309,767 results match your criteria Neurological Sciences[Journal]


Impact of upstream oil extraction and environmental public health: A review of the evidence.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Dec 4;657:187-199. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States of America.

Upstream oil extraction, which includes exploration and operation to bring crude oil to the surface, frequently occurs near human populations. There are approximately 40,000 oil fields globally and 6 million people that live or work nearby. Oil extraction can impact local soil, water, and air, which in turn can influence community health. Read More

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December 2018
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Assessment of Postoperative Outcomes in Spinal Epidural Abscess Following Surgical Decompression.

Spine J 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Center for Spine Health, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio, 44195, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio, 44195, USA; Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio, 44195, USA. Electronic address:

Background Context: A spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a serious condition that may be managed with antibiotics alone or with decompressive surgery combined with antibiotics.

Purpose: The objectives of this study were to assess the clinical outcomes of SEA after surgical management and to identify the patient-level factors that are associated with outcomes following surgical decompression and removal of SEA.

Study Design/setting: Retrospective chart review analysis. Read More

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December 2018
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Postoperative antiplatelet therapy in the treatment of complex basilar apex aneurysms implementing Hunterian ligation and extracranial-to-intracranial bypass: review of the literature with an illustrative case report.

World Neurosurg 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Neurorestoration Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Neurological Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Large, broad-based basilar artery (BA) apex aneurysms involving multiple arterial origins are complex lesions commonly not amenable to direct clipping or endovascular management. BA proximal (Hunterian) occlusion with extracranial-to-intracranial bypass is a supported strategy if one or both posterior communicating arteries are small. Hunterian ligation risks sudden aneurysm thrombosis and thromboembolism in the perforator rich BA apex. Read More

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December 2018

Natural Products and Chemical Biology Tools: Alternatives to Target Epigenetic Mechanisms in Cancers.

Chem Rec 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Epigenetic Chemical Biology, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR3523, 28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724, Paris cedex 15, France.

DNA methylation and histone acetylation are widely studied epigenetic modifications. They are involved in numerous pathologies such as cancer, neurological disease, inflammation, obesity, etc. Since the discovery of the epigenome, numerous compounds have been developed to reverse DNA methylation and histone acetylation aberrant profile in diseases. Read More

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December 2018

Ultrasound-targeted microbubble enhances migration and therapeutic efficacy of marrow mesenchymal stem cell on rat middle cerebral artery occlusion stroke model.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

To investigate the role of ultrasound-targeted microbubbles in the homing effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and in the therapeutic efficacy of BMSCs on the ischemic stroke. A middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was induced by plug wire preparation. Seventy-two hours after MCAO, the treatment of BMSCs with ultrasound-targeted microbubble was assessed via modified neurological severity score (mNSS), infarct volumes, and cerebral edema. Read More

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December 2018

Single suture craniosynostosis: Identification of rare variants in genes associated with syndromic forms. Am J Med Genet A. 2018 Feb;176(2):290-300.

Am J Med Genet A 2018 Nov 20;176(11):2522. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Center for Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington.

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November 2018

Aerodigestive and communicative behaviors in anencephalic and hydranencephalic infants.

Birth Defects Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Linguistics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

The aerodigestive and communicative behaviors of anencephalic and hydranencephalic patients are assessed from literature sources and are compared with documented neural structures present in the brainstem, subcortical, and cortical regions of the brain. Much of the data analyzed corroborate previous neurological studies, which focus on central pattern generators and development in model organisms. However, findings suggest that further research is necessary to determine which components of these systems support these behaviors. Read More

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December 2018

Synthesis and characterization of novel substituted thiophene derivatives and discovery of their carbonic anhydrase and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effects.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2018 Dec 10:e22261. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey.

Novel substituted thiophene derivatives (1, 2a-e, 3, and 4) were synthesized and their structures were characterized by infrared radiation, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass analysis. These novel substituted thiophene derivatives were effective inhibitor compounds of the carbonic anhydrase I and II isozymes (hCA I and II), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme with K values in the range of 447.28 to 1004. Read More

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December 2018
1.925 Impact Factor

Liberal versus conservative fluid therapy in adults and children with sepsis or septic shock.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 10;12:CD010593. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Intensive Care Unit, Second Affiliated Hospital Medical College, Zhejiang University, 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, China, 310009.

