, how to choose the right filter, and how to avoid filtering by using alternative tools. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08966273193017
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.02.039DOI Listing
April 2019
7 Reads

Sister, Sister: Ependymal Cells and Adult Neural Stem Cells Are Separated at Birth by Geminin Family Members.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(2):278-279

Department of Pathology, Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

The adult subventricular zone (SVZ) stem cell niche is comprised of multi-ciliated ependymal cells that line the brain ventricular system and adult stem cells. Papers in Neuron (Ortiz-Álvarez et al., 2019) and Cell Reports (Redmond et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.02.040DOI Listing

Microglia Sculpt Sex Differences in Social Behavior.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(2):275-277

Lurie Center for Autism, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Electronic address:

Microglia are increasingly recognized as developmental sculptors of neural circuits. In this issue of Neuron, VanRyzin et al. (2019) demonstrate a novel mechanism by which endocannabinoids drive microglia to phagocytose newborn astrocytes in the medial amygdala of male rats, promoting sex differences in social play behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.039DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Switching Gears, Structuring the Right Search Strategy.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(2):273-275

Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour, The University of Oxford, Tinsley Building, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR, UK. Electronic address:

Nematodes can use local and global search strategies to find food. In this issue of Neuron, López-Cruz et al. (2019) unravel a neural circuit mechanism that allows worms to select and switch between these search modes depending on recent experience of food. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.040DOI Listing

The Yin and Yang of Arnt2 in Activity-Dependent Transcription.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(2):270-272

Biozentrum of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Spatiotemporal regulation of neuronal gene expression is essential for proper functioning of neuronal circuits. In this issue of Neuron, Sharma et al. (2019) discover a dual role for Arnt2-NcoR2 protein complexes in the activity-dependent regulation of neuronal transcriptomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.04.006DOI Listing

Chandelier Cells Swipe Right for L1CAM.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(2):267-270

Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Establishing a functional neuronal circuit requires not only synapsing with the right cell type, but also targeting the right subcellular compartment. In this issue of Neuron, Tai et al. (2019) identify the cell adhesion molecule L1CAM as integral to the mechanism by which chandelier cells establish subcellular compartment-specific innervation of pyramidal neurons in the mammalian cerebral cortex. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08966273193032
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.038DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The Evolution of Phase-Separated TDP-43 in Stress.

Authors:
Benjamin Wolozin

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(2):265-267

Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

In this issue of Neuron, Gasset-Rosa et al. (2019) and Mann et al. (2019) demonstrate that cytoplasmic inclusions containing aggregated phosphorylated TDP-43 can evolve through three pathways: direct aggregation or phase-separated intermediates involving ejection from stress granules or seeding with exogenous fibrils. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08966273193033
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.041DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Glutamate-Releasing SWELL1 Channel in Astrocytes Modulates Synaptic Transmission and Promotes Brain Damage in Stroke.

Neuron 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA; Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Electronic address:

By releasing glutamate, astrocytes actively regulate synaptic transmission and contribute to excitotoxicity in neurological diseases. However, the mechanisms of astrocytic glutamate release have been debated. Here, we report non-vesicular release of glutamate through the glutamate-permeable volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.029DOI Listing

Morning and Evening Circadian Pacemakers Independently Drive Premotor Centers via a Specific Dopamine Relay.

Neuron 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Neuroscience, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Many animals exhibit morning and evening peaks of locomotor behavior. In Drosophila, two corresponding circadian neural oscillators-M (morning) cells and E (evening) cells-exhibit a corresponding morning or evening neural activity peak. Yet we know little of the neural circuitry by which distinct circadian oscillators produce specific outputs to precisely control behavioral episodes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.028DOI Listing

Multiplexing of Theta and Alpha Rhythms in the Amygdala-Hippocampal Circuit Supports Pattern Separation of Emotional Information.

