2,011 results match your criteria Neurologic Clinics [Journal]


Vasculitis of the Nervous System.

Authors:
David S Younger

Neurol Clin 2019 May;37(2):xi-xii

Department of Neurology, Division of Neuro-Epidemiology, New York University School of Medicine, College of Global Public Health, New York University, Department of Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health, City University of New York, 333 East 34th Street, Suite 1J, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2019.03.005DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Dermatologic Aspects of Systemic Vasculitis.

Neurol Clin 2019 May 16;37(2):465-473. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Pathology, Division of Dermatology and Dermatopathology, Albany Medical College, 43 New Scotland Avenue, MC-81, Albany, NY 12208, USA.

Systemic and localized vasculitis affects the skin and subcutis, due to large vascular beds and hemodynamic factors, such as stasis in lower extremities, and environmental influences, as occur in cold exposure. Initial cutaneous manifestations of vasculitides include diverse and dynamic patterns of discoloration, swelling, hemorrhage, and necrosis. One-half of affected patients present with localized, self-limited disease to the skin without any known trigger or associated systemic disease, known as idiopathic cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2019.01.017DOI Listing
May 2019
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Central Nervous System Vasculitis due to Infection.

Neurol Clin 2019 May 16;37(2):441-463. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Neurology, Clinical Affairs, MS Comprehensive Care Center, Stony Brook University Medical Center, HSC T12, Room 020, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Several pathogens have the propensity to involve blood vessels during central nervous system infection, which can lead to cerebrovascular complications. Infection is a recognized cause of secondary central nervous system vasculitis. It is important not to miss the diagnosis of infection-related central nervous system vasculitis because specific antimicrobial therapy may be necessary; this article reviews the major implicated organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2019.01.002DOI Listing

Central Nervous System Vasculitis Due to Substance Abuse.

Authors:
David S Younger

Neurol Clin 2019 May 16;37(2):425-440. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Neurology, Division of Neuro-Epidemiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; School of Public Health, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Illicit drug abuse is a common differential diagnosis of acquired central nervous system vasculitis even though there are only a handful of histopathologically confirmed patients in the literature from among the many potential classes of abused drugs traditionally implicated in this disease. This article considers the major classes of illicit drugs in those with and without human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2019.01.012DOI Listing

Treatment of Vasculitis of the Nervous System.

Authors:
David S Younger

Neurol Clin 2019 May 18;37(2):399-423. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Neurology, Division of Neuro-Epidemiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; School of Public Health, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

The diagnosis of primary central and peripheral nerve vasculitides should be established with certainty if suspected before commencing potent immunosuppressive therapy. The aim of induction therapy is to rapidly control the underlying inflammatory response and stabilize the blood-brain and blood-nerve barriers, followed by maintenance immunosuppression tailored to the likeliest humoral and cell-mediated autoimmune inflammatory vasculitic processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2019.01.014DOI Listing

Neuroophthalmologic Aspects of the Vasculitides.

Authors:
David S Younger

Neurol Clin 2019 May 16;37(2):383-397. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Neurology, Division of Neuro-Epidemiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; School of Public Health, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

There have been significant advances in the understanding of the vasculitides in the past several years, leading to more precise classification and nosology. Ophthalmologic manifestations may be the presenting feature of and a clue to the diagnosis of vasculitis, or develop in the course of the illness owing to a common disease mechanism. Precise diagnosis and prompt treatment prevents short- and long-term ophthalmologic sequela. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2019.01.003DOI Listing

Autoimmune Encephalitides.

Authors:
David S Younger

Neurol Clin 2019 May 16;37(2):359-381. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Neurology, Division of Neuro-Epidemiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; School of Public Health, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Autoimmune encephalitis is a severe inflammatory disorder of the brain with diverse causes and a complex differential diagnosis. Recent advances in the past decade have led to the identification of new syndromes and biological markers of limbic encephalitis, the commonest presentation of autoimmune encephalitis. The successful use of serum and intrathecal antibodies to diagnose affected patients has resulted in few biopsy and postmortem examinations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2019.01.015DOI Listing

Polyarteritis Nodosa Neurologic Manifestations.