Background: Sepsis and septic shock are potentially life-threatening complications of infection that are associated with high morbidity and mortality in adults and children. Fluid therapy is regarded as a crucial intervention during initial treatment of sepsis. Whether conservative or liberal fluid therapy can improve clinical outcomes in patients with sepsis and septic shock remains unclear. Read More

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December 2018
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Supraglottic Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Population-Based Study of 22,675 Cases.

Laryngoscope 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Neurological Institute of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.A.

Objectives/hypothesis: The authors used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to analyze epidemiological features of patients presenting with supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa) and to evaluate treatment trends and outcomes.

Methods: The SEER database was queried for patients with supraglottic SCCa from 1973 to 2013. Information on demographics; tumor size; histologic grade; American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage; SEER local, regional, distant stage; and treatment modality were analyzed. Read More

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December 2018
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Social capital: Implications for neurology.

Brain Behav 2018 Dec 8:e01169. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Queen Mary University of London, Blizard Institute, London, UK.

Social capital (SC) is a broad term that encompasses the many resources derived from social connections. The contemporary study of SC in public health has deep roots in the related fields of sociology, economics, and politics. Its multidisciplinary nature and the varying potential ways it could affect individuals have resulted in different but overlapping models to approach SC in the health field. Read More

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December 2018
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Perturbed expression pattern of the immediate early gene Arc in the dentate gyrus of GluA1 C-terminal palmitoylation-deficient mice.

Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Section of Cellular Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Kodaira, Japan.

Background: AMPA receptors predominantly mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian brain. Post-translational protein S-palmitoylation of AMPA receptor GluA subunits at their C-termini reversibly controls the receptors trafficking to and from excitatory glutamatergic synapses. Excitatory inputs to neurons induce the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs), including Arc, with particular spatial patterns. Read More

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December 2018
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Aicardi syndrome, an unsolved mystery: Review of diagnostic features, previous attempts, and future opportunities for genetic examination.

Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Aicardi syndrome is a rare, severe neurodevelopmental disorder classically characterized by the triad of infantile spasms, central chorioretinal lacunae, and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Aicardi syndrome only affects females, with the exception of a few males with a 47, XXY chromosome constitution. All cases are de novo and the only cases of definitive recurrence in families are in identical twins. Read More

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December 2018
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Brain structure and neurological and behavioural functioning in infants born preterm.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.

Aim: To examine: (1) relationships between brain structure, and concurrently assessed neurological and behavioural functioning, in infants born preterm at term-equivalent age (TEA; approximately 38-44wks); and (2) whether brain structure-function relationships differ between infants born very (24-29wks) and moderate-late (32-36wks) preterm.

Method: A total of 257 infants (91 very preterm, 166 moderate-late preterm; 120 males, 137 females) had structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurological and behavioural assessments (Prechtl's general movements assessment, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale [NNNS] and Hammersmith Neonatal Neurological Examination [HNNE]). Two hundred and sixty-three infants (90 very preterm, 173 moderate-late preterm; 131 males, 132 females) had diffusion MRI and assessments. Read More

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December 2018
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[Neonatal viral meningitis. The importance of the polymerase chain reaction in their diagnosis].

Rev Neurol 2018 Dec;67(12):484-490

Hospital General Universitario de Albacete, 02006 Albacete, Espana.

Introduction: The different types of viral meningitis constitute a condition that is relatively frequent in newborn infants, although in many cases they are underdiagnosed due to the absence of pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Aims: To describe the clinical features and laboratory findings of newborn infants with viral meningitis and to highlight the importance of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the CSF to diagnose this condition.

Patients And Methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of newborn infants hospitalised in the neonatology section who had been diagnosed with viral meningitis between May 2014 and May 2017. Read More

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December 2018

Inflammasomes in CNS Diseases.

Exp Suppl 2018 ;108:41-60

School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Neuroinflammation is a common pathological feature in almost all neurological diseases and is a response triggered as a consequence of the chronic activation of the innate immune response in the CNS against a variety of stimuli, including infection, traumatic brain injury, toxic metabolites, aggregated proteins, or autoimmunity. Crucial mediators of this neurinflammatory process are the intracellular protein complexes known as inflammasomes which can be triggered by pathogens as well as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). However, chronic inflammasome activation can eventually result in cellular death and tissue damage, leading to the release of DAMPs that can reactivate the inflammasome, thereby propagating a vicious cycle of inflammation. Read More

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January 2018

Guillain-Barré syndrome in Denmark: a population-based study on epidemiology, diagnosis and clinical severity.