Neuron 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA; Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA; Comprehensive Epilepsy Program, Department of Neurology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92868, USA. Electronic address:

How do we remember emotional events? While emotion often leads to vivid recollection, the precision of emotional memories can be degraded, especially when discriminating among overlapping experiences in memory (i.e., pattern separation). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.025DOI Listing
April 2019
15.054 Impact Factor

Encoding of Wind Direction by Central Neurons in Drosophila.

Neuron 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

NYU Neuroscience Institute, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address:

Wind is a major navigational cue for insects, but how wind direction is decoded by central neurons in the insect brain is unknown. Here we find that walking flies combine signals from both antennae to orient to wind during olfactory search behavior. Movements of single antennae are ambiguous with respect to wind direction, but the difference between left and right antennal displacements yields a linear code for wind direction in azimuth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.012DOI Listing

Uncovering the Genetic Architecture of Major Depression.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(1):91-103

Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, King's College London, London, UK; Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King's College London, London UK.

There have been several recent studies addressing the genetic architecture of depression. This review serves to take stock of what is known now about the genetics of depression, how it has increased our knowledge and understanding of its mechanisms, and how the information and knowledge can be leveraged to improve the care of people affected. We identify four priorities for how the field of MD genetics research may move forward in future years, namely by increasing the sample sizes available for genome-wide association studies (GWASs), greater inclusion of diverse ancestries and low-income countries, the closer integration of psychiatric genetics with electronic medical records, and the development of the neuroscience toolkit for polygenic disorders. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08966273193028
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.022DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads
15.054 Impact Factor

The Shifting Sands of Cortical Divisions.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(1):8-11

Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

In this issue of Neuron, a new study by Minderer et al. (2019) examines the activity of thousands of cortical neurons during a navigation task and reveals that features of the task encoded by neurons vary smoothly across cortex rather than falling into functionally discrete cortical regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.015DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Altered Connectivity in Depression: GABA and Glutamate Neurotransmitter Deficits and Reversal by Novel Treatments.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(1):75-90

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 34 Park Street, New Haven, CT 06508, USA.

The mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology and treatment of depression and stress-related disorders remain unclear, but studies in depressed patients and rodent models are beginning to yield promising insights. These studies demonstrate that depression and chronic stress exposure cause atrophy of neurons in cortical and limbic brain regions implicated in depression, and brain imaging studies demonstrate altered connectivity and network function in the brains of depressed patients. Studies of the neurobiological basis of the these alterations have focused on both the principle, excitatory glutamate neurons, as well as inhibitory GABA interneurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450409PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Deconstructing the Gestalt: Mechanisms of Fear, Threat, and Trauma Memory Encoding.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(1):60-74

Neurobiology of Fear Laboratory, Division of Depression and Anxiety Disorders, McLean Hospital, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02478, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Threat processing is central to understanding debilitating fear- and trauma-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Progress has been made in understanding the neural circuits underlying the "engram" of threat or fear memory formation that complements a decades-old appreciation of the neurobiology of fear and threat involving hub structures such as the amygdala. In this review, we examine key recent findings, as well as integrate the importance of hormonal and physiological approaches, to provide a broader perspective of how bodily systems engaged in threat responses may interact with amygdala-based circuits in the encoding and updating of threat-related memory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450587PMC
April 2019
11 Reads

Managing Neuronal Ensembles: Somatostatin Interneuron Subpopulations Shape and Protect Cortical Neuronal Ensembles for Learning.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(1):6-8

Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Learning is accompanied by temporal compression and sharpening of neuronal firing sequences. In this issue of Neuron, Adler et al. (2019), using a motor skill paradigm and its variant, uncover a dual role for somatostatin interneuron regulation to support ensemble compaction and protection in learning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.016DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

The Molecular Basis of Drug Addiction: Linking Epigenetic to Synaptic and Circuit Mechanisms.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(1):48-59