Neurol Clin 2019 May 16;37(2):345-357. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Vasculitides and Scleroderma, Department of Internal Medicine, Referral Center for Rare Autoimmune and Systemic Diseases, Hôpital Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, 27, rue Fg Saint-Jacques, Paris 75679 Cedex 14, France. Electronic address:

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a necrotizing vasculitis affecting medium-sized vessels whose main manifestations are weight loss, fever, peripheral neuropathy, renal, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal tract and/or cutaneous involvement(s), hypertension and/or cardiac failure. Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most frequent and earliest symptoms, affecting 50% to 75% of PAN patients. Central nervous system involvement affects only 2% to 10% of PAN patients, often late during the disease course. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2019.01.007DOI Listing
May 2019
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Giant Cell Arteritis.

Authors:
David S Younger

Neurol Clin 2019 May 16;37(2):335-344. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Neurology, Division of Neuro-Epidemiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; School of Public Health, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

"Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a chronic, idiopathic, granulomatous vasculitis of medium and large arteries comprising overlapping phenotypes of cranial arteritis and extracranial GCA. Vascular complications are generally due to delay in diagnosis and initiation of effective treatment. Advancements in MRI and MR angiography, computed tomography angiography, 18fluoro-deoxyglucose/PET, and color duplex ultrasonography have led to improved diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2019.01.008DOI Listing
May 2019
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Peripheral Nerve Vasculitis: Classification and Disease Associations.

Neurol Clin 2019 May 18;37(2):303-333. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

"The vasculitic neuropathies encompass a wide range of disorders characterized by ischemic injury to the vasa nervorum. Patients with vasculitic neuropathies develop progressive, painful sensory or sensorimotor deficits that are typically multifocal or asymmetric. Depending on the underlying etiology, the vasculitis may be confined to the peripheral nervous system; may be one manifestation of a primary systemic vasculitis; or one manifestation of a systemic vasculitis that is secondary to underlying connective tissue disease, drug exposure, viral infection, or paraneoplastic syndrome. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07338619193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2019.01.013DOI Listing
May 2019
4 Reads

Stroke due to Vasculitis in Children and Adults.

Authors:
David S Younger

Neurol Clin 2019 May;37(2):279-302

Department of Neurology, Division of Neuro-Epidemiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; School of Public Health, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

The vasculitides are diseases characterized by inflammation of blood vessels and inflammatory leukocytes in vessel walls. There is an increased propensity for ischemic stroke, resulting from compromise of vessel lumina with distal tissue ischemia; and hemorrhagic or nonhemorrhagic stroke, and aneurysmal formation and bleeding, due to loss of vessel integrity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2019.01.004DOI Listing

Granulomatous Angiitis: Twenty Years Later.

Authors:
David S Younger

Neurol Clin 2019 May;37(2):267-277

Department of Neurology, Division of Neuro-Epidemiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; School of Public Health, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Granulomatous inflammation, the prototypical histopathology of adult and childhood vasculitis, is characterized by inflammation of blood vessels accompanied by giant cells and epithelioid cells in the walls of cerebral vessels ranging from small leptomeningeal veins to large named cerebral arteries. Headache, hemiparesis, mental changes, abnormal cerebrospinal fluid protein content, and pleocytosis are suggestive features that warrant brain and leptomeningeal biopsy to make the diagnosis certain and begin cytotoxic therapy to improve outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2019.01.011DOI Listing
May 2019
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Imaging the Vasculitides.

Authors:
David S Younger

Neurol Clin 2019 May 18;37(2):249-265. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Neurology, Division of Neuro-Epidemiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; School of Public Health, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

"Neuroimaging plays a vital role in the diagnosis of primary and secondary vasculitic disorders. There multiple neuroimaging options available to accurately describe the underlying clinical deficits of involved cases. Noninvasive neuroimaging modalities provide less risk and when interdigitated, form the basis for a more conclusive understanding of the disease process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2019.01.010DOI Listing

The Blood-Brain Barrier: Implications for Vasculitis.