J Neurol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Neurology, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000, Aarhus, Denmark.

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology and clinical heterogeneity of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in Denmark and to compare a population-based cohort to prospectively included patients in the International GBS Outcome Study (IGOS).

Methods: The incidence rate (IR) of GBS in Denmark from September 2012 to December 2015, applying the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) diagnostic criteria, was estimated and the level of diagnostic certainty was described with the Brighton criteria. All cases registered with a diagnosis of GBS or other inflammatory neuropathies in the Danish National Hospital Registry were reviewed for diagnostic criteria and for information on treatment and clinical course. Read More

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December 2018

Metronidazole-induced encephalopathy: a systematic review.

J Neurol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Neurology, Sjællands Universitetshospital, Sygehusvej 10, 4000, Roskilde, Denmark.

Background And Aims: Metronidazole, a commonly used antibiotic drug, can cause adverse effects in the central nervous system termed metronidazole-induced encephalopathy, leading to diagnostic challenges. The condition is rare and a detailed description of its phenotype is lacking. In this systematic review we investigated the clinical features of metronidazole-induced encephalopathy to promote recognition and elaborate the description. Read More

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December 2018

Gait festination in parkinsonism: introduction of two phenotypes.

J Neurol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Neurology, Centre of Clinical Neuroscience, First Faculty of Medicine, General University Hospital, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Gait festination is one of the most characteristic gait disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease or atypical parkinsonism. Although festination is common and disabling, it has received little attention in the literature, and different definitions exist. Here, we argue that there are actually two phenotypes of festination. Read More

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December 2018

Regression-based normative data and equivalent scores for Trail Making Test (TMT): an updated Italian normative study.

Neurol Sci 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Viale Ellittico 31, 81100, Caserta, Italy.

Objectives: The Trail Making Test (TMT) is widely used to assess psychomotor speed and attentional set-shifting. Since the regression-based norms and equivalent scores (ESs) for the TMT Italian version trace back to more than 20 years ago, we aimed at providing updated normative data for basic (Part A and Part B) and derived (Score B-A and Score B/A) TMT scores collected in a larger sample with an extended age range.

Methods: Three hundred fifty-five Italian volunteers stratified for sex (166 men), age decades (age range 20-90 years), and educational level (from primary school to university) completed the TMT and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Read More

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December 2018

Predictors of cognitive function in the acute phase after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, P.B. 4950, Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Cognitive dysfunction is the most common form of neurological impairment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) in the chronic phase. Cognitive deficits in the acute phase after aSAH, however, remain scarcely investigated. The aim of the present study was to test cognitive function and to identify medical predictors of cognitive deficits in the acute phase of aSAH. Read More

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December 2018
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Pathophysiology and Treatment of Canavan Disease.

Neurochem Res 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Research, Shriners Hospitals for Children Northern California and UC Davis School of Medicine, 2425 Stockton Blvd, 95817, Sacramento, CA, USA.

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December 2018

ARENA: Inter-modality affine registration using evolutionary strategy.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

PERFORM Centre, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada.

Purpose: Image fusion of different imaging modalities renders valuable information to clinicians. In this paper, we proposed an automatic multimodal registration method to register intra-operative ultrasound images (US) to preoperative magnetic resonance images (MRI) in the context of image-guided neurosurgery.

Methods: We employed refined correlation ratio as a similarity metric for our intensity-based image registration method. Read More

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December 2018

Periodontal Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is associated with leukoencephalopathy.

Neurogenetics 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Child Neurology and Department of Functional Genomics, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Here, we report brain white matter alterations in individuals clinically and genetically diagnosed with periodontal Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, a rare disease characterized by premature loss of teeth and connective tissue abnormalities. Eight individuals of two families clinically diagnosed with periodontal Ehlers-Danlos syndrome were included in the present study and underwent general physical, dental, and neurological examination. Whole exome sequencing was performed, and all patients included in the study underwent MRI of the brain. Read More

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December 2018
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Overexpression of SMN2 Gene in Motoneuron-Like Cells Differentiated from Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Ponasterone A.