Department of Basic Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; Clinic of Neurology, Departement of Clinical Neurosiences, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Addiction is a disease in which, after a period of recreational use, a subset of individuals develops compulsive use that does not stop even in light of major negative consequences. Here, we review the evidence for underlying epigenetic remodeling in brain in two settings. First, excessive dopamine signaling during drug use may modulate gene expression, altering synaptic function and circuit activity and leading over time to maladaptive behaviors in vulnerable individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.016DOI Listing

Taming the "Black Dog" by Light: A Retina-Habenula Circuit Mechanism Unveiled.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(1):3-5

Center for Neuroscience and Department of Psychiatry of First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310000, China; Interdisciplinary Institute of Neuroscience and Technology, Qiushi Academy for Advanced Studies, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; NHC and CAMS Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Mental Health Center, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Light exerts powerful effects on mood and has been used for the therapeutic treatment of depression. In this issue of Neuron, Huang et al. (2019) identify a visual pathway linked to the lateral habenula mediating the antidepressant effects of light. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08966273193016
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.02.033DOI Listing
April 2019
8 Reads

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Puzzles and Prospects.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(1):27-47

Department of Psychology, Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK. Electronic address:

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a severe and disabling psychiatric disorder that presents several challenges for neuroscience. Recent advances in its genetic and developmental causation, as well as its neuropsychological basis, are reviewed. Hypotheses concerning an imbalance between goal-directed and habitual behavior together with neural correlates in cortico-striatal circuitry are evaluated and contrasted with metacognitive theories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.046DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Learning How Neurons Fail Inside of Networks: Nonhuman Primates Provide Critical Data for Psychiatry.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(1):21-26

Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; Brain Sciences Center, VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Advancing psychiatry requires understanding brain malfunction at a microscopic scale, where neurons and synapses operate under constraints imposed by behavior, cognition, and neural architecture. Nonhuman primates are unmatched in approximating the structural and computational environment of the human brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.02.030DOI Listing

The Emerging Importance of the Cerebellum in Broad Risk for Psychopathology.

Authors:
Ahmad R Hariri

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(1):17-20

Laboratory of NeuroGenetics, Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA. Electronic address:

Recent research has identified a single factor accounting for broad risk to experience common forms of psychopathology. Structural alterations of cerebellar circuitry have emerged as a neural nexus of this broad risk, highlighting the cerebellum's importance for executive control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.02.031DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Perinatal Depression: Embracing Variability toward Better Treatment and Outcomes.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(1):13-16

Neurobiology Research Unit, Department of Neurology 6931, Rigshospitalet Copenhagen University Hospital Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark; Mental Health Services Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Perinatal depression (PND) is a heterogeneous disorder with differences in timing of onset of depression, which influences symptomology, severity, and treatment efficacy. Researchers must embrace the heterogeneity to bring fruition to a precision medicine approach for women in reproductive mental health care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.02.023DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Special Issue on Disease: New Advances in Psychiatry.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(1):12

Editors, Neuron.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.018DOI Listing

Transient Input-Specific Neural Plasticity in the Lateral Habenula Facilitates Learning.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(1):1-3

Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; Neuroscience Program, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Electronic address:

In this issue of Neuron, Trusel et al. (2019) demonstrate that circuit-specific plasticity in the lateral habenula is dynamically involved in translating CS-US contingencies into cue-driven avoidance behavior. Disruption of this plasticity prevents learning about CS-US relationships when they are uncertain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.019DOI Listing

A Role of Drd2 Hippocampal Neurons in Context-Dependent Food Intake.

Neuron 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Associative learning of food cues that link location in space to food availability guides feeding behavior in mammals. However, the function of specific neurons that are elements of the higher-order, cognitive circuitry controlling feeding behavior is largely unexplored. Here, we report that hippocampal dopamine 2 receptor (hD2R) neurons are specifically activated by food and that both acute and chronic modulation of their activity reduces food intake in mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.011DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Conversion of Graded Presynaptic Climbing Fiber Activity into Graded Postsynaptic Ca Signals by Purkinje Cell Dendrites.