Authors:
David S Younger

Neurol Clin 2019 May 16;37(2):235-248. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Neurology, Division of Neuro-Epidemiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; School of Public Health, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

There has been extraordinary research in the blood-brain barrier. Once considered a static anatomic barrier to the traffic of molecules in and out of the central nervous system when fully developed in adults, the blood-brain barrier is now known to be not only fully functional in development but also vital in cerebrovascular angiogenesis. Blood-brain barrier breakdown has been recognized as an important factor in a variety of primary neurologic diseases; however, such disturbances have yet to be critically analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2019.01.009DOI Listing
May 2019
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Genetic Basis of Vasculitides with Neurologic Involvement.

Neurol Clin 2019 May 18;37(2):219-234. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Epidemiology, Genetics and Atherosclerosis Research Group on Systemic Inflammatory Diseases, Rheumatology Division, IDIVAL, Santander, Spain; School of Medicine, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain; Cardiovascular Pathophysiology and Genomics Research Unit, School of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Electronic address:

"Vasculitides are a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases of blood vessels in which genetic variation plays an important role in their susceptibility and clinical spectrum. Because of the use of novel technologies and the increase of the sample size of the study cohorts, the knowledge of the genetic background of vasculitides has considerably expanded during the last years. However, few insights have been obtained regarding the genetics underlying severe clinical phenotypes, such as those related to the nervous system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2019.01.006DOI Listing

Epidemiology of the Vasculitides.

Authors:
David S Younger

Neurol Clin 2019 May 16;37(2):201-217. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Neurology, Division of Neuro-Epidemiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; School of Public Health, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

The epidemiology of vasculitis has witnessed extraordinary advances in the past decade influenced by the worldwide increased recognition and accurate classification and diagnosis of the vasculitides, and insights brought by genome-wide association studies and online genetic biological repositories that permit researchers to freely access a wide array of genetic and clinical resources that contribute to the understanding of the heritable factors of the systemic vasculitides. This article reviews the current knowledge of the epidemiology of vasculitides in different global regions. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07338619193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2019.01.016DOI Listing
May 2019
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Overview of the Vasculitides.

Authors:
David S Younger

Neurol Clin 2019 May;37(2):171-200

Department of Neurology, Division of Neuro-Epidemiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; School of Public Health, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

The systemic vasculitides are heterogeneous clinicopathologic disorders that share the common feature of vascular inflammation. The resulting disorder can vary depending on involvement of specific organs, caliber of blood vessels, the underlying inflammatory process, and individual host factors. The cumulative result is diminished blood flow, vascular alterations, and eventual occlusion with variable ischemia, necrosis, and tissue damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2019.01.005DOI Listing

Eleven Themes in the History of Systemic and Nervous System Vasculitides.

Authors:
David S Younger

Neurol Clin 2019 May;37(2):149-170

Department of Neurology, Division of Neuro-Epidemiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; School of Public Health, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Vasculitis is defined as inflammation of blood vessel walls for at least some time during the course of the disease, and affects arteries and veins of varying caliber. Two Chapel Hill Consensus Conferences, in 1994 and 2012, provide consensus on nosology and definitions for the commonest forms of vasculitis. The category of single-organ vasculitis, suggesting the limited expression of a systemic vasculitis, includes primary central nervous system vasculitis and nonsystemic peripheral nervous system vasculitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2019.01.001DOI Listing
May 2019
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Introduction to Neurology of Pregnancy.

Neurol Clin 2019 Feb;37(1):ix-x

Department of Neurology, Hale Building of Transformative Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 60 Fenwood Road, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.10.001DOI Listing
February 2019
14 Reads

Neuro-Ophthalmic Disorders in Pregnancy.

Neurol Clin 2019 Feb;37(1):85-102

Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 60 Fenwood Road, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 243 Charles Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Electronic address:

The physiologic changes that accompany pregnancy can have important implications for neuro-ophthalmic disease. This article discusses pregnancy-related considerations for meningioma, pituitary disorders, demyelinating disease, myasthenia gravis, thyroid eye disease, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, stroke, migraine, and cranial neuropathies. The article also details the potential neuro-ophthalmic complications of preeclampsia and eclampsia and reviews the use of common diagnostic studies during pregnancy. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07338619183125
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.09.001DOI Listing
February 2019
17 Reads

Pituitary Disorders in Pregnancy.