J Mol Neurosci 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Applied Cell Sciences and Tissue Engineering Department, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Cell therapy and stem cell transplantation strategies have provided potential therapeutic approaches for the treatment of neurological disorders. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) are abundant adult stem cells with low immunogenicity, which can be used for allogeneic cell replacement therapies. Differentiation of ADMSCs into acetylcholine-secreting motoneurons (MNs) is a promising treatment for MN diseases, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), which is associated with the level of SMN1 gene expression. Read More

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December 2018

A Complete Proteomic Workflow to Study Brain-Related Disorders via Postmortem Tissue.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1916:319-328

Laboratory of Neuroproteomics, Department of Biochemistry and Tissue Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil.

Here we describe a mass spectrometry-based proteomics workflow to discovery proteins differentially regulated in brains collected postmortem from mental, neurological, or substance abuse disorders (MNS) patients. One way to maximize protein detection is to carry out enrichment of cellular compartments such as the nucleus, mitochondria and cytosol. Subcellular fractionation improves proteome coverage and may shed light on the role of these organelles in the pathophysiology of MNS. Read More

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January 2019

Diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging as adjuncts to conventional MRI for the diagnosis and management of peripheral nerve sheath tumors: current perspectives and future directions.

Eur Radiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 75022, USA.

Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) account for ~ 5% of soft tissue neoplasms and are responsible for a wide spectrum of morbidities ranging from localized neuropathy to fulminant metastatic spread and death. MR imaging represents the gold standard for identification of these neoplasms, however, current anatomic MR imaging markers do not reliably detect or differentiate benign and malignant lesions, and therefore, biopsy or excision is required for definitive diagnosis. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) serves as a useful tool in the evaluation and management of PNSTs by providing functional information regarding the degree of diffusion, while diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) aids in determining the directional information of predominant diffusion and has been shown to be particularly useful for pre-operative planning of these tumors by delineating healthy and pathologic fascicles. Read More

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December 2018

The clinical and imaging features of gray matter heterotopia: a clinical analysis on 15 patients.

Neurol Sci 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, 221002, China.

Objective: To investigate the clinical and imaging features of gray matter heterotopia (GMH) and improve the clinicians' understanding of the disease.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 15 patients with GMH diagnosed at The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University from November 2014 to November 2016. Their clinical and imaging features are also summarized. Read More

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December 2018

MAPT (Tau) expression is a biomarker for an increased rate of survival for low‑grade glioma.

Oncol Rep 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA.

The association of MAPT (Tau) with various tauopathies and other neurological disorders has long been established. However, the role of microtubule‑associated protein Tau (MAPT) expression in brain cancer is largely unknown. To determine whether MAPT expression is related to low‑grade glioma (LGG) survival rates, RNASeq data representing samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were assessed. Read More

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November 2018

Intranasal erythropoietin ameliorates neurological function impairments and neural pathology in mice with chronic alcoholism by regulating autophagy‑related Nrf2 degradation.

Mol Med Rep 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Neurology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical University (Daqing Longnan Hospital), Daqing, Heilongjiang 163453, P.R. China.

The neurological disorders and neural pathology brought about by chronic alcoholism are difficult to be reversed. Increasing evidence highlights the protective roles of erythropoietin (EPO) in neurodegenerative diseases and injuries of the central nervous system. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of EPO on the neurological function deficits and neural pathology caused by chronic alcoholism and the regulatory mechanisms. Read More

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November 2018

Letter: Steroid Use Associated With Increased Odds of 30-Day Mortality in Surgical Patients With Metastatic Spinal Tumors in the Setting of Disseminated Disease.

Neurosurgery 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Spine Research Group Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, New York.

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December 2018

Seesaw-Pattern Ocular Bobbing in a Patient With Pontine Bleed.

JAMA Neurol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Neurology, National Institute of Neurological and Allied Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal.

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December 2018

Sex and Race Differences in the Association of Incident Ischemic Stroke With Risk Factors.

JAMA Neurol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Medicine, Larner College of Medicine, Colchester, Vermont.

Importance: Race-specific and sex-specific stroke risk varies across the lifespan, yet few reports describe sex differences in stroke risk separately in black individuals and white individuals.