Neuron 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience, Jupiter, FL, USA. Electronic address:

The brain must make sense of external stimuli to generate relevant behavior. We used a combination of in vivo approaches to investigate how the cerebellum processes sensory-related information. We found that the inferior olive encodes contexts of sensory-associated external cues in a graded manner, apparent in the presynaptic activity of their axonal projections (climbing fibers) in the cerebellar cortex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.010DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Location and Plasticity of the Sodium Spike Initiation Zone in Nociceptive Terminals In Vivo.

Neuron 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Medical Neurobiology, Institute for Medical Research Israel Canada, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University, 9112001 Jerusalem, Israel; The Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences, The Hebrew University, 9112001 Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:

Nociceptive terminals possess the elements for detecting, transmitting, and modulating noxious signals, thus being pivotal for pain sensation. Despite this, a functional description of the transduction process by the terminals, in physiological conditions, has not been fully achieved. Here, we studied how nociceptive terminals in vivo convert noxious stimuli into propagating signals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.005DOI Listing

α1ACT Is Essential for Survival and Early Cerebellar Programming in a Critical Neonatal Window.

Neuron 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Neurology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Electronic address:

Postnatal cerebellar development is a precisely regulated process involving well-orchestrated expression of neural genes. Neurological phenotypes associated with CACNA1A gene defects have been increasingly recognized, yet the molecular principles underlying this association remain elusive. By characterizing a dose-dependent CACNA1A gene deficiency mouse model, we discovered that α1ACT, as a transcription factor and secondary protein of CACNA1A mRNA, drives dynamic gene expression networks within cerebellar Purkinje cells and is indispensable for neonatal survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.02.036DOI Listing

A Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Sensor for Rapid and Specific In Vivo Detection of Norepinephrine.

Neuron 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Peking University School of Life Sciences, Beijing 100871, China; PKU-IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing 100871, China; Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; Chinese Institute for Brain Research, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address:

Norepinephrine (NE) is a key biogenic monoamine neurotransmitter involved in a wide range of physiological processes. However, its precise dynamics and regulation remain poorly characterized, in part due to limitations of available techniques for measuring NE in vivo. Here, we developed a family of GPCR activation-based NE (GRAB) sensors with a 230% peak ΔF/F response to NE, good photostability, nanomolar-to-micromolar sensitivities, sub-second kinetics, and high specificity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.02.037DOI Listing

Distinct Cortical-Thalamic-Striatal Circuits through the Parafascicular Nucleus.

Neuron 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

The thalamic parafascicular nucleus (PF), an excitatory input to the basal ganglia, is targeted with deep-brain stimulation to alleviate a range of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, PF lesions disrupt the execution of correct motor actions in uncertain environments. Nevertheless, the circuitry of the PF and its contribution to action selection are poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.02.035DOI Listing

p190RhoGAP Filters Competing Signals to Resolve Axon Guidance Conflicts.

Neuron 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Gene Expression Laboratory and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address:

The rich functional diversity of the nervous system is founded in the specific connectivity of the underlying neural circuitry. Neurons are often preprogrammed to respond to multiple axon guidance signals because they use sequential guideposts along their pathways, but this necessitates a strict spatiotemporal regulation of intracellular signaling to ensure the cues are detected in the correct order. We performed a mouse mutagenesis screen and identified the Rho GTPase antagonist p190RhoGAP as a critical regulator of motor axon guidance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.02.034DOI Listing

A Disinhibitory Microcircuit Mediates Conditioned Social Fear in the Prefrontal Cortex.

Neuron 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Center for Neuroscience and Department of Neurology of the Second Affiliated Hospital, NHC and CAMS Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Fear behavior is under tight control of the prefrontal cortex, but the underlying microcircuit mechanism remains elusive. In particular, it is unclear how distinct subtypes of inhibitory interneurons (INs) within prefrontal cortex interact and contribute to fear expression. We employed a social fear conditioning paradigm and induced robust social fear in mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.02.026DOI Listing
March 2019
15.054 Impact Factor

Gut Microbe to Brain Signaling: What Happens in Vagus….