Neurol Clin 2019 Feb;37(1):63-83

Neuroendocrine/Pituitary Program, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Florida, 1600 Southwest Archer Road, Room H2, PO Box 100226, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. Electronic address:

Pregnancy is associated with alterations in pituitary hormonal function and enlargement of the pituitary gland. Pituitary dysfunction diagnosis can be challenging during pregnancy due to known alterations in hormonal status. Pituitary disorders are relatively common; with advancements in medical care, more women with pituitary disorders are becoming pregnant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.09.009DOI Listing
February 2019
12 Reads

Epilepsy in Pregnancy.

Neurol Clin 2019 Feb;37(1):53-62

Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai Downtown, 10 Union Square East Suite 5D, New York, NY 10003, USA.

Epilepsy is a prevalent, chronic, and serious neurologic disease affecting many women of childbearing age. Specific concerns, including contraception, fertility, teratogenic risk of antiepileptic drugs, delivery, and breastfeeding, are addressed in this article. Evidence-based counseling and management strategies are provided to help clinicians and women with epilepsy through the different stages of pregnancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.09.008DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Headache in Pregnancy and the Puerperium.

Authors:
Rebecca Burch

Neurol Clin 2019 Feb;37(1):31-51

Department of Neurology, John R. Graham Headache Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 1153 Centre Street, Suite 4H, Jamaica Plain, Boston, MA 02130, USA. Electronic address:

Migraine is the most common cause of headache during pregnancy. Pregnancy increases risk for many causes of headache, including pathologic vascular processes. Headache associated with neurologic signs or symptoms or that is progressive and refractory to treatment; acute in onset; and severe, postural, or different from typical headaches should be evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.09.004DOI Listing
February 2019
14 Reads

Management of Demyelinating Disorders in Pregnancy.

Authors:
Tamara B Kaplan

Neurol Clin 2019 Feb;37(1):17-30

Department of Neurology, Partners Multiple Sclerosis Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 60 Fenwood Road, 4th Floor, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system that often affect women during childbearing years. Therefore, issues of conception, pregnancy, and delivery are of significant importance to patients and treating physicians. The current review provides updated information regarding the effects of pregnancy on MS and NMO, as well as the available safety data on immunomodulatory MS therapies for pregnant and lactating women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.09.007DOI Listing
February 2019
30 Reads

Stroke in Pregnancy: An Update.

Neurol Clin 2019 Feb;37(1):131-148

Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, WACC 729-C, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Electronic address:

Pregnancy confers a substantially increased risk of stroke in women. The period of highest risk of stroke is the peripartum/postpartum phase, coinciding with the highest risk for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and peak gestational hypercoagulability. Hemorrhagic stroke is the most common type of obstetric stroke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.09.010DOI Listing
February 2019
24 Reads

Connective Tissue Disorders in Pregnancy.

Neurol Clin 2019 Feb;37(1):121-129

Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Connective tissue disorders are now understood to include autoimmune and genetic diseases affecting organs, blood vessels, and surrounding fascia. Many of these diseases predominantly affect women in childbearing years and are associated with neurologic complications. Pregnancy can affect disease activity (such as flares of systemic lupus erythematosus), and the diseases can affect pregnancy outcome (such as increased risk of preterm labor). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07338619183125
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.09.006DOI Listing
February 2019
17 Reads

Management of Myasthenia Gravis in Pregnancy.

Authors:
Janet Waters

Neurol Clin 2019 Feb;37(1):113-120

Women's Neurology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 3471 Fifth Avenue Suite 810, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Electronic address:

Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder characterized by fluctuating weakness of extraocular and proximal limb muscles. It occurs in 1 in 5000 in the overall population and is 2 times more common in women than men. The onset in women is most common in the third decade, and risk of severe exacerbation occurs most frequently in the year after presentation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.09.003DOI Listing
February 2019
18 Reads

Lower Extremity Weakness and Numbness in the Postpartum Period: A Case-Based Review.