Objective: To examine incidence and risk factors for ischemic stroke by sex for black and white individuals.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This prospective cohort study included participants 45 years and older who were stroke-free from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort, enrolled from the continental United States 2003 through 2007 with follow-up through October 2016. Read More

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December 2018

The Role of the Human Auditory Corticostriatal Network in Speech Learning.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Communication Science and Disorders, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

We establish a mechanistic account of how the mature human brain functionally reorganizes to acquire and represent new speech sounds. Native speakers of English learned to categorize Mandarin lexical tone categories produced by multiple talkers using trial-by-trial feedback. We hypothesized that the corticostriatal system is a key intermediary in mediating temporal lobe plasticity and the acquisition of new speech categories in adulthood. Read More

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December 2018
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Anterolateral Approach for a Cervical Nerve Root Compression Syndrome Due to an Ectatic Vertebral Artery.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background And Importance: Nerve root compression by an ectatic vertebral artery is a known but easily overlooked cause of cervical radiculopathy. Management options include nonoperative conservative therapies or surgical approaches designed to relieve the compression via anterior or posterior cervical approaches.

Clinical Presentation: A 72-yr-old female presented with a 6-mo history of sharp, shooting pain in her right arm and shoulder and deltoid weakness. Read More

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December 2018

Body mass index is negatively associated with telomere length: a collaborative cross-sectional meta-analysis of 87 observational studies.

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Sep;108(3):453-475

Departments of Complex Genetics.

Background: Even before the onset of age-related diseases, obesity might be a contributing factor to the cumulative burden of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation throughout the life course. Obesity may therefore contribute to accelerated shortening of telomeres. Consequently, obese persons are more likely to have shorter telomeres, but the association between body mass index (BMI) and leukocyte telomere length (TL) might differ across the life span and between ethnicities and sexes. Read More

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September 2018

A Simple, Rapid and Non-Radiolabeled Immune Assay to Detect Anti-AChR Antibodies in Myasthenia Gravis.

Lab Med 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, India.

Objective: To assess the practicality of dot-blot testing for rapid and sensitive detection of the antiacetylcholine receptor (anti-AChR) antibodies in myasthenia gravis (MG).

Methods: In this case-control study, we tested serum specimens of 85 patients with MG, 85 healthy control individuals, and 85 patients without MG who have other autoimmune and neurological illnesses. All the serum specimens were tested for anti-AChR antibodies using 3 assays: in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the dot-blot assay, and commercial ELISA. Read More

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December 2018

Emergence of Coordinated Activity in the Developing Entorhinal-Hippocampal Network.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

INMED, Aix-Marseille University, INSERM, Marseille, France.

Correlated activity in the entorhinal-hippocampal neuronal networks, supported by oscillatory and intermittent population activity patterns is critical for learning and memory. However, when and how correlated activity emerges in these networks during development remains largely unknown. Here, we found that during the first postnatal week in non-anaesthetized head-restrained rats, activity in the superficial layers of the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) and hippocampus was highly correlated, with intermittent population bursts in the MEC followed by early sharp waves (eSPWs) in the hippocampus. Read More

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December 2018

[Waiting times for neurological emergencies in an emergency room].

Rev Med Chil 2018 Jul;146(7):885-889

Hospital Dr. Hernán Henríquez Aravena, Temuco, Chile.

Background: Neurological emergencies constitute 10-15% of medical emergencies. Doctor Hernán Henríquez Aravena Hospital has in house neurologists present permanently at the Emergency Room since July 2013.

Aim: To estimate the waiting times for neurological consultations; to compare the waiting times between neurovascular (UV) and non-vascular (UNV) emergencies; and to compare the waiting times of two prioritization (triage) models. Read More

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[Risk of falls among patients admitted to a medical-surgical ward. Analysis of 376 medical records].

Rev Med Chil 2018 Jul;146(7):862-868

Departamento de Medicina Interna, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Background: Detecting patients at risk of falls during hospital stay is of utmost importance to implement preventive measures.

Aim: To determine the frequency of patients with a high risk of falls admitted to a medical-surgical ward. To assess the preventive measures implemented. Read More

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Cerebrolysin increases motor recovery and decreases inflammation in a mouse model of autoimmune encephalitis.