Neuron 2019 Mar;101(6):998-1002

APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. Electronic address:

The gut microbiota has emerged as a key player in health and disease. Here we discuss the vagus nerve, which connects the visceral organs and the brain, as an important communication pathway for the gut microbiota to influence brain and behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.02.008DOI Listing

Special Issue on Disease: Mechanisms of Disease.

Neuron 2019 Mar;101(6):997

Editors, Neuron.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.008DOI Listing

Disinhibition Goes Spatial.

Neuron 2019 Mar;101(6):994-996

Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, 60438 Frankfurt, Germany. Electronic address:

Memorizing significant locations in the environment is a fundamental capacity of the brain. In this issue, Turi et al. (2019) present multidisciplinary evidence for a critical involvement of disinhibitory interneurons in hippocampal CA1 in this process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.006DOI Listing

Inflaming the Brain.

Neuron 2019 Mar;101(6):991-993

Patricia and John Rosenwald Laboratory of Neurobiology and Genetics, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Exactly how cerebrovascular alterations contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still unknown. Merlini et al. (2019) show that blood-derived fibrinogen leads to dendritic spine elimination and cognitive deficit via microglial CD11b/CD18. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08966273193021
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.007DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

Dissecting the Toxic Effects of Zika Virus Proteins on Neural Progenitor Cells.

Neuron 2019 Mar;101(6):989-991

Institute of Biomedical Science, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

The mechanisms by which Zika virus (ZIKV) disrupts neurogenesis and causes microcephaly are poorly understood. In this issue of Neuron, Li et al. (2019) demonstrate that ZIKV protease NS2B-NS3 heterodimers cleave Septin-2 and lead to cytokinesis defects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.009DOI Listing

A Synaptic Perspective of Fragile X Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Neuron 2019 Mar;101(6):1070-1088

Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York City, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Altered synaptic structure and function is a major hallmark of fragile X syndrome (FXS), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and other intellectual disabilities (IDs), which are therefore classified as synaptopathies. FXS and ASDs, while clinically and genetically distinct, share significant comorbidity, suggesting that there may be a common molecular and/or cellular basis, presumably at the synapse. In this article, we review brain architecture and synaptic pathways that are dysregulated in FXS and ASDs, including spine architecture, signaling in synaptic plasticity, local protein synthesis, (m)RNA modifications, and degradation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.02.041DOI Listing
March 2019
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Genetic Convergence Brings Clarity to the Enigmatic Red Line in ALS.

Neuron 2019 Mar;101(6):1057-1069

Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA; Neurobiology of Disease Graduate Program, Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Jacksonville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an aggressive neurodegenerative disorder that orchestrates an attack on the motor nervous system that is unrelenting. Recent discoveries into the pathogenic consequences of repeat expansions in C9ORF72, which are the most common genetic cause of ALS, combined with the identification of new genetic mutations are providing novel insight into the underlying mechanism(s) that cause ALS. In particular, the myriad of functions linked to ALS-associated genes have collectively implicated four main pathways in disease pathogenesis, including RNA metabolism and translational biology; protein quality control; cytoskeletal integrity and trafficking; and mitochondrial function and transport. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.02.032DOI Listing
March 2019
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Circuit Mechanisms of Parkinson's Disease.

Neuron 2019 Mar;101(6):1042-1056

Neuroscience Graduate Program, UCSF, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Department of Neurology, UCSF, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Weill Institute for Neurosciences, UCSF, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Kavli Institute for Fundamental Neuroscience, UCSF, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex, multi-system neurodegenerative disorder. The second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease, it affects approximately 1% of adults over age 60. Diagnosis follows the development of one or more of the core motor features of the disease, including tremor, slowing of movement (bradykinesia), and rigidity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.004DOI Listing