Neurol Clin 2019 Feb;37(1):103-111

Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 60 Fenwood Road, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

This article reviews the common lower extremity postpartum neuropathies, including their incidence, risk factors, clinical features, and treatment. In addition, the rarer complications from neuraxial anesthesia are also discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.09.002DOI Listing
February 2019
10 Reads

Imaging Considerations in Pregnancy.

Neurol Clin 2019 Feb;37(1):1-16

Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Pregnancy is a complex physiologic state with hormonal, hemodynamic, hematologic, and immunologic changes at both global and cellular levels affecting brain, heart, pituitary, thyroid, and kidney. There are many situations in which imaging can aid in diagnosis and subsequent treatment of neurologic conditions during pregnancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.09.005DOI Listing
February 2019
12 Reads

Neurology gone 'Viral'.

Neurol Clin 2018 Nov 20;36(4):xiii-xiv. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.08.001DOI Listing
November 2018

Prion Diseases.

Neurol Clin 2018 Nov;36(4):865-897

Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, 675 Nelson Rising Lane, Suite 190, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

Prions diseases are uniformly fatal neurodegenerative diseases that occur in sporadic, genetic, and acquired forms. Acquired prion diseases, caused by infectious transmission, are least common. Most prion diseases are not infectious, but occur spontaneously through misfolding of normal prion proteins or genetic mutations in the prion protein gene. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07338619183124
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.07.005DOI Listing
November 2018
13 Reads

Neurocysticercosis.

Authors:
Hector H Garcia

Neurol Clin 2018 Nov 20;36(4):851-864. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Cysticercosis Unit, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurologicas, Jr Ancash 1271, Lima 1, Peru; Center for Global Health, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, SMP, Lima 31, Peru. Electronic address:

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major contributor to the burden of seizure disorders and epilepsy in most of the world. NCC encompasses a variety of clinical presentations, depending on number, location, size, evolutionary stage of lesions, and the inflammatory response of the host, with late-onset seizures, headache, and intracranial hypertension the most frequent manifestations. Diagnosis and therapy depend on the type of NCC, considering its location and stage of the lesions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.07.003DOI Listing
November 2018
10 Reads

Diagnostic Approach to Chronic Meningitis.

Neurol Clin 2018 Nov 20;36(4):831-849. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Department of Neurology, Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine, Geisinger Medical Center, 100 North Academy Avenue, Danville, PA 17822, USA.

Chronic meningitis is defined as cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis that persists for at least 4 weeks without spontaneous resolution. The differential diagnosis of chronic meningitis is broad, encompassing 4 main categories, including infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic, and idiopathic. Up to one-third of cases have no discernible cause, making chronic meningitis a diagnostic dilemma for many clinicians. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07338619183123
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.06.004DOI Listing
November 2018
26 Reads

Neuroborreliosis.

Authors:
John J Halperin

Neurol Clin 2018 Nov;36(4):821-830

Department of Neurosciences, Overlook Medical Center, 99 Beauvoir Avenue, Summit, NJ 07902, USA; Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, 1025 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. Electronic address:

Neurologic manifestations of nervous system infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii are qualitatively similar, and include lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuritis, radiculoneuritis, and other focal or multifocal mononeuropathies. Parenchymal central nervous system (CNS) infection occurs rarely. Neurobehavioral changes are common, but are rarely evidence of CNS infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.06.006DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Acute Community-Acquired Bacterial Meningitis.

Neurol Clin 2018 Nov 20;36(4):809-820. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Community-acquired bacterial meningitis remains a disease with high impact. The epidemiology of this disease changed substantiality to large-scale introduction of conjugated vaccines. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the main causative pathogens outside the neonatal age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.06.007DOI Listing
November 2018
23 Reads

Infectious Myelopathies.

Neurol Clin 2018 Nov;36(4):789-808

Department of Neurology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. Electronic address:

Infectious diseases are an important cause of spinal cord dysfunction. Infectious myelopathies are of growing concern given increasing global travel and migration and expanding prevention and treatment with vaccinations, antibiotics, and antiretrovirals. Clinicians must recognize these pathologies because outcomes can dramatically improve with prompt diagnosis and management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.06.001DOI Listing
November 2018
17 Reads

Zika Virus and Neurologic Disease.