Rom J Morphol Embryol 2018 ;59(3):755-762

Department of Research Methodology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania;

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex chronic neurodegenerative disease that involves an abnormal autoimmune response directed against the brain, nerves and spinal cord; it is considered the most frequent cause of neurological disability, because MS-associated inflammatory lesions can affect a wide range of systems to a varying degree and may cause a plethora of neurological comorbidities and symptoms. The symptoms are quite variable from patient to patient and depend on the spatial distribution of the central nervous system (CNS) lesions, but usually involve sensory disturbances, cognitive deficits, unilateral vision loss, bladder dysfunction, ataxia, fatigue, double vision, weakness of the limbs and intestinal disorders. Experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) mouse model reproduces the pathological features of the human disease, and is a widely used model used for studying the pathology and different treatment options in the preclinical stage. Read More

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January 2018

Delayed onset of severe chronic pain in CASPR2 autoantibody-associated Morvan syndrome in a former UK swine abattoir worker.

Pain Rep 2018 Sep-Oct;3(5):e675. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Neurology, Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Introduction: Autoantibody-mediated autoimmunity directed against targets within the voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKCC autoantibodies) has been implicated in causing neuropathic pain.

Methods: We report the case of a 76-year-old, United Kingdom male who was diagnosed with contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR2) autoantibody-associated Morvan syndrome, a rare neurological condition.

Results: He had previously worked in a swine abattoir; exposure to aerosol within swine abattoirs has been reported to elicit an immune response resulting in the production of these autoantibodies; however, unusually, his manifestations emerged with several years' latency. Read More

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September 2018

Efficacy of a Bicistronic Vector for Correction of Sandhoff Disease in a Mouse Model.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2019 Mar 26;12:47-57. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada.

G gangliosidoses are a family of severe neurodegenerative disorders resulting from a deficiency in the β-hexosaminidase A enzyme. These disorders include Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease, caused by mutations in the gene and gene, respectively. The and genes are required to produce the α and β subunits of the β-hexosaminidase A enzyme, respectively. Read More

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March 2019
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The burden on emergency centres to provide care for critically ill patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Afr J Emerg Med 2018 Dec 26;8(4):150-154. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Lao Friends Hospital for Children, Luang Prabang, Lao Democratic People's Republic.

Introduction: Given the scarcity of critical care hospital beds in Africa, emergency centres (ECs) are increasingly charged with caring for critically ill patients for extended periods of time. The objective of this study was to improve the understanding of the nature and outcomes of critically ill patients with prolonged treatment times of more than six hours in two ECs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Methods: This study was conducted over three months in two ECs of urban tertiary care hospitals in Addis Ababa. Read More

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December 2018

Exosomes-the enigmatic regulators of bone homeostasis.

Bone Res 2018 7;6:36. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

1Centre for Orthopaedic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009 Australia.

Exosomes are a heterogeneous group of cell-derived membranous structures, which mediate crosstalk interaction between cells. Recent studies have revealed a close relationship between exosomes and bone homeostasis. It is suggested that bone cells can spontaneously secret exosomes containing proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, which then to regulate osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis. Read More

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December 2018

Toxoplasma Encephalitis following Tandem Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2018 11;2018:9409121. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

University of Iowa, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Infection with is a rare but often fatal complication in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. Most cases have been reported in allogeneic (allo-) HSCT recipients, with only narrative reports following autologous HSCT (ASCT). We report the case of a 58-year-old Caucasian male presenting with toxoplasma encephalitis following tandem ASCT for myeloma and successfully treated with diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. Read More

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November 2018

Tumor treating fields increases membrane permeability in glioblastoma cells.

Cell Death Discov 2018 5;4:113. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

1Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Room E150, 318 Campus Drive West, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.

Glioblastoma is the most common yet most lethal of primary brain cancers with a one-year post-diagnosis survival rate of 65% and a five-year survival rate of barely 5%. Recently the U.S. Read More

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December 2018

Problems with Facial Mimicry Might Contribute to Emotion Recognition Impairment in Parkinson's Disease.

Parkinsons Dis 2018 11;2018:5741941. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Brain and Mind Institute, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

Difficulty with emotion recognition is increasingly being recognized as a symptom of Parkinson's disease. Most research into this area contends that progressive cognitive decline accompanying the disease is to be blamed. However, facial mimicry (i. Read More

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November 2018