Neurol Clin 2018 Nov;36(4):767-787

Division of Critical Care and Hospitalist Neurology, Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, Milstein Hospital, 177 Fort Washington Avenue, 8GS-300, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family. Although most cases are mild or go undetected, rare severe neurologic effects, including congenital ZIKV syndrome (CZS) and Guillain-Barré syndrome, have been identified. The serious neurologic complications associated with ZIKV prompted the declaration of the public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.06.003DOI Listing
November 2018
17 Reads

Human Immunodeficiency Virus and the Nervous System.

Neurol Clin 2018 Nov;36(4):751-765

Department of Neurology, HIV Medicine, Neurosciences Program, Peter Duncan Neurosciences Unit, St Vincent's Hospital, St Vincent's Centre for Applied Medical Research, University of New South Wales, University of Notre Dame, Level 4 Xavier Building, Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

In the era of combination antiretroviral therapy, the diagnosis and management of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) has arisen. Traditionally, severe HAND was seen in those with untreated HIV infection and had a guarded prognosis. Antiretroviral therapy has provided longevity and viral control to many living with the disease, revealing an increase in prevalence of less severe forms of HAND. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.07.002DOI Listing
November 2018
20 Reads

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy.

Neurol Clin 2018 Nov;36(4):739-750

Multiple Sclerosis Division, The Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, The University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Convention Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare opportunistic infection that occurs in patients whose immune system is compromised either because of an underlying illness or an immunosuppressive medication. John Cunningham virus, prevalent in 60% or more of the adult population as a latent or persistent infection, is responsible for the syndrome of PML. This article reviews PML in association with the most common immunotherapies and discusses risk mitigation and monitoring strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.06.002DOI Listing
November 2018
10 Reads

Manifestations of Herpes Virus Infections in the Nervous System.

Neurol Clin 2018 Nov;36(4):725-738

Department of Neurology, Felsenstein Medical Research Institut, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel.

The 3 neurotropic human herpes viruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) are capable of establishment of latent viral infection in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. HSV-1, and more rarely HSV-2, carries the potential to cause meningoencephalitis, with devastating clinical consequences. Immediate diagnosis, based on clinical presentation, MRI imaging, and molecular diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction, and initiation of therapy are mandatory to reduce mortality and neurologic permanent sequelae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.06.005DOI Listing
November 2018
28 Reads

Viral Encephalitis.

Neurol Clin 2018 Nov 20;36(4):705-724. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Division of Neuroimmunology and Neuroinfectious Diseases, Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins Encephalitis Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

Viruses are a frequent cause of encephalitis. Common or important viruses causing encephalitis include herpesviruses, arboviruses, enteroviruses, parechoviruses, mumps, measles, rabies, Ebola, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and henipaviruses. Other viruses may cause an encephalopathy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.07.001DOI Listing
November 2018
25 Reads

Diagnostic Testing of Neurologic Infections.

Neurol Clin 2018 Nov;36(4):687-703

Department of Neurology, UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, 675 Nelson Rising Lane, NS212A, Campus Box 3206, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

Neuroinfectious diseases continue to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide, with many emerging or reemerging infections resulting in neurologic sequelae. Careful clinical evaluation coupled with appropriate laboratory investigations still forms the bedrock for making the correct etiologic diagnosis and implementing appropriate management. The treating physician needs to understand the individual test characteristics of each of the many conventional candidate-based diagnostics: culture, pathogen-specific polymerase chain reaction, antigen, antibody tests, used to diagnose the whole array of neuroinvasive infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.07.004DOI Listing
November 2018
18 Reads
1.610 Impact Factor

The Interface Between Neurology and Oncology.

Neurol Clin 2018 Aug 13;36(3):xiii-xiv. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Center for Neuro-Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, D2, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Division of Cancer Neurology, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

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August 2018
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Paraneoplastic Neurologic Syndromes.

Neurol Clin 2018 Aug 18;36(3):675-685. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Neurology, Hospital Clínic and Neuroimmunology, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Casanova 143, Barcelona, Spain 08036; University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. Electronic address:

Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes (PNS) are mostly immune-mediated disorders that occur in patients with cancer. Because the same neurologic syndromes may occur without a cancer association it is important to know the likelihood of PNS, which is based in part on the syndrome and the patient's demographics and risk factors for cancer. The presence of specific antineuronal antibodies can facilitate the diagnosis and suggest treatment strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.04.015DOI Listing
August 2018
11 Reads

Neurocognitive Function in Adult Cancer Patients.

Neurol Clin 2018 Aug;36(3):653-674

Section of Neuropsychology, Department of Neuro-Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1400 Holcombe Boulevard, Unit 0431, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Impaired neurocognitive function is an increasingly recognized morbidity in patients who have cancer. Cancer treatments, psychosocial stressors, and the malignancy itself can alter brain function. The mechanisms by which this occurs are under active investigation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.04.014DOI Listing
August 2018
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Neurologic Complications of Systemic Anticancer Therapy.

Neurol Clin 2018 Aug;36(3):627-651

Stephen E. and Catherine Pappas Center for Neuro-Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Yawkey 9E, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Electronic address:

Neurologic complications of systemic cancer therapy encompass a range of symptoms that can affect the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system (PNS), or both. Their incidence will likely increase as novel agents, such as targeted therapy and immunotherapy, become incorporated into standard treatment regimens, and the number of long-term cancer survivors rises. Recognizing the common adverse effects of treatment is important to avoid misdiagnosis of cancer recurrence in the nervous system or paraneoplastic disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.04.013DOI Listing
August 2018
4 Reads

Neurologic Complications of Radiation Therapy.

Neurol Clin 2018 Aug 15;36(3):599-625. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, 420 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) is used to treat a wide range of malignant and benign conditions and is associated with a unique set of risks and complications. Early complications from CRT include fatigue, skin reaction, alopecia, headaches, anorexia, nausea/vomiting, exacerbation of neurologic symptoms, serous otitis media, parotitis, and encephalopathy. Delayed complications include pseudoprogression, radiation necrosis, neurocognitive changes, cerebrovascular effects, migrainelike disorders, cataracts, xerophthalmia, optic neuropathy, hearing loss, tinnitus, chronic otitis, endocrinopathy, and secondary malignancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.04.012DOI Listing
August 2018
16 Reads

Metastatic Complications of Cancer Involving the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems.

Neurol Clin 2018 Aug 15;36(3):579-598. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Department of Neurology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Neurologic complications of cancer may involve both the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system manifesting as brain, leptomeningeal, intramedullary, intradural, epidural, plexus, and skull base metastases. Excluding brain involvement, neurologic complications affecting these other sites are relatively infrequent, but collectively they affect more than 25% of patients with metastatic cancer causing significant morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and intervention optimize quality of life and improve survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.04.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6082424PMC
August 2018
22 Reads

Brain Metastases.

Neurol Clin 2018 Aug 18;36(3):557-577. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Center for Neuro-Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Brain metastases from solid tumors are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Standard treatment is local therapy with surgery and/or radiation therapy although there is increasing interest in systemic therapies that can control both intracranial and extracranial disease. We review the most recent data for local therapy and systemic therapy options. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.04.010DOI Listing
August 2018
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Pediatric Brain Tumors.

Neurol Clin 2018 Aug;36(3):533-556

The Brain Tumor Institute, Center for Neuroscience and Behavioral Medicine, Children's National Health System, 111 Michigan Avenue Northwest, Washington, DC 20010, USA; The Brain Tumor Institute, Gilbert Family Neurofibromatosis Institute, Children's National Medical Center, 111 Michigan Avenue Northwest, Washington, DC 20010, USA. Electronic address:

Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid tumors in children and comprise 15% to 20% of all malignancies in children. Presentation, symptoms, and signs depend on tumor location and age of the patient at the time of diagnosis. This article summarizes the common childhood CNS tumors, presentations, classification, and recent updates in treatment approaches due to the increased understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of pediatric brain tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.04.009DOI Listing
August 2018
32 Reads